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neuroradiologic imaging findings

Víctor Rodrigo, Marta Claramonte, Mónica Martín, Juan B Calatayud
BACKGROUND: Intradural disc herniation is a rare phenomenon in spine surgery. Diagnosis is difficult despite current neuroradiologic imaging techniques. METHOD: We present a case of a 59-year-old man with lumbar and radicular pain and a recurrent lumbar herniation. A laminectomy was performed after no clear disc herniation in the epidural space was found and an intradural mass was palpable. A durotomy showed an intradural disc fragment that was removed, followed by an arthrodesis...
March 12, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul, Ammarut Chuajak, Sukalaya Lerdlum
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for neuroradiologic evaluation of patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). OBJECTIVES: To compare pituitary height and morphology at MRI between patients with IGHD and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in pediatric patients, 3 years-15 years old, who had had brain MRI with non-contrast-enhanced midsagittal T1-weighted images. These images were measured for pituitary height and morphology of the pituitary gland including shape, stalk and posterior pituitary bright spot was evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Pinar Eser Ocak, Ihsan Dogan, Umut Ocak, Cem Dinc, Mustafa K Başkaya
OBJECTIVE Cystic vestibular schwannomas (CVSs) are a subgroup of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) that are reported to be associated with unpredictable clinical behavior and unfavorable postoperative outcomes. The authors aimed to review their experience with microsurgical treatment of CVSs in terms of extent of resection and postoperative facial nerve (FN) function and compare these outcomes with those of their solid counterparts. METHODS Two hundred-eleven VS patients were treated surgically between 2006 and 2017...
March 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Prashant Jauhari, Pratibha Singhi, Naveen Sankhyan, Prahbhjot Malhi, Sameer Vyas, Niranjan Khandelwal
This study compared the risk factors and clinical and radiologic profile of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy born at term (≥37 weeks) with those born preterm. Children (2-14 years) with cerebral palsy meeting the study criteria for spastic diplegia were enrolled. Antecedent risk factors, clinical profile, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were recorded. Spasticity, functional ability, intellectual ability, and social quotient were assessed using standard scales. Ninety-three children met the study inclusion criteria (45 term, 48 preterm)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
M M Jiménez de la Peña, L Gómez Vicente, R García Cobos, V Martínez de Vega
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder due to a cerebral lesion; it is characterized by errors in production, denomination, or comprehension of language. Although most aphasias are mixed, from a practical point of view they are classified into different types according to their main clinical features: Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia, transcortical aphasia, and alexia with or without agraphia. We present the clinical findings for the main subtypes of aphasia, illustrating them with imaging cases, and we provide an up-to-date review of the language network with images from functional magnetic resonance imaging and tractography...
February 10, 2018: Radiología
Matthias Baumann, Astrid Grams, Tanja Djurdjevic, Eva-Maria Wendel, Christian Lechner, Bettina Behring, Astrid Blaschek, Katharina Diepold, Astrid Eisenkölbl, Joel Fluss, Michael Karenfort, Johannes Koch, Bahadir Konuşkan, Steffen Leiz, Andreas Merkenschlager, Daniela Pohl, Mareike Schimmel, Charlotte Thiels, Barbara Kornek, Kathrin Schanda, Markus Reindl, Kevin Rostásy
Antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-Ab) can be detected in various pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). Here, we analyze the spectrum of neuroradiologic findings in children with MOG-Ab and a first demyelinating event. The cerebral and spinal MRI of 69 children with different ADS was assessed in regard to the distribution and characteristics of lesions. Children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 36) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 5) presented an imaging pattern characterized predominantly by poorly demarcated lesions with a wide supra- and infratentorial distribution...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Sergio E Starkstein, Simone Brockman
Apathy, usually defined as loss of motivation, is common in both neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, and acute neurological disorders such as stroke. Neuroradiological studies on the imaging correlates of apathy have used a variety of methods such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and single photon and positron emission tomography to assess brain metabolic activity and specific synaptic receptors. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the strongest anatomical correlate of apathy in Alzheimer's disease, whereas lesions of the basal ganglia are the most common correlates of apathy in cerebrovascular disorders...
February 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jason R Fredriksen, Carrie M Carr, Kelly K Koeller, Jared T Verdoorn, Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Amy L Kotsenas
PURPOSE: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) has been implicated in a number of autoimmune-associated neurologic syndromes, including autoimmune epilepsy. This study categorizes the spectrum of MRI findings in patients with a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy and elevated serum GAD65 autoantibodies. METHODS: An institutional database search identified patients with elevated serum GAD65 antibodies and a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy who had undergone brain MRI...
March 2018: Neuroradiology
Elizabeth George, Jeffrey P Guenette, Thomas C Lee
Primary care physicians are often tasked with evaluating neurologic symptoms, and imaging plays a critical role in neurologic diagnoses. Neuroradiology routinely employs advanced imaging modalities, and hence, determination of the appropriate imaging test and interpretation of findings in the clinical context can understandably be overwhelming. In this review article, we introduce resources that can guide physicians in the selection of neuroimaging tests and summarize guidelines on contrast agent administration...
December 2, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Christa M de Geus, Rolien H Free, Berit M Verbist, Deborah A Sival, Kim D Blake, Linda C Meiners, Conny M A van Ravenswaaij-Arts
"CHARGE syndrome" is a complex syndrome with high and extremely variable comorbidity. As a result, clinicians may struggle to provide accurate and comprehensive care, and this has led to the publication of several clinical surveillance guidelines and recommendations for CHARGE syndrome, based on both single case observations and cohort studies. Here we perform a structured literature review to examine all the existing advice. Our findings provide additional support for the validity of the recently published Trider checklist...
December 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Sally A Itawi, Mark Buehler, Robert E Mrak, Tarek R Mansour, Yacine Medhkour, Azedine Medhkour
Carotid splaying, also known as the Lyre sign, is a widening of the carotid bifurcation due to the displacement of the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery just distal to the point of divergence. This phenomenon is classically exhibited by highly vascularized carotid body tumors and, in rare cases, by cervical sympathetic chain schwannomas. Demonstration of the Lyre sign by a cervical vagal neurofibroma, however, is a unique occurrence that has not been previously documented in the literature...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
Emanuela C Turco, Francesca Ormitti, Anna Andreolli, Marina Barsacchi, Carlotta Facini, Francesco Pisani
We report a 9-year-old boy, with childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD), presenting with an episode of loss of consciousness, fixed gaze, hypotonia and vomit with spontaneous resolution and post-ictal sleep. Behavioural impairment has been observed since the previous five months. Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) revealed isolated bilateral, symmetric, confluent temporal white matter lesions involving also corticospinal tracts, with sparing of the parieto-occipital and frontal white matter. This report outlines an atypical neuroradiological localization of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and neuropsychological findings not specifically related to the brain involvement seen at the MRI...
November 10, 2017: Brain & Development
Andrew D Brown, Thomas R Marotta
Incorrect imaging protocol selection can lead to important clinical findings being missed, contributing to both wasted health care resources and patient harm. We present a machine learning method for analyzing the unstructured text of clinical indications and patient demographics from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) orders to automatically protocol MRI procedures at the sequence level. We compared 3 machine learning models - support vector machine, gradient boosting machine, and random forest - to a baseline model that predicted the most common protocol for all observations in our test set...
October 27, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Venessa L Pinto, Sumit Pruthi, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Brian C Bridges, Truc M Le
Neurologic complications can occur with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to several factors. Prior studies identified neonates as having unique risk factors and neuroimaging findings post ECMO. The aim of this study is to describe brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of pediatric patients treated with ECMO. We conducted a retrospective study of nonneonatal pediatric patients who underwent a comprehensive brain magnetic resonance imaging after ECMO between January 2000 and July 2015. We identified 47 pediatric patients in the study cohort with a median age of 8 months (interquartile range 3-170 months) and a median ECMO run duration of 7...
November 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Yun Jiang, Juan Chen, Jing He, Ao Pei, Jinsong Zhang, Yinhong Liu
Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is a rare and fatal disease with no special clinical manifestations. Here, we report the dynamic brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in a 30-year-old female PDLG patient over a 10-month period. MRI showed aggressive dilation of the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system, numerous encapsulated cysts in the subarachnoid space and the dilated cerebral sulci, diffuse reticulated or focal nodular enhancement in the subarachnoid space, as well as overall enhancement in the cystic walls...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Tanyel Zubarioglu, Ertugrul Kiykim, Gozde Yesil, Duhan Demircioglu, Mehmet Serif Cansever, Cengiz Yalcinkaya, Cigdem Aktuglu-Zeybek
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disorder caused by defective sterol 27-hydroxylase activity. In spite of subtle clinical signs beginning from childhood, CTX is generally diagnosed lately. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical, neuroradiological findings and therapy responses of pediatric CTX patients and raise awareness to early features of disease. Patients who were molecularly diagnosed as CTX before 18 years of age were included in study. Clinical, epidemiological, radiological and genotypic features of patients and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) therapy responses were reviewed retrospectively...
October 22, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
S Cocozza, C Russo, A Pisani, G Olivo, E Riccio, A Cervo, G Pontillo, S Feriozzi, M Veroux, Y Battaglia, D Concolino, F Pieruzzi, R Mignani, P Borrelli, M Imbriaco, A Brunetti, E Tedeschi, G Palma
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pulvinar sign refers to exclusive T1WI hyperintensity of the lateral pulvinar. Long considered a common sign of Fabry disease, the pulvinar sign has been reported in many pathologic conditions. The exact incidence of the pulvinar sign has never been tested in representative cohorts of patients with Fabry disease. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the pulvinar sign in Fabry disease by analyzing T1WI in a large Fabry disease cohort, determining whether relaxometry changes could be detected in this region independent of the pulvinar sign positivity...
October 19, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
W Oliver Tobin, Yong Guo, Karl N Krecke, Joseph E Parisi, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Sean J Pittock, Jay Mandrekar, Divyanshu Dubey, Jan Debruyne, B Mark Keegan
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Michio Nakamura, Tadashi Miyazaki, Natsuki Shinozaki, Masaki Izumi, Takashi Itabashi
OBJECTIVE: Craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistulas(CCJ-AVFs)are extremely rare lesions that may result in both subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)and myelopathy. Diagnosis of CCJ-AVF is difficult and may be delayed due to variable clinical features and a spectrum of neuroradiological findings. To elucidate the clinical characteristics of CCJ-AVF, we analyzed the clinical symptoms, neuroimaging findings, and the results of surgical treatment in five patients. RESULTS: Among the five patients, four were diagnosed with dural AVFs, and the remaining patient was diagnosed with radicular AVF...
October 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Itaru Ninomiya, Masato Kanazawa, Yasuhisa Akaiwa, Takayoshi Shimohata, Kouichirou Okamoto, Osamu Onodera, Masatoyo Nishizawa
It is thought that posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is both clinically and radiologically reversible. However, its reversible nature has been challenged based on reports of permanent neurological impairments. The factors that predict the development of irreversible neurological impairment are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and neuroradiological images to identify predictors of functional outcomes in PRES. We investigated 23 PRES patients...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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