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cutanous leishmaniasis treatment

Vijani N Somaratne, Ranthilaka R Ranawaka, H M Jayaruwan, D M Wipuladasa, S H Padmal de Silva
OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of intralesional metronidazole on L. donovani cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 188 patients with CL were randomly allocated to intralesional sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and intralesional metronidazole. Cure was assessed after 1-10 injections. Cure rates were assessed for statistical significance using Chi square test at p = 0.05 level (SLCTR/2014/028). RESULTS: When the treatment cut off was taken at 100%, the rate of cure for SSG (n = 64, 65...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Colin A Morton, Lasse R Braathen
Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using daylight is effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs), offering the potential for treatment of large fields such as full face and balding scalp, but with minimal therapy-associated pain. Comparison with conventional PDT indicates similar efficacy for thin and moderate-thickness AKs, but with significantly less discomfort/pain, driving a patient preference for daylight-mediated PDT (DL-PDT) compared with conventional PDT using high-intensity office/hospital-based light sources...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
R Nazari-Vanani, R Dehdari Vais, F Sharifi, N Sattarahmady, K Karimian, M H Motazedian, H Heli
Leishmaniasis is a group of parasitic disease caused by protozoa of Leishmania genus. Leishmania major accounts for the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The current treatments of this disease are expensive with high toxicity and are associated to difficulties of healing and parasite resistance. Miltefosine and ketoconazole have been found to be effective against CL. In this study, miltefosine- and ketoconazole-loaded nanoniosomes were prepared by the thin film-hydration method, and their anti-leishmanial effects against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes were evaluated...
May 4, 2018: Acta Tropica
Arissa Felipe Borges, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is a causal agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). This protozoan has been poorly investigated; however, it can cause different clinical forms of ATL, ranging from a single cutaneous lesion to severe lesions that can lead to destruction of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. L. (V.) guyanensis and the disease caused by this species can present unique aspects revealing the need to better characterize this parasite species to improve our knowledge of the immunopathological mechanisms and treatment options for ATL...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Luca Galluzzi, Marcello Ceccarelli, Aurora Diotallevi, Michele Menotta, Mauro Magnani
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by many Leishmania species, which can infect both humans and other mammals. Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infections to lesions at cutaneous sites (cutaneous leishmaniasis), mucosal sites (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) or in visceral organs (visceral leishmaniasis), depending on the species and host characteristics. Often, symptoms are inconclusive and leishmaniasis can be confused with other co-endemic diseases...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Gregory Nicolas, Elliott Koury, Dani Osman, Christian Salibi, Lea Nehme, Stephanie Mitri, Julien-Sami Atef El Sayegh, Linda Rached, George Khoury
BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection spread by the bite of infected sand flies that are usually present in the Middle East, Africa, and some parts of Asia and Europe. Leishmaniasis manifests in 3 different forms: Visceral (also known as Kala Azar), which is the most serious type; cutaneous, which is the most common type; and mucocutaneous. The symptoms of this infection range from a silent infection to fever, enlargement of the liver and spleen, weight loss, and pancytopenia. CASE REPORT In this case report, we discuss a 73-year-old man known to have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), presenting with unremitting fever and who to our surprise was found to have Kala Azar...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Razieh Tavakoli Oliaee, Iraj Sharifi, Ali Afgar, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Arash Asadi, Amireh Heshmatkhah, Mehdi Bamorovat, Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Hamid Daneshvar
BACKGROUND: Resistance to antimonials is a fundamental determinant of treatment failure in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Detection of reliable molecular markers to distinguish unresponsive and responsive parasites is critical for consolidating strategies to monitor drug efficacy. METHODS: We analyzed the expression of five major antimony resistance-associated genes, i.e., aquaglyceroporin1 (AQP1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), multidrug resistance protein A (MRPA), trypanothione reductase (TR) and thiol dependent reductase 1 (TDR1), in unresponsive and responsive Leishmania tropica field isolates by quantitative real-time PCR in comparison with sensitive and resistant reference strains...
April 30, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Carlos Franco-Muñoz, Merab Manjarrés-Estremor, Clemencia Ovalle-Bracho
Amphotericin B (AmB) is a recommended medication for the treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in cases of therapeutic failure with first-line medications; however, little is known about the in vitro susceptibility to AmB of clinical isolates of the subgenus Viannia, which is most prevalent in South America. This work aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles to AmB of clinical isolates of the species L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis. In vitro susceptibility to AmB was evaluated for 65 isolates...
2018: PloS One
Louva Rakotonarivo, Dominique Lons-Danic, Michel Janier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: JAAD Case Reports
A A Lopera, A M A Velásquez, L C Clementino, S Robledo, A Montoya, L M de Freitas, V D N Bezzon, C R Fontana, C Garcia, M A S Graminha
Photodynamic therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, and compounds with photocatalytic behavior are promising candidates to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this parasitic disease. Titanium dioxide TiO2 is a semiconductor ceramic material that shows excellent photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity under Ultraviolet irradiation. Due to the harmful effects of UV radiation, many efforts have been made in order to enhance both photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of TiO2 in the visible region of the spectrum by doping or through modifications in the route of synthesis...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Vanesa Pérez-Laguna, Ana J García-Malinis, Carmen Aspiroz, Antonio Rezusta, Yolanda Gilaberte
The microorganisms that cause infections are increasing their resistance to antibiotics. In this context, alternative treatments are necessary. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a therapeutic modality based on photosensitizing molecules that end up generating reactive oxygen species that induce the destruction of the target cells when are irradiated with light of a suitable wavelength and at a proper dose. The cells targeted by aPDT are all types of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and parasites) including viruses and has been proven effective against representative members of all of them...
April 19, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Camila Marques-da-Silva, Mariana M Chaves, Maria Luiza Thorstenberg, Vanessa R Figliuolo, Flávia S Vieira, Suzana P Chaves, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Leishmania amazonensis is the etiologic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, an immune-driven disease causing a range of clinical symptoms. Infections caused by L. amazonensis suppress the activation and function of immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4+ T cells. In this study, we analyzed the course of infection as well as the leishmanicidal effect of intralesional UTP treatment in L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. We found that UTP treatment reduced the parasitic load in both footpad and lymph node sites of infection...
April 21, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Gert-Jan Wijnant, Katrien Van Bocxlaer, Vanessa Yardley, Andy Harris, Mo Alavijeh, Rita Silva-Pedrosa, Sandra Antunes, Isabel Mauricio, Sudaxshina Murdan, Simon L Croft
Fungisome® (F), a liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) product, is marketed in India as a safe and effective therapeutic for the parasitic infection visceral leishmaniasis. Its potential in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a disfiguring form of the disease affecting the skin, is currently unknown. Here, we report the evaluation of the efficacy of F in the Leishmania major BALB/c murine model of CL, including a head-to-head comparison with the standard liposomal AmB formulation AmBisome® (A). Upon intravenous administration at dose levels of 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg of body weight (on days 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8), F showed clear signs of toxicity (at 15 mg/kg), while A did not...
April 12, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Sara Nunes, Icaro Bonyek Silva, Mariana Rosa Ampuero, Almério Libório Lopes de Noronha, Lígia Correia Lima de Souza, Thaizza Cavalcante Correia, Ricardo Khouri, Viviane Sampaio Boaventura, Aldina Barral, Pablo Ivan Pereira Ramos, Cláudia Brodskyn, Pablo Rafael Silveira Oliveira, Natalia Machado Tavares
Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is a chronic disease characterized by ulcerated skin lesion(s) and uncontrolled inflammation. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of LCL are not completely understood, and little is known about posttranscriptional regulation during LCL. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression and can be implicated in the pathogenesis of LCL. We investigated the involvement of miRNAs and their targets genes in human LCL using publicly available transcriptome data sets followed by ex vivo validation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ana V Ibarra-Meneses, Israel Cruz, Carmen Chicharro, Carmen Sánchez, Sylvain Biéler, Tobias Broger, Javier Moreno, Eugenia Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have proven to be advantageous in the diagnosis of leishmaniases, allowing sensitive diagnosis of: (i) cutaneous leishmaniasis in long duration lesions and (ii) visceral leishmaniasis using a less-invasive sample like peripheral blood, in opposition to tissue aspiration required for parasite demonstration by microscopy. Despite their benefits, the implementation of NAATs for leishmaniasis diagnosis at the point-of-care has not been achieved yet, mostly due to the complexity and logistical issues associated with PCR-based methods...
April 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Soner Uzun, Mehmet S Gürel, Murat Durdu, Melih Akyol, Bilge Fettahlıoğlu Karaman, Mustafa Aksoy, Sema Aytekin, Murat Borlu, Esra İnan Doğan, Çiğdem Asena Doğramacı, Yelda Kapıcıoğlu, Ayşe Akman-Karakaş, Tamer I Kaya, Mehmet K Mülayim, Yusuf Özbel, Seray Özensoy Töz, Orhan Özgöztaşı, Yavuz Yeşilova, Mehmet Harman
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-born parasitic disease characterized by various skin lesions that cause disfiguration if healed spontaneously. Although CL has been endemic for many years in the southern regions of Turkey, an increasing incidence in nonendemic regions is being observed due to returning travelers and, more recently, due to Syrian refugees. Thus far, a limited number of national guidelines have been proposed, but no common Turkish consensus has emerged...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Nooshin Hashemi, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Mohsen Masjedi, Sepideh Tolouei, Mitra Hashemi, Nahid Mortazavidehkordi, Mohammad Ali Mohaghegh, Cyrus Hashemi, Seyed Hossein Hejazi
BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are etiologic agents which are intracellular pathogens of vertebrates and replicate inside infected macrophages. Leishmania have developed complex strategies to reverse host immune responses in favor of it. One of the major species causing cutaneous involvements is Leishmania major. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are non-coding small RNAs encoding 22-nucleotide (nt) long RNAs. miRNAs affect diverse biological processes, including cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, growth and development, metabolism, aging, apoptosis, gene expression and immune regulation...
April 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Orçun Zorbozan, Mehmet Harman, Vedat Evren, Mümin Alper Erdoğan, Aslı Kılavuz, Varol Tunalı, İbrahim Çavuş, Özlem Yılmaz, Ahmet Özbilgin, Nevin Turgay
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that shows different clinical features like cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral and viscerotropic forms. The protocols used in the treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic and have many limitations during administration. One of the limitations of treatment is the resistance against the protocols in practice. There is also a need to define new treatment options especially for resistant patients. Ex-vivo models using primary cell cultures may be a good source for evaluating new drug options in patients with antimony resistance, in addition to in-vitro and in-vivo studies...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Ariane J Sousa-Batista, Natalia Arruda-Costa, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Maria Inês Ré
Current chemotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), even the mildest forms, encompasses multiple and painful injections with toxic drugs that cause systemic adverse effects. Recently, we showed the promising use of PLGA microparticles loaded with an antileishmanial nitrosylated chalcone (CH8) for effective, safe, local and single-dose treatment of CL. Here, we proposed to optimize the delivery system by increasing the CH8 loading in PLGA-microparticles using spray drying instead of emulsification-solvent evaporation...
April 5, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
C G Andrade, R C B Q Figueiredo, K R C Ribeiro, L I O Souza, J F Sarmento-Neto, J S Rebouças, B S Santos, M S Ribeiro, L B Carvalho, A Fontes
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease present in more than 88 countries. The currently adopted chemotherapy faces challenges related to side effects and the development of resistance. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a therapeutic modality for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Zn(ii) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (ZnTE-2-PyP4+, ZnP) is a cationic, water-soluble, zinc porphyrin-based photosensitizer whose photodynamic effect on Leishmania braziliensis was analyzed by evaluating the number of visibly undamaged and motile cells, cell membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ultrastructural damage...
March 27, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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