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human experimentation Canada consent

Kemal Aydın, Murat Demirer, Coşkun Bayrak
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of labor is currently one of the most difficult problems encountered by obstetrical healthcare providers. A major health problem is the increase in the rate of preterm delivery, which is responsible for 75% of all deaths in newborns. In addition, preterm delivery is associated with several cognitive and health problems in later life and enormous costs for the health system. A better understanding of myometrial activities could help to reduce preterm deliveries and the costs associated with prematurity in the following years...
2015: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Alana Cattapan, Dave Snow
This article traces how embryo research has been theorized in Canada from the late 1980s to the current day. We find that research on human embryos has gradually come to be viewed in dichotomous terms, with scientific research pulled apart from experimentation to improve assisted reproduction procedures within fertility clinics. This distinction has been made manifest most clearly in the federal government's 2007 consent regulations. The distinction between 'improvement of assisted reproduction procedures' and 'research' is problematic on two accounts...
December 2015: Monash Bioethics Review
Matthew J Greenhawt, Brian P Vickery
Food allergen oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental, immune-modifying therapy that may induce clinical desensitization in some patients. OIT is still in early phase clinical research, but some providers may offer OIT as a clinical service. To understand the current practices of allergists who perform OIT, an online survey was sent by e-mail to members of the American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. Among 442 respondents, 61 reported participating in using OIT (13.8%), including 28 in nonacademic settings...
January 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Marie Bismark, Jennifer Morris
The 1987 Cartwright Report into events at New Zealand's National Women's Hospital catalysed sweeping changes to promote and protect patients' rights. A generation on, it is comfortable to believe that such sustained and deliberate violations of patient rights "couldn't happen here" and "couldn't happen now." And yet, contemporary examples beg a different truth. Three of Cartwright's messages hold an enduring relevance for health practitioners and patients: the need for patients to be respected as people; to be supported to make informed choices; and to have their voices heard, even when they whisper...
December 2014: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Shelly Benjaminy, Tania Bubela
BACKGROUND: Ocular gene transfer clinical trials are raising hopes for blindness treatments and attracting media attention. News media provide an accessible health information source for patients and the public, but are often criticized for overemphasizing benefits and underplaying risks of novel biomedical interventions. Overly optimistic portrayals of unproven interventions may influence public and patient expectations; the latter may cause patients to downplay risks and over-emphasize benefits, with implications for informed consent for clinical trials...
July 16, 2014: BMC Medical Ethics
Priya Bapat, Reuven Kedar, Angelika Lubetsky, Jeremy N Matlow, Katarina Aleksa, Howard Berger, Gideon Koren
OBJECTIVE: To assess the transplacental pharmacokinetics at term of the oral thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, and its prodrug, dabigatran etexilate mesylate, to estimate fetal drug exposure. METHODS: Placentae were obtained with informed consent after cesarean delivery of healthy term pregnancies in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The transplacental transfer of dabigatran and dabigatran etexilate mesylate was separately assessed using the ex vivo dual perfusion of an isolated human placental cotyledon...
June 2014: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Matthew B Lanktree, Gwyneth Zai, Laura E Vanderbeek, Daniel E Giuffra, David S Smithson, Lucas B Kipp, Timothy R Dalseg, Mark Speechley, James L Kennedy
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacogenetics attempts to identify inter-individual genetic differences that are predictive of variable drug response and propensity to side effects, with the prospect of assisting physicians to select the most appropriate drug and dosage for treatment. However, many concerns regarding genetic tests exist. We sought to test the opinions of undergraduate science and medical students in southern Ontario universities toward pharmacogenetic testing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 910 undergraduate medicine and science students from 2005 to 2007...
May 2014: Human Psychopharmacology
Miriam Shuchman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2014: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Ginetta Salvalaggio, Kathryn Dong, Christine Vandenberghe, Scott Kirkland, Kelsey Mramor, Taryn Brown, Marliss Taylor, Robert McKim, Greta G Cummings, T Cameron Wild
BACKGROUND: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) is an effective approach for managing alcohol and other drug misuse in primary care; however, uptake into routine care has been limited. Uptake of SBIRT by healthcare providers may be particularly problematic for disadvantaged populations exhibiting alcohol and other drug problems, and requires creative approaches to enhance patient engagement. This knowledge translation project developed and evaluated a group of patient and health care provider resources designed to enhance the capacity of health care providers to use SBIRT and improve patient engagement with health care...
2013: BMC Health Services Research
Kusum Menon, Roxanne Ward
OBJECTIVE: To document the legal guardian-related barriers to consent procurement, and their stated reasons for non-participation in a paediatric critical care research study. STUDY DESIGN: A multicentre, prospective, cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Legal guardians of children who participated in a multicentre study on adrenal insufficiency in paediatric critical illness. Data were collected on all consent encounters in the main study. METHODS: Screening data, reasons for consent not being obtained, paediatric risk of mortality (illness severity) scores and age were collected on all 1707 patients eligible for participation in the Adrenal Insufficiency Study...
February 2014: Journal of Medical Ethics
Kimberly E Liu, Ellen M Greenblatt
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of oocyte cryopreservation in Canadian assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics. METHODS: An online survey was sent to the medical directors of all Canadian ART clinics between December 2010 and February 2011. The survey included questions about the availability of, the indications for, and the elements of consent for oocyte cryopreservation. Clinics were also asked whether they offered social egg freezing. RESULTS: Twenty of the 28 Canadian ART clinics (71...
March 2012: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Sarah Flicker, Catherine A Worthington
OBJECTIVES: The second edition (2010) of the Tri-Council Policy Statement on Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS2) prescribes a set of principles and provisions for engagement with Aboriginal communities. The objective of this study was to explore research ethics board (REB) stakeholder perspectives on the principles and processes of reviewing and conducting public health research with Aboriginal populations and communities. METHOD: Twenty-four semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with REB staff, chairs, members (academic, community and student), and ethics policy key informants with knowledge of the ethics review process, including four Aboriginal participants...
January 2012: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Marleen Eijkholt, James A Anderson, Judy Illes
In this paper we examine imaging research involving first-episode schizophrenic treatment-naive individuals (FESTNIs) through a legal human rights lens; in particular, the lens of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine Concerning Biomedical Research. We identify a number of ethical and legal hot spots highlighted by the Protocol, and offer a series of recommendations designed to ensure the human rights compatibility of this research. Subsequently, we argue that the lack of reporting on design elements related to ethical concerns frustrates commitments at the heart of the human rights approach, namely, transparency and openness to international scrutiny...
March 2012: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Anne Townsend, Zubin Amarsi, Catherine L Backman, Susan M Cox, Linda C Li
BACKGROUND: While use of the Internet is increasingly widespread in research, little is known about the role of routine electronic mail (email) correspondence during recruitment and early volunteer-researcher interactions. To gain insight into the standpoint of volunteers we analyzed email communications in an early rheumatoid arthritis qualitative interview study. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of our study were (1) to understand the perspectives and motivations of individuals who volunteered for an interview study about the experiences of early rheumatoid arthritis, and (2) to investigate the role of emails in volunteer-researcher interactions during recruitment...
2011: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Nicole Palmour, William Affleck, Emily Bell, Constance Deslauriers, Bruce Pike, Julien Doyon, Eric Racine
BACKGROUND: Research ethics and the measures deployed to ensure ethical oversight of research (e.g., informed consent forms, ethics review) are vested with extremely important ethical and practical goals. Accordingly, these measures need to function effectively in real-world research and to follow high level standards. METHODS: We examined approved consent forms for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies approved by Canadian research ethics boards (REBs)...
2011: BMC Medical Ethics
J Deborah Shiloff, Bryan Magwood, Krisztina L Malisza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2011: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Douglas A Haines, Tye E Arbuckle, Ellen Lye, Melissa Legrand, Mandy Fisher, Renée Langlois, William Fraser
Biomonitoring is used increasingly as an indicator and quantitative measure of exposure; however, there is a large gap in interpreting and communicating biomonitoring results to study participants. Two separate, national biomonitoring initiatives are under way in Canada; the household recruitment-based Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the clinic recruitment-based Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study. The CHMS provides participants with the option to receive all their results, but this option is not provided to MIREC participants...
March 2011: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Margot E Rykhoff, Catherine Coupland, Joanna Dionne, Brad Fudge, Charlene Gayle, Terri-Lynn Ortner, Kristina Quilang, Geta Savu, Fatima Sawany, Marzena Wrobleska
CONTEXT: Little is known about factors that influence attitudes and beliefs about organ and tissue donation among health science college students. OBJECTIVE: To assess health sciences college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about organ donation and to determine if an educational session increases awareness and influences their attitudes and beliefs related to organ donation. DESIGN: Quantitative quasi-experimental study with semistructured questions administered to a convenience sample...
March 2010: Progress in Transplantation
Miriam Shuchman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2009: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Patrick O'Byrne, Dave Holmes
Recent increases in the rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in males having sex with males and simultaneous increases in the use of crystal meth within gay circuit parties (GCP) highlight the growing need for research on leisure practices involving sex and drugs. While there is epidemiological evidence correlating these practices, STI rates have not decreased. The author provides an ethical framework for qualitative research that "colours outside the lines" of traditional epidemiological methods for research on sexual health...
September 2008: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
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