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cutanous leishmaniasis treatment

Piero Olliaro, Max Grogl, Marina Boni, Edgar M Carvalho, Houda Chebli, Mamoudou Cisse, Ermias Diro, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Astrid C Erber, Endalamaw Gadisa, Farhad Handjani, Ali Khanesipour, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Liliana López Carvajal, Lise Grout, Badre Eddine Lmimouni, Mourad Mokni, Mohammad Sami Nahzat, Afif Ben Salah, Yusuf Ozbel, Juan Miguel Pascale, Nidia Rizzo Molina, Joelle Rode, Gustavo Romero, José Antonio Ruiz-Postigo, Nancy Gore Saravia, Jaime Soto, Soner Uzun, Vahid Mashayekhi, Ivan Dario Vélez, Florian Vogt, Olga Zerpa, Byron Arana
INTRODUCTION: Progress with the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been hampered by inconsistent methodologies used to assess treatment effects. A sizable number of trials conducted over the years has generated only weak evidence backing current treatment recommendations, as shown by systematic reviews on old-world and new-world CL (OWCL and NWCL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a previously published guidance paper on CL treatment trial methodology as the reference, consensus was sought on key parameters including core eligibility and outcome measures, among OWCL (7 countries, 10 trial sites) and NWCL (7 countries, 11 trial sites) during two separate meetings...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sara M Robledo, Ivan D Vélez, Thomas J Schmidt
In search for potential therapeutic alternatives to existing treatments for cutaneous Leishmaniasis, we have investigated the effect of Arnica tincture Ph. Eur. (a 70% hydroethanolic tincture prepared from flowerheads of Arnica montana L.) on the lesions caused by infection with Leishmania braziliensis in a model with golden hamsters. The animals were treated topically with a daily single dose of the preparation for 28 days. Subsequently, the healing process was monitored by recording the lesion size in intervals of 15 days up to day 90...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ahmad Khosravi, Iraj Sharifi, Alireza Fekri, Alireza Kermanizadeh, Mehdi Bamorovat, Mahshid Mostafavi, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Alireza Keyhani
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is associated with a broad and complex clinical spectrum of diseases. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical features and identification of the causative agents of CL in a well-known focus of anthroponotic CL (ACL) caused by Leishmania tropica, southeast Iran. Methods: This study was performed randomly as a descriptive cross-sectional survey to evaluate 2000 CL patients by active and passive case-detection approaches in Kerman Province from 1994 to 2014...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Miskelyemen Abdelatti Elmekki, Mogahid M Elhassan, Hani A Ozbak, Ilham T Qattan, Satti M Saleh, Ali H Alharbi
Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012-2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%). Males were more affected than females as 86...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Esteban Vargas, Fernando Echeverri, Yulieth A Upegui, Sara M Robledo, Wiston Quiñones
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease, which causes severe skin lesions. Due to the lack of effective vaccines, and toxicity or reduced effectiveness of available drugs in addition to complex and prolonged treatments, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives for the treatment for CL with different mechanisms of action. In our effort to search for new promising hits against Leishmania parasites we prepared 18 acyl hydrazone derivatives of thiochroman-4-ones. Compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activity against the intracellular amastigote form of Leishmania panamensis and cytotoxic activity against human monocytes (U-937 ATCC CRL-1593...
December 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Camila F Amorim, Luiza Galina, Natália B Carvalho, Nathalia D M Sperotto, Kenia Pissinate, Pablo Machado, Maria M Campos, Luiz A Basso, Valnês S Rodrigues-Junior, Edgar M Carvalho, Diógenes Santiago Santos
M. tuberculosis and parasites of the genus Leishmania present the type II fatty acid biosynthesis system (FASII). The pentacyano(isoniazid)ferrate(II) compound, named IQG-607, inhibits the enzyme 2-trans-enoyl-ACP(CoA) reductase from M. tuberculosis, a key component in the FASII system. Here, we aimed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of IQG-607 against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated from patients with different clinical forms of L. braziliensis infection, including cutaneous, mucosal and disseminated leishmaniasis...
2017: PloS One
Eddaikra Naouel, Kherachi Djenad Ihcene, Bensegheir Sofiane, Ait Oudhia Khatima, Benikhlef Razika, Oury Bruno, Harrat Zoubir, Sereno Denis
The repercussions of cutaneous leishmaniasis therapy on the behaviour and drug susceptibility of Leishmania major parasites is poorly documented. This study explored the link between antimonial susceptibility and in vivo behaviour in Leishmania major isolates collected before and after treatment in Algeria. This study was performed on 3 isolates collected from patients prior to treatment and paired with 3 isolates collected from the same patient after treatment failure. Their in vitro susceptibility towards trivalent (SbIII) and pentavalent (SbV) antimony were ascertained, and their in vivo behaviour was evaluated by determining their capacity to disseminate, proliferate and induce lesions in mice...
December 23, 2017: Acta Tropica
V Nesi-Reis, T R Navasconi, D S S L Lera-Nosone, E L Oliveira, P M Barbosa, W Caetano, T G V Silveira, S M A Aristides, N Hioka, M V C Lonardoni
This study investigated the activity of photosensitive phthalocyanines on promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. Aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl), Aluminum phthalocyanine hydroxide (AlPcOH) and zinc phthalocyanine (PcZn) were tested in the presence (matte red LED, potency of 2.5-2.3 μW for 30 minutes) and absence of light against L. amazonensis promastigotes and the parasite viability was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h. The amastigote forms were treated with AlPcCl and AlPcOH, following the same lighting protocols described for the promastigote forms, being evaluated after 24 h...
December 21, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Issam Bennis, Loubna Belaid, Vincent De Brouwere, Hind Filali, Hamid Sahibi, Marleen Boelaert
OBJECTIVE: To document the psychosocial burden of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in rural communities in Southeastern Morocco. METHOD: Between March and April 2015, we conducted qualitative research in communities exposed to Leishmania major or L. tropica in Errachidia and Tinghir provinces. Twenty-eight focus groups discussions (FGDs) were realized, with a stratification by gender and tradition of medicine (users of folk versus professional medicine). Data were analyzed using content analysis...
2017: PloS One
Badriah Alkathiri, Manal F El-Khadragy, Dina M Metwally, Ebtesam M Al-Olayan, Muhammed A Bakhrebah, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim
Leishmania species are parasites that multiply within phagocytes and cause several clinical diseases characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. One of the complications that can induce tissue damage and the resulting scars is caused by secondary bacterial infections. Studies to find new, effective, and safe oral drugs for treating leishmaniasis are being conducted since several decades, owing to the problems associated with the use of antimonials available. Previously, the antiparasitic and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum (pomegranate, P...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rosiana Estéfane da Silva, Janaína de Pina Carvalho, Dario Brock Ramalho, Maria Camilo Ribeiro De Senna, Hugo Silva Assis Moreira, Ana Rabello, Erika Cota, Gláucia Cota
BACKGROUND Despite its recognised toxicity, antimonial therapy continues to be the first-line drug for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment. Intralesional administration of meglumine antimoniate (MA) represents an alternative that could reduce the systemic absorption of the drug and its side effects. OBJECTIVES This study aims to validate the standard operational procedure (SOP) for the intralesional infiltration of MA for CL therapy as the first step before the assessment of efficacy and safety related to the procedure...
February 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Farhad Handjani, Saeed Reza Yousef, Nasrin Saki, Nasrin Hamidizadeh
Pentavalent antimonials, as the 1st choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), have various side effects. Also, there are some reports of drug resistance. Due to its safety, cryotherapy can be a good alternative or complementary treatment in CL. The aim of this study was to explore the possible systemic immunological mechanisms of cryotherapy besides its local effects in the treatment of CL. Twenty patients with CL were selected. The disease was confirmed via a direct smear. A venous blood sample was collected to determine IL-10 and IFN-γ levels before starting cryotherapy...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Maritza Fernandez, Javier Murillo, Luz Amalia Ríos-Vásquez, Rogelio Ocampo-Cardona, David L Cedeño, Marjorie A Jones, Iván D Velez, Sara M Robledo
The physicochemical properties of four N-halomethylated and one non-halomethylated ammonium salts, with proven in vitro antileishmanial activity, were determined according to pharmaceutical standard procedures. The effectiveness and toxicity of these compounds were assessed in hamsters infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and compared to that showed by meglumine antimoniate. Animals were followed during 90 days after the completion of treatment. Therapeutic response was determined according to the reduction of size of skin lesions...
December 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
Rúbia S Costa, Lucas P Carvalho, Taís M Campos, Andréa S Magalhães, Sara T Passos, Albert Schriefer, Juliana A Silva, Ednaldo Lago, Camilla S Paixão, Paulo Machado, Phillip Scott, Edgar M Carvalho
Background: Early cutaneous leishmaniasis (ECL) is characterized by a non-ulcerated papular lesion and illness duration less than 30 days. About 4 weeks later the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) ulcers appear. Surprisingly, failure following antimony therapy (Sb5) is higher in ECL than CL. We hypothesize that the inflammatory response in ECL patients may increase during Sb5 therapy leading to treatment failure. Methods: A cohort of 44 ECL patients infected by Leishmaniabraziliensis was established to evaluate the response to Sb5, and to compare immunologic responses in ECL patients with CL and healthy subjects (HS)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lucia Regina Brahim, Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino, Liliane de Fátima Antônio, Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel, Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra, Luiz Eduardo de Carvalho Paes, Ananda Dutra da Costa, Iracema Forni Vieira, Cristina Maria Giordano Dias, Maria Cristina de Oliveira Duque, Mauro Celio de Almeida Marzochi, Armando de Oliveira Schubach
BACKGROUND: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a non-lethal parasitic disease that presents with cutaneous (CL) and mucosal (ML) clinical forms. ATL treatment aims at healing the lesions and preventing the development of the late mucosal form. Systemic meglumine antimoniate (MA) therapy with 10-20 mg Sb5+/kg/day is the first choice of treatment. However, alternative therapies using 5 mg Sb5+/kg/day or intralesional (IL) MA are the usual regimens at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Natália S Vellozo, Sâmara T Pereira-Marques, Mariela P Cabral-Piccin, Alessandra A Filardy, Flávia L Ribeiro-Gomes, Thaís S Rigoni, George A DosReis, Marcela F Lopes
As key cells, able to host and kill Leishmania parasites, inflammatory monocytes/macrophages are potential vaccine and therapeutic targets to improve immune responses in Leishmaniasis. Macrophage phenotypes range from M1, which express NO-mediated microbial killing, to M2 macrophages that might help infection. Resistance to Leishmaniasis depends on Leishmania species, mouse strain, and both innate and adaptive immunity. C57BL/6 (B6) mice are resistant and control infection, whereas Leishmania parasites thrive in BALB/c mice, which are susceptible to develop cutaneous lesions in the course of infection with Leishmania major, but not upon infection with Leishmania braziliensis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Diego Espinoza-Morales, Aldo Lucchetti Rodríguez, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Luis Suarez-Ognio, María J Pons, Juana Del Valle Mendoza
We present an atypical case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Sihuas district, located in the Andean valleys of Ancash-Peru. A 62-year-old man with no particular medical history presented multiple lesions located on the inferior abdomen, lumbar region and the right anterior thigh. Histological analysis found leishmanial amastigotes in the lesion sample, the Montenegro reaction was positive for Leishmania spp, and the polymerase chain reaction was positive for Leishmania peruviana. In conclusion, the atypical presentation of this disease may be related to the presence of an uncommon parasite strain or host immune deficiencies...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Alireza Foroumadi, Hadi Adibi, Sussan Kabudanian Ardestani, Samira Shirooie, Arezoo Bozorgomid, Ali Jafari
A series of (5-nitrofuran-2-yl)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole-2-yl derivatives 6a-6e have been synthesized and screened for in-vitro anti-leishmanial activity against the promastigote form of L. major. The structure of Schiff bases were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR. Screening results indicate that all of the designed and synthesized final compounds (6a-6e) significantly reduced the viability of promastigotes of L. major in comparison toglucantime (IC50 3× 103 μg/mL). Meta and Para substitutions in benzene ring containing compounds were more potent than other derivative and the most potent compounds were 6d, 6e with IC50 value 94 µm and 77...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
A A Lopera, A Montoya, I D Vélez, S M Robledo, C P Garcia
The traditional drugs used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) have multiple disadvantages, such as high toxicity, high costs, and more recently the appearance of parasites resistant to those drugs. For this reason, some research has focused on the development of new drugs or treatment therapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) that involves the use of a photosensitive or photosensitizing compound capable of producing reactive oxygen species to which Leishmania parasites are sensitive, has emerged as an alternative for the treatment of CL...
November 30, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Ariane de J Sousa-Batista, Cíntia I M Silva Philipon, Marta de Souza Albernaz, Suyene Rocha Pinto, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Ralph Santos-Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: The current treatment of leishmaniasis remains a challenge, especially due to the need for multiple painful injections, the toxicity of the current drugs against the disease, the lack of efficacy and, lately the drug-resistant. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the biological behavior of 3-nitro-2-hydroxi-4,6-dimetoxychalcone (CH8) in animal model of cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis Methodology: In order to evaluate itsbiological behavior the CH8 compound has been radiolabeled with 99mTc using the direct reaction...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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