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lipids and physical activity

Tina H T Chiu, Wen-Harn Pan, Ming-Nan Lin, Chin-Lon Lin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vegetarian diets are inversely associated with diabetes in Westerners but their impact on Asians-whose pathophysiology differ from Westerners-is unknown. We aim to investigate the association between a vegetarian diet, change in dietary patterns and diabetes risk in a Taiwanese Buddhist population. METHODS: We prospectively followed 2918 non-smoking, non-alcohol drinking Buddhists free of diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases at baseline, for a median of 5 years, with 183 incident diabetes cases confirmed...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Marta Martínez-Calle, Bárbara Olmeda, Paul Dietl, Manfred Frick, Jesús Pérez-Gil
The release of pulmonary surfactant by alveolar type II (ATII) cells is essential for lowering surface tension at the respiratory air-liquid interface, stabilizing the lungs against physical forces tending to alveolar collapse. Hydrophobic surfactant protein (SP)-B ensures the proper packing of newly synthesized surfactant particles, promotes the formation of the surface active film at the alveolar air-liquid interface and maintains its proper structure along the respiratory dynamics. We report that membrane-associated SP-B efficiently induces secretion of pulmonary surfactant by ATII cells, at the same level as potent secretagogues such as ATP...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, George Anderson, Marta Kubera, Andre F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yiqing Yang, Ruiqiong Guo, Kristen Gaffney, Miyeon Kim, Shaima Muhammednazaar, Wei Tian, Boshen Wang, Jie Liang, Heedeok Hong
ATP-dependent protein degradation mediated by AAA+ proteases is one of the major cellular pathways for protein quality control and regulation of functional networks. While a majority of studies of protein degradation have focused on water-soluble proteins, it is not well understood how membrane proteins with abnormal conformation are selectively degraded. The knowledge gap stems from the lack of an in vitro system in which detailed molecular mechanisms can be studied as well as difficulties in studying membrane protein folding in lipid bilayers...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lin Lin, Yulin Zhu, Baskar Thangaraj, Mohamed A S Abdel-Samie, Haiying Cui
The objective of this study was to investigate the preparation of the freeze-dried ε-polylysine (ε-PLY)-coated thyme essential oil (TEO) liposome, and its application in vegetable juices to control the Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth. Firstly, the solid liposomes (SLP) were obtained via freeze-drying in the presence of β-cyclodextrins as cryoprotectant under different ratios of β-cyclodextrin: lipid (w/w) (2:1, 4:1, 6:1 and 8:1). The ultraviolet visible and fourier transformed infrared spectrograms results indicated the presence of TEO and ε-PLY in SLPs...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Marc A Tuazon, Sara C Campbell, Dylan J Klein, Sue A Shapses, Keith R Anacker, Tracy G Anthony, Mehmet Uzumcu, Gregory C Henderson
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. METHODS: Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Xiaoping Zhao, Li Zhao, Hao Yang, Jiajin Li, Xuejie Min, Fajun Yang, Jianjun Liu, Gang Huang
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism is common in cancer cells, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) stimulate lipid biosynthesis through transcriptional activation of lipogenic enzymes. However, SREBPs' roles and potential interacting partners in cancer cells are not fully defined. Using a biochemical approach, we found here that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) physically interacts with the nuclear form of SREBP-1a (nBP1a), by binding to amino acids 43-56 in nBP1a...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Alex Tsui, Diana Kuh, Linda Cardozo, Daniel Davis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) at age 68 years and the contribution of vascular risk factors to male and female UUI pathogenesis in addition to the associations with raised body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In all, 1 762 participants from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey for Health and Development birth cohort who answered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire short form (ICIQ-SF), at age 68 years, were included...
March 7, 2018: BJU International
Anna Lartey, Grace S Marquis, Richmond Aryeetey, Helena Nti
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia during childhood has been associated with higher risk of atherosclerosis later in life. Information on the lipid profile of Ghanaian children is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the lipid profiles of school children between the ages of 9-15 years, living in urban Ghana. METHODS: A total of 802 randomly selected school-age children participated in the Ghana School Survey implemented in Kumasi and Accra, Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on child and maternal socio-demographic characteristics (including age, education, and occupation), 7-day food frequency, home and school activity, as well as measurement of weight and standing height...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Antonio Benedetto, Pietro Ballone
Empirical evidence and conceptual elaboration reveal and rationalise the remarkable affinity of organic ionic liquids for biomembranes. Cations of the so-called room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), in particular, are readily absorbed into the lipid fraction of biomembranes, causing a variety of observable biological effects, including generic cytotoxicity, broad anti-bacterial potential, and anti-cancer activity. Chemical-physics analysis of model systems made of phospholipid bilayers, RTIL ions and water confirm and partly explain this evidence, quantifying the mild destabilising effect of RTILs on structural, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of lipids in biomembranes...
March 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bengang Xing, Xiangzhao Ai, Ming Hu, Zhimin Wang, Wenmin Zhang, Juan Li, Jun Lin, Huang-Hao Yang
In terms of the extremely small size and large specific surface area, nanomaterials often exhibit unusual physical and chemical properties, which have recently attracted considerable attention in bionanotechnology and nanomedicine. Currently, the extensive usage of nanotechnology in medicine holds the great potential for precise diagnosis and effective therapeutics of various human diseases in clinical practice in past decades. However, a detailed understanding regarding how nanomedicines interact with the intricate environment in complex living systems remains a pressing and challenging goal...
March 6, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Jane Maddock, Nida Ziauddeen, Gina L Ambrosini, Andrew Wong, Rebecca Hardy, Sumantra Ray
Little is known about long-term associations between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and conventional cardiovascular (CV)-risk factors as well as novel measures of vascular function. This study aimed to examine whether long-term adherence to a DASH-type diet in a British birth cohort is associated with conventional CV-risk factors and two vascular function markers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Data came from 1409 participants of the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Yang Cao, Yuli Chen, Tao Yu, Yuan Guo, Fengqiu Liu, Yuanzhi Yao, Pan Li, Dong Wang, Zhigang Wang, Yu Chen, Haitao Ran
Background: As one of the most effective triggers with high tissue-penetrating capability and non-invasive feature, ultrasound shows great potential for controlling the drug release and enhancing the chemotherapeutic efficacy. In this study, we report, for the first time, construction of a phase-changeable drug-delivery nanosystem with programmable low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) that could trigger drug-release and significantly enhance anticancer drug delivery. Methods: Liquid-gas phase-changeable perfluorocarbon (perfluoropentane) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin) were simultaneously encapsulated in two kinds of nanodroplets...
2018: Theranostics
Jeannette J Lucejko, Jacopo La Nasa, Francesca Porta, Alessandro Vanzetti, Giuseppa Tanda, Claudio Filippo Mangiaracina, Alessandro Corretti, Maria Perla Colombini, Erika Ribechini
Cereals were very important in ancient diets, however evidence from archaeological sites of the vessels used for processing or storing cereals is comparatively rare. Micro-organisms, as well as chemical-physical effects can easily degrade cereals during the burial period. This can lead to a complete cereal decay and to serious difficulties in estimating the intensity of use of the cereals by ancient populations. Here, we present a novel biomarker approach entailing the detection of secondary lipid metabolites produced by ergot fungi (genus Claviceps), which are common cereal pests...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiří Laštůvka, Sabína Oreská, Michal Tomčík, Michal Vrablík
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with rheumatic diseases is increased by 50 % compared to the general population. This is a result of the increased inflammatory activity as well as modification of traditional CVD risk factors by the primary disease. So called lipid paradox, paradoxical decrease of concentrations of atherogenic plasma lipids due to increased inflammatory activity and their rise with successful anti-inflammatory treatment, is of particular importance. CVD risk in rheumatic diseases is further modified by drugs used for their treatment: while some treatment modalities increase the risk (e...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Sabrina Weiss Sties, Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Tales de Carvalho, Ana Inês Gonzáles, Vitor Giatte Angarten, Anderson Zampier Ulbrich, Lourenço Sampaio de Mara, Almir Schmitt Netto, Edson Luiz da Silva, Alexandro Andrade
Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). In contrast, regular physical exercise can promote adaptations to reactive oxygen species that are beneficial for patients with HF. We completed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that evaluate the influence of exercise on oxidative stress in patients with HF. Articles were searched in the PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, and LILACS databases. The search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
March 1, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
F Liu, R Zhang, T T Li, H Y Wang
Objective: To investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) and serum lipid level among male taxi drivers of a city in china. Methods: A total of 360 male taxi drivers were collected by two-stage random sampling method from september to november in 2016, the questionnaires were used to survey the status of PA and serum total cholesterol (TC) , triglyceride (TG) , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) , according to the recommended standards of the intenational consensus group on physical activity measurement (ICGPAM) , the participants were divided into 3 groups: high PA level group, moderate PA level group and low PA level group...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Denis Martinvalet
Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites (MERCs) are dynamic modules enriched in subset of lipids and specialized proteins that determine their structure and functions. The MERCs regulate lipid transfer, autophagosome formation, mitochondrial fission, Ca2+ homeostasis and apoptosis. Since these functions are essential for cell biology, it is therefore not surprising that MERCs also play a critical role in organ physiology among which the immune system stands by its critical host defense function...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Taeyoung Yoo, Wonsuk Choi, Jin-Hee Hong, Ju-Yeon Lee, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Soo Jin Yang, Paul Amminger, Michael Berk, Jin-Sang Yoon, Sung-Wan Kim
Objective: This study examined the association between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome in patients with psychotic disorders. Methods: The study enrolled 302 community-dwelling patients with psychotic disorders. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, including blood pressure, physical activity, and dietary habit were gathered. Laboratory examinations included vitamin D, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, liver function, and renal function. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as <20 ng/mL...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
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