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neuroradiologic imaging findings

Yu Kobayashi, Jun Tohyama, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Shinichi Magara, Hideshi Kawashima, Noriyuki Akasaka, Mitsuko Nakashima, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto
Cerebral folate deficiency due to folate receptor 1 gene (FOLR1) mutations is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a brain-specific folate transport defect. It is characterized by late infantile onset, severe psychomotor regression, epilepsy, and leukodystrophy. We describe a consanguineous girl exhibiting severe developmental regression, intractable epilepsy, polyneuropathy, and profound hypomyelination with cortical involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical disturbances in addition to profound hypomyelination and cerebellar atrophy...
October 12, 2016: Brain & Development
Elena Cela, Ana G Vélez, Alejandra Aguado, Gabriela Medín, José M Bellón, Cristina Beléndez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell anaemia causes progressive organ damage. The objective is to describe school performance of patients with sickle cell anaemia and their clinical parameters and quality of life that may have an influence. The hypothesis is that if school alterations occur without other objective data, additional factors must be present besides the disease itself. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Transversal study performed in November 2015 considering analytical variables, complications and neuroradiological images of children with sickle cell anaemia, and family survey on school performance and quality of life...
September 29, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Surya N Gupta, Vikash S Gupta, Andrew C White
Intracranial incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain continue to generate interest in healthy control, research, and clinical subjects. However, in clinical practice, the discovery of incidental findings acts as a "distractor". This review is based on existing heterogeneous reports, their clinical implications, and how the results of incidental findings influence clinical management. This draws attention to the followings: (1) the prevalence of clinically significant incidental findings is low; (2) there is a lack of a systematic approach to classification; and discusses (3) how to deal with the detected incidental findings based a proposed common clinical profile...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Xi Leng, Xin Tan, Chi Zhang, Huan Lin, Shijun Qiu
Anaplastic ependymomas are rare malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Few studies are available regarding their neuroradiological characteristics. The present study aimed to retrospectively review a series of patients with extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma and to analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics to distinguish anaplastic ependymoma from other intracranial tumors. The clinical and pathological images of 11 patients who presented with histologically proven anaplastic ependymoma at Nanfang Hospital (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) between September 2004 and March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Oncology Letters
Yi Xin, Xingjuan Gao, Xiuli Ju, Aimin Li
Pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage (PSAH) is a rare neuroradiological finding, particularly in pediatric patients. The appearance of PSAH is commonly associated with poor clinical outcome due to refractory cerebral edema. Recent clinical trials have favored hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as a promising therapeutic strategy for adult patients with severe head injuries. The present report describes a pediatric case of diffuse brain edema characterized by the radiological appearance of PSAH successfully treated with HBOT...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Johannes Hensler, Ulf Jensen-Kondering, Stephan Ulmer, Olav Jansen
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous dissections of intracranial arteries are rare, but important causes of stroke, especially in younger patients. Dissections of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) have been reported only very rarely in the European and North American populations but might be more prevalent than previously thought. METHODS: This paper describes the presenting pattern of the disease, the clinical and imaging findings, as well as endovascular therapeutical options with respect to a meta-analysis of cases reported in the literature...
August 11, 2016: Neuroradiology
Ujjawal Roy, Ajay Panwar, Alak Pandit, Susanta Kumar Das, Bhushan Joshi
Metronidazole is an antimicrobial agent mainly used in the treatment of several protozoal and anaerobic infections, additionally, is often used in hepatic encephalopathy and Crohn disease. Apart from peripheral neuropathy, metronidazole can also cause symptoms of central nervous system dysfunction like ataxic gait, dysarthria, seizures, and encephalopathy which may result from both short term and chronic use of this drug and is collectively termed as "metronidazole induced encephalopathy"(MIE). Neuroimaging forms the backbone in clinching the diagnosis of this uncommon entity, especially in cases where there is high index of suspicion of intoxication...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Kevin Tan, Limin Wijaya, Hui-Jin Chiew, Yih-Yian Sitoh, Humaira Shafi, Robert C Chen, Chin Kong Goh, C C Tchoyoson Lim
PURPOSE: In 2015, an outbreak of group B streptococcal (GBS) infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283, related to consuming infected raw freshwater fish, affected more than 200 patients in Singapore. We describe the clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging features of a subgroup of adults with central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by GBS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The database of the Singapore Neurologic Infections Program (SNIP), a national multicenter study for surveillance of infectious neurologic disease, was reviewed to select patients with GBS CNS infection during the outbreak...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
D M Mandell, M Mossa-Basha, Y Qiao, C P Hess, F Hui, C Matouk, M H Johnson, M J A P Daemen, A Vossough, M Edjlali, D Saloner, S A Ansari, B A Wasserman, D J Mikulis
Intracranial vessel wall MR imaging is an adjunct to conventional angiographic imaging with CTA, MRA, or DSA. The technique has multiple potential uses in the context of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage. There remain gaps in our understanding of intracranial vessel wall MR imaging findings and research is ongoing, but the technique is already used on a clinical basis at many centers. This article, on behalf of the Vessel Wall Imaging Study Group of the American Society of Neuroradiology, provides expert consensus recommendations for current clinical practice...
July 28, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
K Stankiewicz, M Cohen, M Carone, G Sevinc, P G Nagy, J S Lewin, D M Yousem, L S Babiarz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trainees' interpretations of neuroradiologic studies are finalized by faculty neuroradiologists. We aimed to identify the factors that determine the degree to which the preliminary reports are modified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The character length of the preliminary and final reports and the percentage character change between the 2 reports were determined for neuroradiology reports composed during November 2012 to October 2013. Examination time, critical finding flag, missed critical finding flag, trainee level, faculty experience, imaging technique, and native-versus-non-native speaker status of the reader were collected...
July 28, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
John H Rossmeisl, Kemba Clapp, Theresa E Pancotto, Samantha Emch, John L Robertson, Waldemar Debinski
In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a "butterfly" glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Oliver Rompel, Rolf Buslei, Matthias Hammon, Helmuth-Günther Dörr, Martin Chada, Guido Nikkhah, Michael Uder, Regina Trollmann
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease of the monocyte-macrophage system. Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary region are common in individuals with central nervous system involvement. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: This six-year-old boy developed rapidly progressive aggressive behavior, central diabetes insipidus, and repeated complex partial seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse leukoencephalopathy-like pattern and numerous infratentorial and supratentorial granulomatous nodules in the brain parenchyma along with infundibular and hypothalamic mass lesions...
September 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Irene Navalpotro-Gómez, Rosa María Vivanco-Hidalgo, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Santiago Medrano-Martorell, Francisco Alameda-Quitllet, Gloria Villalba-Martínez, Jaume Roquer
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (IHCP) is an uncommon disease of unknown etiology characterized by thickening of the cerebral dura mater with possible associated inflammation. The most frequently described clinical symptoms include headache, cranial nerve palsy, and cerebellar dysfunction. Epilepsy and/or status epilepticus as main presentation is very uncommon. CASE PRESENTATION: Two consecutive cases are presented of patients manifesting focal status epilepticus secondary to IHCP, with clinical, laboratory [blood test and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis], neuroradiologic [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)], and therapeutic data...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Laia Rodriguez-Revenga, Javier Pagonabarraga, Beatriz Gómez-Anson, Olga López-Mourelo, Silvia Izquierdo, Maria Isabel Alvarez-Mora, Esther Granell, Irene Madrigal, Montserrat Milà
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that occurs in FMR1 premutation carriers. The prevalence of FMR1 premutation carriers in the general population is relatively high, and although rare, a premutation in both X chromosomes may occur in females inheriting a premutation allele from each of both parent carriers. Here, we report the first female with an autozygous (homozygous by descendent) FMR1 premutation allele, who fulfills neurological and radiological FXTAS findings/criteria...
October 2016: Cerebellum
Iris Quasar Grunwald, Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm, Michael Kettner, Lenka Schwindling, Safwan Roumia, Stefan Helwig, Matthias Manitz, Silke Walter, Umut Yilmaz, Eric Greveson, Martin Lesmeister, Wolfgang Reith, Klaus Fassbender
BACKGROUND: Recently, a mobile stroke unit (MSU) was shown to facilitate acute stroke treatment directly at the emergency site. The neuroradiological expertise of the MSU is improved by its ability to detect early ischemic damage via automatic electronic (e) evaluation of CT scans using a novel software program that calculates the electronic Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (e-ASPECTS). METHODS: The feasibility of integrating e-ASPECTS into an ambulance was examined, and the clinical integration and utility of the software in 15 consecutive cases evaluated...
June 16, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Gaurav Singh Gulsin, Madeleine Louisa Bryson Jacobs, Shailesh Gohil, Adam Thomas, Miles Levy
Metastases to the pituitary gland are rare; cancers that most commonly metastasize to the pituitary are breast and lung cancers. No specific computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging features reliably distinguish primary pituitary masses from metastases. A combination of a detailed clinical assessment together with specialist endocrine and neuroradiology support is essential to make the rare diagnosis of a pituitary metastasis. We present the case of a man with metastatic lung cancer, initially presenting as hypopituitarism...
January 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
M Fischer, E Schmutzhard
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome refers to a neurological disorder characterized by headache, disorders of consciousness, visual disturbances, epileptic seizures, and subcortical vasogenic edema. About two thirds of patients develop neurological symptoms, which are associated with blood pressure fluctuations. One hypothesis is that hypertensive episodes cause autoregulatory failure, and values above the upper limit of cerebral autoregulation result in a breakthrough followed by hyperperfusion and blood-brain barrier dysfunction...
June 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Sarah Hull, Gavin Arno, Cristy A Ku, Zhongqi Ge, Naushin Waseem, Aman Chandra, Andrew R Webster, Anthony G Robson, Michel Michaelides, Richard G Weleber, Indran Davagnanam, Rui Chen, Graham E Holder, Mark E Pennesi, Anthony T Moore
IMPORTANCE: Knobloch syndrome is a rare, recessively inherited disorder classically characterized by high myopia, retinal detachment, and occipital encephalocele, but it is now known to have an increasingly variable phenotype. There is a lack of reported electrophysiologic data, and some key clinical features have yet to be described. OBJECTIVE: To expand on current clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular genetic findings in Knobloch syndrome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients from 7 families underwent full ophthalmic examination and retinal imaging...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Maarit Virta, Jyrki Launes, Leena Valanne, Laura Hokkanen
OBJECTIVE: The middle interhemispheric variant of holoprosencephaly (MIHV) is a mild, rare variant of holoprosencephaly. Only a few cases of children with MIHV have been reported. Here we report in detail an adult case. METHOD: The patient is a female in her 30s. The patient underwent an extensive neuropsychological examination, a neurological examination and a magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Neuroradiologically, the patient had a typical finding of MIHV, with the absence of the central corpus callosum and union of posterior frontal and anterior parietal gyri...
August 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Elliot Dickerson, Ashok Srinivasan
OBJECTIVE: Perfusion MRI is an advanced imaging technique with a number of potential neuroradiologic applications. However, there are few guidelines about the application of perfusion MRI in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to assess when and how perfusion MRI is performed across national and international practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An international survey was conducted through the American Society of Neuroradiology e-mail list. The survey included questions relating to demographics, whether perfusion MRI was offered, technical details, reporting, and reimbursement...
August 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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