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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214165/agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-aicardi-syndrome-a%C3%A2-neuroimaging-and-clinical-comparison
#1
T Govil-Dalela, A Kumar, R Agarwal, H T Chugani
BACKGROUND: Agenesis of the corpus callosum can occur in individuals with epilepsy, either in isolation or as part of various neurological conditions, such as Aicardi syndrome. In this study, we evaluated the clinical and neuroradiological differences between children with nonsyndromic agenesis of the corpus callosum and those with Aicardi syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 31 children with epilepsy and agenesis of the corpus callosum (11 males, 20 females), 14 of whom had Aicardi syndrome (all females)...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195512/neuroradiological-findings-of-trisomy-13-in-a-rare-long-term-survivor
#2
Ryan D Goff, Bruno P Soares
Patau syndrome remains a difficult diagnosis for parents and a challenging conversation for clinicians due to the overall poor prognosis. Previous population-based reports have documented the sobering life expectancies of these patients, with few surviving to 1 year of age. Despite the high mortality rate in infants born with trisomy 13, there are several reports of survival into late childhood and early adulthood. While clinical outcomes have been well documented, there has been a paucity of literature describing postnatal imaging findings in long-term survivors...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149097/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-isolated-abducent-nerve-palsy-induced-by-vascular-compression-of-vertebrobasilar-dolichoectasia
#3
Hidetaka Arishima, Ken-Ichiro Kikuta
If the origin of isolated abducent nerve palsy cannot be found on neuroradiological examinations, diabetes mellitus is known as a probable cause; however, some cases show no potential causes of isolated abducent nerve palsy. Here, we report a 74-year-old male who suffered from diplopia due to isolated left abducent nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance angiography and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition imaging clearly showed a dolichoectasic vertebrobasilar artery compressing the left abducent nerve upward and outward...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120582/diagnostic-clue-of-meningeal-melanocytoma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Jae Koo Lee, Young Joon Rho, Dong Mun Jeong, Seung Chul Rhim, Sang Joon Kim
In this report, the patient was pre-diagnosed as meningioma before surgery, which turned out to be meningeal melanocytoma. Hence, we will discuss the interpretation of imaging and neurological statuses that may help avoid this problem. A 45-year-old man had increasing pain around the neck 14 months prior to admission. His cervical spine MR imaging revealed a space-occupying, contrast-enhancing mass within the dura at the level of C1. The neurologic examination revealed that the patient had left-sided lower extremity weakness of 4+, decreased sensation on the right side, and hyperreflexia in both legs...
March 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120074/management-of-cerebral-radiation-necrosis-a-retrospective-study-of-12-patients
#5
Chenlong Liao, Massimiliano Visocchi, Wenchuan Zhang, Min Yang, Wenxiang Zhong, Pengfei Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral radiation necrosis (RN) is a severe complication of radiotherapy for cerebral pathologies. This study discusses the radiographic and pathological features of 12 patients with RN and investigates the management strategy. METHODS: Eleven patients with brain tumors, and one with cerebral cavernous angioma, treated by surgical resection or Gamma Knife alone before radiotherapy developed RN during follow-up. Surgical resection for the cerebral RN was performed in nine patients, and the other three patients received medical treatment...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110369/neuroradiology-of-human-prion-diseases-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis
#6
REVIEW
Simona Gaudino, Emma Gangemi, Raffaella Colantonio, Annibale Botto, Emanuela Ruberto, Rosalinda Calandrelli, Matia Martucci, Maria Gabriella Vita, Carlo Masullo, Alfonso Cerase, Cesare Colosimo
Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are invariably fatal conditions associated with a range of clinical presentations. TSEs are classified as sporadic [e.g. sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), which is the most frequent form], genetic (e.g. Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia, and inherited CJD), and acquired or infectious (e.g. Kuru, iatrogenic CJD, and variant CJD). In the past, brain imaging played a supporting role in the diagnosis of TSEs, whereas nowadays magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays such a prominent role that MRI findings have been included in the diagnostic criteria for sCJD...
January 21, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095899/what-is-the-relationship-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-status-and-the-neuroradiological-correlates-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#7
Clark Funnell, Mary M Doyle-Waters, Samuel Yip, Thalia Field
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common cause of stroke, dementia, and functional decline. In recent years, neuroradiologic correlates of CSVD have been identified. These imaging findings, best characterized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), include some combination of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy. Though some cohorts have reported that participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an important risk factor for CSVD, may have a distinct neuroradiologic phenotype, this relationship is not well-characterized...
January 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018468/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-caused-by-presumed-takayasu-arteritis
#8
Ki Wuk Lee, Sang Taek Lee, Heeyeon Cho
Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that affects mainly the aorta, main aortic branches, and pulmonary arteries. Diverse neurological manifestations of TA have rarely been reported in children. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neuroradiological condition that presents with headache, seizure, visual disturbances, and characteristic lesions on imaging. Inflammatory condition and severe hypertension in TA can cause PRES. We report of a 5-year-old girl with presumed TA who presented with PRES and chronic total occlusion in the renal artery...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007313/neuropsychological-alterations-and-neuroradiological-findings-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-concussion-results-of-a-pilot-study
#9
A Rădoi, M A Poca, V Cañas, J M Cevallos, L Membrado, M C Saavedra, M Vidal, F Martínez-Ricarte, J Sahuquillo
INTRODUCTION: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has traditionally been considered to cause no significant brain damage since symptoms spontaneously remit after a few days. However, this idea is facing increasing scrutiny. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the presence of early cognitive alterations in a series of patients with mTBI and to link these findings to different markers of brain damage. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of a consecutive series of patients with mTBI who were evaluated over a 12-month period...
December 19, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942468/isolated-macrocerebellum-description-of-six-cases-and-literature-review
#10
Felice D'Arco, Lorenzo Ugga, Ferdinando Caranci, Maria Pia Riccio, Chiara Figliuolo, Kshitij Mankad, Alessandra D'Amico
BACKGROUND: Macrocerebellum is a rare entity described as an isolated and abnormal increase of the cerebellum (CB) size without morphological or signal abnormalities. There have been only eleven patients with macrocerebellum reported in the literature so far. METHODS: From December 2011 to March 2014, among 950 paediatric patients that underwent a magnetic resonance scan of the brain in our department, in six subjects an abnormal increase of the cerebellar volume was suspected...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933410/magnetic-resonance-imaging-patterns-of-treatment-related-toxicity-in-the-pediatric-brain-an-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet, Luca Pasquini, Antonio Napolitano, Antonella Cacchione, Angela Mastronuzzi, Roberta Caruso, Paolo Tomà, Daniela Longo
Treatment-related neurotoxicity is a potentially life-threatening clinical condition that can represent a diagnostic challenge. Differentiating diagnoses between therapy-associated brain injury and recurrent disease can be difficult, and the immediate recognition of neurotoxicity is crucial to providing correct therapeutic management, ensuring damage reversibility. For these purposes, the knowledge of clinical timing and specific treatment protocols is extremely important for interpreting MRI patterns. Neuroradiologic findings are heterogeneous and sometimes overlapping, representing the compounding effect of the different treatments...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917700/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-following-elevated-mean-arterial-pressures-for-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Jeffrey H Zimering, Addisu Mesfin
BACKGROUND: Increasing the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an accepted treatment modality to minimize the risk for irreversible neurologic damage secondary to spinal cord ischemia. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication occurring after transplantation surgery, in persons having an autoimmune disorder or after abrupt increases in blood pressure of various etiologies. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of medical records...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785412/neuroradiological-neurophysiological-and-molecular-findings-in-infantile-krabbe-disease-two-case-reports
#13
E Vargiami, E Papathanasiou, S Batzios, M Kyriazi, E Dimitriou, A Anastasiou, H Michelakakis, A-K Giese, D I Zafeiriou
Krabbe disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder due to a defect of the lysosomal enzyme β-galactocerebrosidase (β-GALC). Depending on the age of onset, the disease is classified into infantile and later-onset forms. We report neuroradiological, neurophysiological and molecular findings in two Greek patients with the infantile form of Krabbe disease. The index patients presented at the age of 3.5 and 6 months, respectively, due to developmental delay. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the first patient's brain demonstrated signs of leukodystrophy, while nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) were significantly decreased...
July 1, 2016: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781952/a-novel-mutation-of-the-notch3-gene-in-a-chinese-pedigree-with-cadasil
#14
Xiaoxia Hou, Yudong Zhang, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) results from NOTCH3 gene mutations, which lead to the degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The clinical presentation of CADASIL patients is dependent on the impact of other vascular risk factors and the type of NOTCH3 mutation present. METHODS: Here, we report a rare pathogenic mutation on exon 14 of the NOTCH3 gene in a Chinese family affected by CADASIL with phenotypic peculiarities...
October 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743887/severe-leukoencephalopathy-with-cortical-involvement-and-peripheral-neuropathy-due-to-folr1-deficiency
#15
Yu Kobayashi, Jun Tohyama, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Shinichi Magara, Hideshi Kawashima, Noriyuki Akasaka, Mitsuko Nakashima, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto
Cerebral folate deficiency due to folate receptor 1 gene (FOLR1) mutations is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a brain-specific folate transport defect. It is characterized by late infantile onset, severe psychomotor regression, epilepsy, and leukodystrophy. We describe a consanguineous girl exhibiting severe developmental regression, intractable epilepsy, polyneuropathy, and profound hypomyelination with cortical involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical disturbances in addition to profound hypomyelination and cerebellar atrophy...
October 12, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692991/chronic-brain-damage-in-sickle-cell-disease-and-its-relation-with-quality-of-life
#16
Elena Cela, Ana G Vélez, Alejandra Aguado, Gabriela Medín, José M Bellón, Cristina Beléndez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell anaemia causes progressive organ damage. The objective is to describe school performance of patients with sickle cell anaemia and their clinical parameters and quality of life that may have an influence. The hypothesis is that if school alterations occur without other objective data, additional factors must be present besides the disease itself. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Transversal study performed in November 2015 considering analytical variables, complications and neuroradiological images of children with sickle cell anaemia, and family survey on school performance and quality of life...
December 16, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610341/spectrum-of-intracranial-incidental-findings-on-pediatric-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-what-clinician-should-know
#17
REVIEW
Surya N Gupta, Vikash S Gupta, Andrew C White
Intracranial incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain continue to generate interest in healthy control, research, and clinical subjects. However, in clinical practice, the discovery of incidental findings acts as a "distractor". This review is based on existing heterogeneous reports, their clinical implications, and how the results of incidental findings influence clinical management. This draws attention to the followings: (1) the prevalence of clinically significant incidental findings is low; (2) there is a lack of a systematic approach to classification; and discusses (3) how to deal with the detected incidental findings based a proposed common clinical profile...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602137/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-extraventricular-anaplastic-ependymoma-a-report-of-11-cases
#18
Xi Leng, Xin Tan, Chi Zhang, Huan Lin, Shijun Qiu
Anaplastic ependymomas are rare malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Few studies are available regarding their neuroradiological characteristics. The present study aimed to retrospectively review a series of patients with extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma and to analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics to distinguish anaplastic ependymoma from other intracranial tumors. The clinical and pathological images of 11 patients who presented with histologically proven anaplastic ependymoma at Nanfang Hospital (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) between September 2004 and March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
September 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588084/successful-treatment-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-severe-brain-edema-characterized-by-radiological-appearance-of-pseudosubarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-a-child
#19
Yi Xin, Xingjuan Gao, Xiuli Ju, Aimin Li
Pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage (PSAH) is a rare neuroradiological finding, particularly in pediatric patients. The appearance of PSAH is commonly associated with poor clinical outcome due to refractory cerebral edema. Recent clinical trials have favored hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as a promising therapeutic strategy for adult patients with severe head injuries. The present report describes a pediatric case of diffuse brain edema characterized by the radiological appearance of PSAH successfully treated with HBOT...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516097/spontaneous-dissections-of-the-anterior-cerebral-artery-a-meta-analysis-of-the-literature-and-three-recent-cases
#20
Johannes Hensler, Ulf Jensen-Kondering, Stephan Ulmer, Olav Jansen
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous dissections of intracranial arteries are rare, but important causes of stroke, especially in younger patients. Dissections of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) have been reported only very rarely in the European and North American populations but might be more prevalent than previously thought. METHODS: This paper describes the presenting pattern of the disease, the clinical and imaging findings, as well as endovascular therapeutical options with respect to a meta-analysis of cases reported in the literature...
October 2016: Neuroradiology
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