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Nanomedicine nanotechnology

Hima Bindu Ruttala, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Thiagarajan Madeshwaran, Tran Tuan Hiep, Umadevi Kandasamy, Kyung Taek Oh, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
The development of novel drug delivery systems based on well-defined polymer therapeutics has led to significant improvements in the treatment of multiple disorders. Advances in material chemistry, nanotechnology, and nanomedicine have revolutionized the practices of drug delivery. Stimulus-responsive material-based nanosized drug delivery systems have remarkable properties that allow them to circumvent biological barriers and achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery. Specifically, the development of novel nanocarrier-based therapeutics is the need of the hour in managing complex diseases...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Marta Overchuk, Gang Zheng
Despite rapid advancements in the field of nanotechnology, there is mounting frustration in the scientific community regarding the translational impact of nanomedicine. Modest therapeutic performance of FDA-approved nanomedicines combined with multiple disappointing clinical trials (such as phase III HEAT trial) have raised questions about the future of nanomedicine. Encouraging breakthroughs, however, have been made in the last few years towards the development of new classes of nanoparticles that can respond to tumor microenvironmental conditions and successfully deliver therapeutic agents to cancer cells...
October 20, 2017: Biomaterials
Azadeh Haeri, Mahraz Osouli, Fereshteh Bayat, Sonia Alavi, Simin Dadashzadeh
Sirolimus (rapamycin) is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor with immunosuppressive, antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, antifungal, anti-restenosis and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its clinical application is often hampered by poor aqueous solubility, first-pass metabolism, transport by p-glycoprotein efflux pump, limited oral bioavailability and nonspecific distribution in off-target sites. Recently, various formulation strategies have emerged to overcome these limitations. Among these, pharmaceutical nanotechnology with numerous advantages has great potential for sirolimus delivery...
November 29, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jin-Hoi Kim
Recently, graphene and graphene related nanocomposite receive much attention due to high surface-to-volume ratio, and unique physiochemical and biological properties. The combination of metallic nanoparticles with graphene-based materials offers a promising method to fabricate novel graphene-silver hybrid nanomaterials with unique functions in biomedical nanotechnology, and nanomedicine. Therefore, this study was designed to prepare graphene oxide (GO) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) nanocomposite (GO-AgNPs) containing two different nanomaterials in single platform with distinctive properties using luciferin as reducing agents...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Adam M Kabza, Brian E Young, Jonathan T Sczepanski
The absence of a straightforward strategy to interface native D-DNA with its enantiomer L-DNA - oligonucleotides of opposite chirality are incapable of forming contiguous Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs with each other - has enforced a "homochiral" paradigm over the field of dynamic DNA nanotechnology. As a result, chirality, a key intrinsic property of nucleic acids, is often overlooked as a design element for engineering DNA-based devices, potentially limiting the types of behaviors that can be achieved using these systems...
November 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Baharak Bahmani, Ishaan Vohra, Nazila Kamaly, Reza Abdi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organ transplantation is a life-saving procedure and the only option for patients with end-organ failure. Immune therapeutics have been key to the success of organ transplantation. However, immune therapeutics are still unable to eliminate graft rejection and their toxicity has been implicated in poorer long-term transplant outcomes. Targeted nanodelivery has the potential to enhance not only the therapeutic index but also the bioavailability of the immune therapeutics...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Muhammad Imran Qadir
Nanomedicines are a recent development to face medical and pharmaceutical challenges because nanoparticles have unique properties. They are very small in size and are easy to handle. One more advantage is that they are not harmful for the human body. Poorly soluble drugs have serious problems with their delivery and dosage forms. Formulation strategies by means of nanocarrier systems, such as polymeric micelles, can resolve the trouble. Micelles from PEG-diacyllipids, e.g. PEG-PE, are of special attention. On the other hand, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique can be useful to set up stable nanocolloids of low solubility...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
María Francisca Matus, Cristian Vilos, Bruno A Cisterna, Eduardo Fuentes, Iván Palomo
Despite the numerous advantages offered by diverse platforms based on nanomedicine, several nanomaterials have shown significant cell toxicity that could induce chronic adverse effects on human health. Blood compatibility is one of the leading factors to consider for the design and development of nanosystems as therapeutics. Aforementioned is because systemic circulation is the gateway for most nano-drug therapeutic systems and its interactions with the blood components such as platelets could influence the maintenance of hemostasis and thrombus formation...
November 21, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
Liming Wang, Liang Yan, Jing Liu, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of nanomaterials (NMs) or nanomedicines (NMs), are fundamental biological processes that dominate their nanomedical functions or nanotoxicities. Mostly, NMs exist in biological systems as a form of nanoparticles (NPs). However, to determine the composition, spatial distribution, and states of existence of NMs/NPs in vivo, upon entry into the body, as well as to monitor the dynamic changes of these information over time remain a challenge for the current analytical methodology due to their limited efficiently in characterizing interactions between these complex(nano)-complex(bio) systems...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Serge Mignani, João Rodrigues, Helena Tomas, René Roy, Xiangyang Shi, Jean-Pierre Majoral
Nanomedicine, which is an application of nanotechnologies in healthcare is developed to improve the treatments and lives of patients suffering from a range of disorders and to increase the successes of drug candidates. Within the nanotechnology universe, the remarkable unique and tunable properties of dendrimers have made them promising tools for diverse biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene therapy and diagnostic. Up-to-date, very few dendrimers has yet gained regulatory approval for systemic administration, why? In this critical review, we briefly focus on the list of desired basic dendrimer requirements for decision-making purpose by the scientists (go/no-go decision), in early development stages, to become clinical candidates, and to move towards Investigational New Drugs (IND) application submission...
November 16, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Ankur Choubey, Ritu Gilhotra, Santosh Kumar Singh, Gopal Garg
Background: Nanotechnology has given the likelihood of conveying medications to particular cells utilizing nanoparticles. Nanosystems can convey the dynamic constituent at an adequate fixation amid the whole treatment time frame, guiding it to the fancied site of activity. Traditional medications do not meet these necessities. The fundamental motivation behind creating elective medication conveyance advancements is to expand effectiveness of medication conveyance and security during the time spent medication conveyance and give more accommodation to the patient...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Darren Michael Moss, Paul Curley, Hannah Kinvig, Clare Hoskins, Andrew Owen
Nano-scale formulations are being developed to improve the delivery of orally administered medicines, and the interactions between nanoformulations and the gastrointestinal luminal, mucosal and epithelial environment is currently being investigated. The mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is capable of trapping and eliminating large particles and pathogens as part of the natural defences of the body, it is becoming clearer that nanoformulation properties such as particle size, charge, and shape, as well as mucous properties such as viscoelasticity, thickness, density, and turn-over time are all relevant to these interactions...
November 1, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Elena Pascual, Carlos P Mata, José L Carrascosa, Jose R Caston
Hollow protein containers are widespread in nature, and include virus capsids as well as eukaryotic and bacterial complexes. Protein cages are studied extensively for applications in nanotechnology, nanomedicine and materials science. Their inner and outer surfaces can be modified chemically or genetically, and the internal cavity can be used to template, store and/or arrange molecular cargos. Virus capsids and virus-like particles (VLP, noninfectious particles) provide versatile platforms for nanoscale bioengineering...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Nastassja A Lewinski, Ivan Jimenez, Bridget T McInnes
A vast amount of data on nanomedicines is being generated and published, and natural language processing (NLP) approaches can automate the extraction of unstructured text-based data. Annotated corpora are a key resource for NLP and information extraction methods which employ machine learning. Although corpora are available for pharmaceuticals, resources for nanomedicines and nanotechnology are still limited. To foster nanotechnology text mining (NanoNLP) efforts, we have constructed a corpus of annotated drug product inserts taken from the US Food and Drug Administration's Drugs@FDA online database...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Yung-Hao Tsou, Xue-Qing Zhang, He Zhu, Sahla Syed, Xiaoyang Xu
A major obstacle facing brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, and strokes is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB prevents the passage of certain molecules and pathogens from the circulatory system into the brain. Therefore, it is nearly impossible for therapeutic drugs to target the diseased cells without the assistance of carriers. Nanotechnology is an area of growing public interest; nanocarriers, such as polymer-based, lipid-based, and inorganic-based nanoparticles can be engineered in different sizes, shapes, and surface charges, and they can be modified with functional groups to enhance their penetration and targeting capabilities...
November 2017: Small
Cody Geary, Arkadiusz Chworos, Erik Verzemnieks, Neil R Voss, Luc Jaeger
Natural stable RNAs fold and assemble into complex three-dimensional architectures by relying on the hierarchical formation of intricate, recurrent networks of noncovalent tertiary interactions. These sequence-dependent networks specify RNA structural modules enabling orientational and topological control of helical struts to form larger self-folding domains. Borrowing concepts from linguistics, we defined an extended structural syntax of RNA modules for programming RNA strands to assemble into complex, responsive nanostructures under both thermodynamic and kinetic control...
October 25, 2017: Nano Letters
Magdalena Swierczewska, Rachael M Crist, Scott E McNeil
Continued advancements in nanotechnology are expanding the boundaries of medical research, most notably as drug delivery agents for treatment against cancer. Drug delivery with nanotechnology can offer greater control over the biodistribution of therapeutic agents to improve the therapeutic index. In the last 20 years, a number of nanomedicines have transitioned into the clinic. As nanomedicines evolve, techniques to properly evaluate their safety and efficacy must also evolve. Characterization methods for nano-based materials must be adapted to the demands of nanomedicine developers and regulators...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Carlos Pérez-Medina, Sjoerd Hak, Thomas Reiner, Zahi A Fayad, Matthias Nahrendorf, Willem J M Mulder
Biomedical engineering and its associated disciplines play a pivotal role in improving our understanding and management of disease. Motivated by past accomplishments, such as the clinical implementation of coronary stents, pacemakers or recent developments in antibody therapies, disease management now enters a new era in which precision imaging and nanotechnology-enabled therapeutics are maturing to clinical translation. Preclinical molecular imaging increasingly focuses on specific components of the immune system that drive disease progression and complications, allowing the in vivo study of potential therapeutic targets...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Michael J Mitchell, Rakesh K Jain, Robert Langer
The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. In the past decade, we have witnessed exponential growth at the interface of engineering, physics and oncology that has been fuelled by advances in fields including materials science, microfabrication, nanomedicine, microfluidics, imaging, and catalysed by new programmes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Physical Sciences in Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for Nanotechnology...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Cristina Fornaguera, Maria José García-Celma
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary research field that results from the application of nanotechnology to medicine and has the potential to significantly improve some current treatments. Specifically, in the field of personalized medicine, it is expected to have a great impact in the near future due to its multiple advantages, namely its versatility to adapt a drug to a cohort of patients. In the present review, the properties and requirements of pharmaceutical dosage forms at the nanoscale, so-called nanomedicines, are been highlighted...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
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