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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545050/prevalence-and-extent-of-heteroresistance-by-next-generation-sequencing-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#1
Darwin J Operario, Alexander F Koeppel, Stephen D Turner, Yongde Bao, Suporn Pholwat, Sayera Banu, Suporn Foongladda, Stellah Mpagama, Jean Gratz, Oleg Ogarkov, Svetlana Zhadova, Scott K Heysell, Eric R Houpt
Amplicon-based Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is an emerging method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (DST) but has not been well described. We examined 158 clinical multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates via NGS of 11 resistance-associated gene regions covering 3519 nucleotides. Across these gene regions, complete resistance or heteroresistance (defined as 1%-99% mutation) was present in at least one isolate in 6.3% of loci. The number of isolates with heteroresistance was highest for gyrA codon 94, rpoB codons 526 and 531, and embB codons 306, 372 and 406 (range 11-26% of isolates exhibited heteroresistance)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544801/nanotherapeutic-systems-for-local-treatment-of-brain-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Rami Walid Chakroun, Pengcheng Zhang, Ran Lin, Paula Schiapparelli, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Honggang Cui
Malignant brain tumor, including the most common type glioblastoma, are histologically heterogeneous and invasive tumors known as the most devastating neoplasms with high morbidity and mortality. Despite multimodal treatment including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy, the disease inevitably recurs and is fatal. This lack of curative options has motivated researchers to explore new treatment strategies and to develop new drug delivery systems (DDSs); however, the unique anatomical, physiological, and pathological features of brain tumors greatly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544761/composites-of-bacterial-cellulose-and-small-molecule-decorated-gold-nanoparticles-for-treating-gram-negative-bacteria-infected-wounds
#3
Ying Li, Yue Tian, Wenshu Zheng, Yan Feng, Rong Huang, Jingxin Shao, Rongbing Tang, Peng Wang, Yuexiao Jia, Jiangjiang Zhang, Wenfu Zheng, Guang Yang, Xingyu Jiang
Bacterial infections, especially multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, are an increasingly serious problem in the field of wound healing. Herein, bacterial cellulose (BC) decorated by 4,6-diamino-2-pyrimidinethiol (DAPT)-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-DAPT NPs) is presented as a dressing (BC-Au-DAPT nanocomposites) for treating bacterially infected wounds. BC-Au-DAPT nanocomposites have better efficacy (measured in terms of reduced minimum inhibition concentration) than most of the antibiotics (cefazolin/sulfamethoxazole) against Gram-negative bacteria, while maintaining excellent physicochemical properties including water uptake capability, mechanical strain, and biocompatibility...
May 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544098/crystal-structure-of-the-sensor-domain-of-baes-from-serratia-marcescens-fs14
#4
Ya Zhang, Shenshen Qiu, Shanshan Jia, Dongqing Xu, Tingting Ran, Weiwu Wang
The sensor histidine kinases of two-component signal-transduction systems (TCSs) are essential for bacteria to adapt to variable environmental conditions. The two-component regulatory system BaeS/R increases multidrug and metal resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. In this study, we report the X-ray structure of the periplasmic sensor domain of BaeS from Serratia marcescens FS14. The BaeS sensor domain (34-160) adopts a mixed α/β-fold containing a central four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet flanked by a long N-terminal α-helix and additional loops and a short C-terminal α-helix on each side...
May 24, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543177/fingerprints-of-resistant-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-from-vegetables-and-environmental-samples
#5
G O Abakpa, V J Umoh, S Kamaruzaman, A M Ibekwe
BACKGROUND: Some routes of transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to fresh produce include contaminated irrigation water and manure polluted soils. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic relationships of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from some produce growing region in Nigeria using Enterorepititive Intergenic Consensus Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fingerprinting (ERIC-PCR) analysis. A total of four hundred and forty samples comprising leafy greens, irrigation water, manure, and soil were obtained from vegetable producing regions in Kano and Plateau States, Nigeria...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542807/genetic-diversity-virulotyping-and-antimicrobial-resistance-susceptibility-of-yersinia-enterocolitica-isolated-from-pigs-and-porcine-products-in-malaysia
#6
Kwai Lin Thong, Lai Kuan Tan, Peck Toung Ooi
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia. RESULTS: Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n=27; 1B/O:8, n=3; 1A/O:5, n=2) were analysed. About 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with MAR index <0.2 and majority of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, tetracycline and amoxicillin...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542565/promiscuous-signaling-by-a-regulatory-system-unique-to-the-pandemic-pmen1-pneumococcal-lineage
#7
Anagha Kadam, Rory A Eutsey, Jason Rosch, Xinyu Miao, Mark Longwell, Wenjie Xu, Carol A Woolford, Todd Hillman, Anfal Shakir Motib, Hasan Yesilkaya, Aaron P Mitchell, N Luisa Hiller
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of death and disease in children and elderly. Genetic variability among isolates from this species is high. These differences, often the product of gene loss or gene acquisition via horizontal gene transfer, can endow strains with new molecular pathways, diverse phenotypes, and ecological advantages. PMEN1 is a widespread and multidrug-resistant pneumococcal lineage. Using comparative genomics we have determined that a regulator-peptide signal transduction system, TprA2/PhrA2, was acquired by a PMEN1 ancestor and is encoded by the vast majority of strains in this lineage...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542486/candida-auris-a-rapidly-emerging-cause-of-hospital-acquired-multidrug-resistant-fungal-infections-globally
#8
Anuradha Chowdhary, Cheshta Sharma, Jacques F Meis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542110/pneumonia-after-liver-transplantation
#9
Stephanie A K Angarita, Tara A Russell, Fady M Kaldas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia occurs in 8-23% of patients after liver transplantation and contributes considerably to their morbidity and mortality. With the increasing acuity of liver transplantation patients in the current era, pneumonias, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonias, and multidrug-resistant pathogens, are of growing concern. RECENT FINDINGS: Postliver transplantation pneumonia cause varies with the timing of infection. In the early period (<1 month postliver transplantation), nosocomial pneumonias, including ventilator-associated pneumonias and multidrug-resistant species are most common...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540747/in-vitro-susceptibility-and-resistance-phenotypes-in-contemporary-enterobacter-isolates-in-a-university-hospital-in-crete-greece
#10
Sofia Maraki, Konstantinos Z Vardakas, George Samonis, Dimitrios Perdikis, Viktoria Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, Matthew E Falagas
AIM: To study the evolution in the susceptibility of Enterobacter spp. in Crete, Greece from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: Non-duplicate isolates were studied using automated systems. Phenotypic confirmatory tests were applied. RESULTS: A total of 939 Enterobacter isolates were included. Colistin was the most active antibiotic (97.9%) followed by imipenem (96.1%), gentamicin (95.7%), tigecycline (91.8%), cefepime (89.4%), chloramphenicol (85.8%), fosfomycin (85...
May 25, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540732/mouse-model-of-colonization-of-the-digestive-tract-with-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-subsequent-pneumonia
#11
Noémie Coron, Silvie Pavlickova, Angélique Godefroy, Hélène Pailhoriès, Marie Kempf, Viviane Cassisa, Laurent Marsollier, Estelle Marion, Marie-Laure Joly-Guillou, Matthieu Eveillard
AIM: Implementing a mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) digestive colonization and studying the propensity of an intestinal reservoir of AB to be at the origin of pneumonia. MATERIALS & METHODS: After a disruption of the digestive flora by piperacillin-tazobactam, two multidrug-resistant AB strains were intranasally inoculated to two cohorts of ten mice daily. For each strain, five mice were rendered transiently neutropenic. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: One strain persisted several weeks in the digestive tract, even after stopping piperacillin-tazobactam injections, leading to the hypothesis that some AB strains can authentically colonize the gut...
May 25, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540155/low-levels-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-isolates-and-their-relationship-to-risk-factors-surveillance-in-tehran-iran-2006-to-2014
#12
Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Abolfazl Fateh, Ahmadreza Bahrmand
OBJECTIVES: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is more expensive and difficult to treat than multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and outcomes for patients are much worse; therefore, it is important that clinicians understand the magnitude and distribution of XDR-TB. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the estimated incidence of and risk factors for M/XDR-TB with those of susceptible TB controls. METHODS: Sputum culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) were performed in patients with known or suspected TB...
April 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539723/antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-ethanol-extract-of-corylopsis-coreana-uyeki-flos
#13
Da-Eon Park, In-Soo Yoon, Jung-Eun Kim, Ji-Hye Seo, Jin-Cheol Yoo, Chun-Sik Bae, Chang-Dai Lee, Dae-Hun Park, Seung-Sik Cho
BACKGROUND: Corylopsis coreana Uyeki (Hamamelidaceae) is a medicinal plant cultivated in Northeast Asia. Previously, we have reported that an ethanol extract of Corylopsis coreana Uyeki flos (ECCF) contains four active compounds with antioxidant activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial spectrum against infectious bacteria and anti-inflammatory effect of ECCF in a mouse model of acute local inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated using standard plate assay technique...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539499/reply-to-anthony-et-al-protecting-pyrazinamide-a-priority-for-improving-outcomes-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment
#14
M O Fofana, D W Dowdy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539346/rapid-and-accurate-molecular-identification-of-the-emerging-multidrug-resistant-pathogen-candida-auris
#15
Milena Kordalewska, Yanan Zhao, Shawn R Lockhart, Anuradha Chowdhary, Indira Berrio, David S Perlin
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial and invasive infections associated with high mortality. C. auris is commonly misidentified as several different yeast species by commercially available phenotypic identification platforms. Thus, there is an urgent need for a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper we present fast, robust, easy to perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays to identify C. auris and related species: Candida duobushaemulonii, Candida haemulonii, and Candida lusitaniae Targeting rDNA region nucleotide sequences, primers specific for C...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#16
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537546/biological-characterisation-of-the-emerged-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-a-h7n9-viruses-in-humans-in-mainland-china-2016-to-2017
#17
Wenfei Zhu, Jianfang Zhou, Zi Li, Lei Yang, Xiyan Li, Weijuan Huang, Sumei Zou, Wenbing Chen, Hejiang Wei, Jing Tang, Liqi Liu, Jie Dong, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu
With no or low virulence in poultry, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused severe infections in humans. In the current fifth epidemic wave, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged. The insertion of four amino acids (KRTA) at the haemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site enabled trypsin-independent infectivity of this virus. Although maintaining dual receptor-binding preference, its HA antigenicity was distinct from low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9). The neuraminidase substitution R292K conferred a multidrug resistance phenotype...
May 11, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536787/carbon-nanotubes-as-anti-bacterial-agents
#18
REVIEW
Teodora Mocan, Cristian T Matea, Teodora Pop, Ofelia Mosteanu, Anca Dana Buzoianu, Soimita Suciu, Cosmin Puia, Claudiu Zdrehus, Cornel Iancu, Lucian Mocan
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections that have evolved via natural selection have increased alarmingly at a global level. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of novel antibiotics for the treatment of these infections. Functionalized carbon nanotubes through their unique properties hold great promise in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. This new family of nanovectors for therapeutic delivery proved to be innovative and efficient for the transport and cellular translocation of therapeutic molecules...
May 23, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536572/the-bacteriophage-ef-p29-efficiently-protects-against-lethal-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-alleviates-gut-microbiota-imbalance-in-a-murine-bacteremia-model
#19
Mengjun Cheng, Jiaming Liang, Yufeng Zhang, Liyuan Hu, Pengjuan Gong, Ruopeng Cai, Lei Zhang, Hao Zhang, Jinli Ge, Yalu Ji, Zhimin Guo, Xin Feng, Changjiang Sun, Yongjun Yang, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu
Enterococcus faecalis is becoming an increasingly important opportunistic pathogen worldwide, especially because it can cause life-threatening nosocomial infections. Treating E. faecalis infections has become increasingly difficult because of the prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis strains. Because bacteriophages show specificity for their bacterial hosts, there has been a growth in interest in using phage therapies to combat the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. In this study, we isolated a new lytic phage, EF-P29, which showed high efficiency and a broad host range against E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535801/molecular-markers-of-anti-malarial-drug-resistance-in-central-west-and-east-african-children-with-severe-malaria
#20
Christian N Nguetse, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Tsiri Agbenyega, Bernhards R Ogutu, Sanjeev Krishna, Peter G Kremsner, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
BACKGROUND: The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (PfMDR1), P. falciparum Ca(2+)-ATPase (PfATP6) and Kelch-13 propeller domain (PfK13) loci are molecular markers of parasite susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs. Their frequency distributions were determined in the isolates collected from children with severe malaria originating from three African countries. METHODS: Samples from 287 children with severe malaria [(Gabon: n = 114); (Ghana: n = 89); (Kenya: n = 84)] were genotyped for pfmdr1, pfatp6 and pfk13 loci by DNA sequencing and assessing pfmdr1 copy number variation (CNV) by real-time PCR...
May 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
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