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Benjamin White, Rachel Rosovsky, Blair Alden Parry, Christopher Kabrhel
Pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are common diagnoses in the emergency department (ED), with significant potential morbidity and mortality. As a result, historically nearly all patients with PE have been admitted to the hospital for observation and treatment. In recent years, the ability to rapidly and accurately risk stratify patients with VTE according to their risk of short-term clinical deterioration has supported outpatient treatment, and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have further facilitated this approach...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Katharina T Prochazka, Thomas Melchardt, Florian Posch, Konstantin Schlick, Alexander Deutsch, Christine Beham-Schmid, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Gary, Daniel Neureiter, Eckhard Klieser, Richard Greil, Peter Neumeister, Alexander Egle, Martin Pichler
BACKGROUND: Blood-based parameters are gaining increasing interest as potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma uric acid levels in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. METHODS: The clinical course of 539 DLBCL patients, diagnosed and treated between 2004 and 2013 at two Austrian high-volume centres with rituximab-based immunochemotherapy was evaluated retrospectively...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Keisuke Nakase, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Yuta Toda, Norihisa Noguchi
Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Keyu Li, Jiabei Wang, Jihua Han, Yaliang Lan, Changming Xie, Shangha Pan, Lianxin Liu
BACKGROUND: NET (NocA/Nlz, Elbow, Tlp-1) family members have recently emerged as important players in the development of human cancers. Zinc finger protein 703 (ZNF703), locating on chromosome 8 (8p11.23), a member of the NET/Nlz family of zinc finger transcription factors, had been demonstrated to be a much novel oncogene of several malignancies. This study aimed to investigate the expression of ZNF703 in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and attempted to elucidate its biological effects in CCA progression...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
David R Vinson, Dustin W Ballard, Dustin G Mark, Jie Huang, Mary E Reed, Adina S Rauchwerger, David H Wang, James S Lin, Mamata V Kene, Tamara S Pleshakov, Dana K Sax, Jordan M Sax, D Ian McLachlan, Cyrus K Yamin, Clifford J Swap, Hilary R Iskin, Ridhima Vemula, Bethany S Fleming, Andrew R Elms, Drahomir Aujesky
INTRODUCTION: The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a validated prognostic score to estimate the 30-day mortality of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A simplified version (sPESI) was derived but has not been as well studied in the U.S. We sought to validate both indices in a community hospital setting in the U.S. and compare their performance in predicting 30-day all-cause mortality and classification of cases into low-risk and higher-risk categories...
September 24, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Zhong Ni, Xiting Wang, Tianchen Zhang, Rong Zhong Jin
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has become as an important target for the treatment of various human cancers, especially non-small-cell lung cancer. A mutation, F1174C, suited in the C-terminal helix αC of ALK and distal from the small-molecule inhibitor ceritinib bound to the ATP-binding site, causes the emergence of drug resistance to ceritinib. However, the detailed mechanism for the allosteric effect of F1174C resistance mutation to ceritinib remains unclear. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations [Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA)] were carried out to explore the advent of drug resistance mutation in ALK...
October 11, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Ashley L Greene, Nicholas R Eaton
BACKGROUND: Structural models of psychopathology indicate that common mental disorder comorbidity reflects latent transdiagnostic factors. Multiple studies have replicated transdiagnostic internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisociality-, and impulsivity-related disorders) factors; other studies support distress and fear sub-factors of internalizing. These factors show a high degree of temporal stability. Recently, a bifactor conceptualization of multivariate comorbidity has emerged, positing the existence of an orthogonal general psychopathology factor that saturates all diagnoses in addition to internalizing/distress/fear and externalizing, although no studies have examined the temporal stability of the factors in this competing model over time among adults...
September 28, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Ya-Qin Tan, Jing Zhang, Gang Zhou
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved lysosomal degradation process essential for cell physiology and human health. By regulating apoptosis, inflammation, pathogen clearance, immune response and other cellular processes, autophagy acts as a modulator of pathogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in diverse diseases. With regard to oral disease, autophagy can be problematic either when it is activated or impaired, because this process is involved in diverse functions, depending on the specific disease and its level of progression...
October 20, 2016: Autophagy
Yuxiao Wang, Jingxin Li, Yuemei Hu, Qi Liang, Mingwei Wei, Fengcai Zhu
Ebola virus disease (EVD) has become a great threat to humans across the world in recent years. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa caused numerous deaths and attracted worldwide attentions. Since no specific drugs and treatments against EVD was available, vaccination was considered as the most promising and effective method of controlling this epidemic. So far, 7 vaccine candidates had been developed and evaluated through clinical trials. Among them, the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine (rVSV-EBOV) is the most promising candidate, which demonstrated a significant protection against EVD in phase III clinical trial...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Saura R Silva, Yani C A Diaz, Helen Alves Penha, Daniel G Pinheiro, Camila C Fernandes, Vitor F O Miranda, Todd P Michael, Alessandro M Varani
Lentibulariaceae is the richest family of carnivorous plants spanning three genera including Pinguicula, Genlisea, and Utricularia. Utricularia is globally distributed, and, unlike Pinguicula and Genlisea, has both aquatic and terrestrial forms. In this study we present the analysis of the chloroplast (cp) genome of the terrestrial Utricularia reniformis. U. reniformis has a standard cp genome of 139,725bp, encoding a gene repertoire similar to essentially all photosynthetic organisms. However, an exclusive combination of losses and pseudogenization of the plastid NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase (ndh) gene complex were observed...
2016: PloS One
Li Fang, Qiong Chen, Keren Shi, Xi Li, Qiucheng Shi, Fang He, Jiancang Zhou, Yunsong Yu, Xiaoting Hua
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes numerous diseases, including pneumonia and urinary tract infections. An increase in multidrug resistance has complicated the treatment of these bacterial infections, and although tigecycline shows activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, resistant strains have emerged. In this study, the whole genomes of two clinical and six laboratory-evolved strains were sequenced to identify putative mutations related to tigecycline resistance. Of seven tigecycline-resistant strains, seven (100%) had ramR mutations, five (71...
2016: PloS One
Jangjin Kim, Mary E Goldsberry, Thomas C Harmon, John H Freeman
Hippocampal development is thought to play a crucial role in the emergence of many forms of learning and memory, but ontogenetic changes in hippocampal activity during learning have not been examined thoroughly. We examined the ontogeny of hippocampal function by recording theta and single neuron activity from the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area while rat pups were trained in associative learning. Three different age groups [postnatal days (P)17-19, P21-23, and P24-26] were trained over six sessions using a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (US)...
2016: PloS One
Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder, Seymon M Slobounov, John Henry Challis, Karl Maxim Newell
This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe) Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe) Up) and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length) had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat) platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC) dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy) as slope angle increased...
2016: PloS One
Sofian Berrouiguet, Maria Luisa Barrigón, Sara A Brandt, Santiago Ovejero-García, Raquel Álvarez-García, Juan Jose Carballo, Philippe Lenca, Philippe Courtet, Enrique Baca-García
PURPOSE: The emergence of electronic prescribing devices with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is able to significantly improve management pharmacological treatments. We developed a web application available on smartphones in order to help clinicians monitor prescription and further propose CDSS. METHOD: A web application ( was developed to assess patients and collect data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed antipsychotic prescriptions in 4345 patients attended in five Psychiatric Community Mental Health Centers from June 2014 to October 2014...
2016: PloS One
Susanna Lemmelä, Svetlana Solovieva, Rahman Shiri, Christian Benner, Markku Heliövaara, Johannes Kettunen, Verneri Anttila, Samuli Ripatti, Markus Perola, Ilkka Seppälä, Markus Juonala, Mika Kähönen, Veikko Salomaa, Jorma Viikari, Olli T Raitakari, Terho Lehtimäki, Aarno Palotie, Eira Viikari-Juntura, Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen
Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7...
2016: PloS One
Danielle Bloch, Nicole M Roth, Elba V Caraballo, Jorge Muñoz-Jordan, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Aidsa Rivera, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June-August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alice Wang, Colleen Hardy, Anangu Rajasingham, Andrea Martinsen, Lindsay Templin, Stanislaus Kamwaga, Kiwe Sebunya, Brenda Jhuthi, Michael Habtu, Stephen Kiberiti, Khalid Massa, Rob Quick, Jane Mulungu, Rachel Eidex, Thomas Handzel
Since August 2015, the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC) of Tanzania has been leading the response to a widespread cholera outbreak. As of June 9, 2016, cholera had affected 23 of 25 regions in Tanzania, with 21,750 cumulative cases and 341 deaths reported (Ally Nyanga, MoHCDGEC Emergency Operations Center, personal communication, June 2016). Approximately one fourth of all cases occurred in the Dar es Salaam region on the east coast. Regions surrounding Lake Victoria, in the north, also reported high case counts, including Mwanza with 9% (Ally Nyanga, MoHCDGEC Emergency Operations Center, personal communication, June 2016)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Daniel S Budnitz, Maribeth C Lovegrove, Mathew R P Sapiano, Justin Mathew, Scott R Kegler, Andrew I Geller, Christian Hampp
Expanding access to office-based medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid dependence is a key part of the national strategy to address the opioid abuse epidemic (1). However, as buprenorphine/naloxone prescribing increased, emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for unsupervised ingestions by young children began to increase, with buprenorphine/naloxone ingestions becoming the most common cause of hospitalization for medication ingestions by young children during 2010-2011 (2)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Panagiotis Ferentinos, Dimitrios Margaritis, Athanasios Douzenis
Lower urinary tract outflow dysfunction is frequent in older men and a potential cause of serious complications such as acute urinary retention (AUR). Drug-induced AUR has only rarely been reported with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors including escitalopram; reported cases had no history of urinary outflow dysfunction. We herein report the development of AUR after the introduction of escitalopram at a standard dose in 3 male patients with previously diagnosed or unknown/latent and nonsymptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Kateki Vinod, Steven J Gedde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent studies evaluating the efficacy and complication profiles of novel glaucoma procedures promoting aqueous outflow. RECENT FINDINGS: Literature from the 2015 to 2016 review period includes abundant data regarding new and emerging glaucoma procedures. Notable findings from recent randomized clinical trials include titratability of intraocular pressure with multiple trabecular microbypass stents (iStent; Glaukos, Laguna Hills, California, USA) and greater reduction in intraocular pressure and medication usage following intracanalicular scaffolding (Hydrus Microstent; Ivantis Inc...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
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