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cutanous leishmaniasis

Pedro J Alcolea, Ana Alonso, Francisco García-Tabares, María C Mena, Sergio Ciordia, Vicente Larraga
Leishmania amazonensis is one of the major etiological agents of the neglected, stigmatizing disease termed american cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). ACL is a zoonosis and rodents are the main reservoirs. Most cases of ACL are reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. The biological cycle of the parasite is digenetic because sand fly vectors transmit the motile promastigote stage to the mammalian host dermis during blood meal intakes. The amastigote stage survives within phagocytes of the mammalian host...
2016: PloS One
C Patrick McAtee, Christopher A Seid, Molly Hammond, Elissa Hudspeth, Brian P Keegan, Zhuyun Liu, Junfei Wei, Bin Zhan, Raul Arjona-Sabido, Vladimir Cruz-Chan, Eric Dumonteil, Peter J Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi
The nucleoside hydrolase gene from Leishmania donovani was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a full length 36-kDa protein (LdNH36). Following lysis and extraction, the protein was purified by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein had a molecular mass of approximately 36-kDa and was confirmed to be >99% pure. Using a nucleoside hydrolase assay, the protein was found to exhibit a Km of 741 ± 246 μM. Protein integrity was confirmed by lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (LDS-PAGE), mass spectrometry (MS), and enzymatic assay...
October 20, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Nourridine Siewe, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu, Abhay R Satoskar, Avner Friedman
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the Leishmania parasites. The two common forms of leishmaniasis are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is the more severe of the two and, if untreated, may become fatal. The hallmark of VL is the formation of granuloma in the liver or the spleen. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model of the evolution of granuloma in the liver. The model is represented by a system of partial differential equations and it includes migration of cells from the adaptive immune system into the granuloma; the rate of the influx is determined by the strength of the immune response of the infected individual...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Vineetha Mandlik, Sohan Patil, Ramanamurthy Bopanna, Sudipta Basu, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects nearly 0.7 to 1.3 million people annually. Treatment of this disease is difficult due to lack of appropriate medication and the growing problem of drug resistance. Natural compounds such as coumarins serve as complementary therapeutic agents in addition to the current treatment modalities. In this study, we have performed an in-silico screening of the coumarin derivatives and their anti-leishmanial properties has been explored both in-vitro and in-vivo. One of the compounds (compound 2) exhibited leishmanicidal activity and to further study its properties, nanoliposomal formulation of the compound was developed...
2016: PloS One
Fernando J Andrade-Narvaez, Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera, Erika I Sosa-Bibiano, Nicole R Van Wynsberghe
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Miguel Ángel Flores-Terry, Manuela López-Nieto, Rafael Cruz-Conde de Boom, Jose Antonio Garrido-Martín
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
C Cossart, G Le Moal, M Garcia, E Frouin, E Hainaut-Wierzbicka, F Roblot
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is not normally expressed in skin. Herein, we describe the case of an HIV-positive patient who developed two unusual skin manifestations during an episode of visceral leishmaniasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 48-year-old female patient consulted initially for infiltrated purpura of all four limbs. Skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with Leishman-Donovan bodies. Laboratory tests showed medullary, splenic, gastric and colic involvement, suggesting systemic disease, and enabling visceral leishmaniasis to be diagnosed...
October 11, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Fathima Wardha Refai, Nayani P Madarasingha, Rohini Fernandopulle, Nadira Karunaweera
Leishmaniasis is caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Sri Lanka with over 3000 cases during the last decade and numbers are increasing. Treatment options available in Sri Lanka for CL include intralesional/intramuscular sodium stibogluconate and cryotherapy. Eight cases of treatment failure with standard therapy are reported from the Dermatology Clinic, Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura. Therapeutic regimes aim for clinical healing, these patients responded poorly to anti-leishmanial therapy, indicating the need for close monitoring, explore alternative treatment options and to investigate for drug resistance in parasites...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
E Caumes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Juliana Elena Silveira Pratti, Tadeu Diniz Ramos, Joyce Carvalho Pereira, Alessandra Marcia da Fonseca-Martins, Diogo Maciel-Oliveira, Gabriel Oliveira-Silva, Mirian França de Mello, Suzana Passos Chaves, Daniel Claudio Oliveira Gomes, Bruno Lourenço Diaz, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Herbert Leonel de Matos Guedes
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that intranasal vaccination of highly susceptible BALB/c mice with whole Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg) leads to protection against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we evaluate the response of partially resistant C57BL/6 mice to vaccination as a more representative experimental model of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice from different animal facilities were infected with L. amazonensis (Josefa strain) to establish the profile of infection...
October 6, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Alice Halliday, Paul A Bates, Michael L Chance, Mark J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Despite several studies reporting involvement of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the recognition of surface glycolipids from Leishmania parasites in vitro, the role of TLR2 and its co-receptors during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection in vivo is unknown. METHODS: To explore the role of TLR2 and its co-receptors in cutaneous leishmaniasis, mice deficient in either TLR2, 4, 1 or 6, or wild-type (WT) controls, were infected with either Leishmania major promastigotes, L...
October 6, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
T N A Oliveira, P E B Guedes, G B Souza, F S Carvalho, R S Alberto Carlos, G R Albuquerque, A D Munhoz, F L Silva
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Two distinct forms are recognized: visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In the Americas, the causative agent of VL is L. infantum chagasi, whereas L. braziliensis is principally responsible for CL. Domestic dogs constitute the main source of VL in urban environments, and have also been implicated in CL epidemiology. We carried out molecular and serological surveys to detect Leishmania infection in dogs from the municipality of Ituberá in Bahia, Brazil...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Oscar Daniel Salomón, Andrea Verónica Mastrángelo, María Soledad Santini, Domingo Javier Liotta, Zaida Estela Yadón
A retrospective analytical method is presented, based on theoretical eco-epidemiology, applied on a subnational spatial scale. This method was used here to describe scenarios for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the Argentine province of Misiones- bordering Brazil and Paraguay-and formed the basis for recommendations for surveillance and control appropriate to the subnational scale. An exhaustive search of the literature on leishmaniasis in the province was carried out. Three scenarios for the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were found, corresponding to three periods: from 1920 to 1997, during which the transmission of CL distributed over time and space was confirmed; 1998 to 2005, during which there were focal outbreaks of CL; and 2006 to 2014, during which outbreaks were also reported and the geographical dispersion of VL was documented...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Eva Iniguez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Alberto Martínez, Caresse L Torres, Roberto A Sánchez-Delgado, Rosa A Maldonado
In previous studies we reported a novel series of organometallic compounds, Ru(II) complexed with clotrimazole, displaying potent trypanosomatid activity with unnoticeable toxicity toward normal mammalian cells. In view of the promising activity of Ru-clotrimazole complexes against Leishmania major (L. major), the present work sought to investigate the anti-leishmanial activity of the AM162 complex in the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In addition, to facilitate the design of new therapeutic strategies against this disease, we investigated the mode of action of two Ru-clotrimazole complexes in L...
September 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
Manisha Balai, Lalit Kumar Gupta, Ashok Kumar Khare, Ankita Srivastava, Asit Mittal, Ajit Singh
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) usually occurs in areas with hot and dry climate. In India, the desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the plains of Northwestern frontier are endemic for this disorder. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed to describe clinicoepidemiological profile of the cases of CL from South Rajasthan, which is a nonendemic area of Rajasthan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a period of 4 years (2010-2014), a total of 23 patients with CL were diagnosed...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Abedin Saghafipour, Hassan Vatandoost, Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Yavar Rassi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Amir Ahmad Akhavan
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Lissa Cruz-Saavedra, Andrea Díaz-Roa, María A Gaona, Mónica L Cruz, Martha Ayala, Jesús A Cortés-Vecino, Manuel A Patarroyo, Felio J Bello
This study's main objective was to evaluate the action of larval therapy derived from Lucilia sericata and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (blowflies) regarding Leishmania panamensis using an in vivo model. Eighteen golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were used; they were divided into 6 groups. The first three groups consisted of 4 animals each; these, in turn, were internally distributed into subgroups consisting of 2 hamsters to be used separately in treatments derived from each blowfly species. Group 1 was used in treating leishmanial lesions with larval therapy (LT), whilst the other two groups were used for evaluating the used of larval excretions and secretions (ES) after the ulcers had formed (group 2) and before they appeared (group 3)...
September 26, 2016: Acta Tropica
Marzieh Fattahi-Dolatabadi, Tahereh Mousavi, Hajar Mohammadi-Barzelighi, Saeed Irian, Bita Bakhshi, Mohammad-Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Leila Shirani-Bidabadi, Mohammad-Mahdi Hariri, Nazli Ansari, Nahid Akbari
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Association between polymorphisms in the natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been demonstrated worldwide; however, the reported results were inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the association of NRAMP1 variants with susceptibility to CL infection and patients' response to treatment in Isfahan province of Iran. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 150 patients with CL and 136 healthy controls...
July 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
M D Agh-Atabay, A Sofizadeh, G M Ozbaki, N Malaki-Ravasan, M R Ghanbari, O Mozafari
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Leishmaniasis is an endemic parasitic disease reported sporadically throughout Iran. Golestan province is one of the 17 zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) foci. In this study, ecoepidemiological characteristics of ZCL were investigated in Gonbad-e Kavus County, Golestan province of Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in three endemic villages and one ZCL-free village by exploiting a stratified random sampling methodology in 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
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