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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284856/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-children-with-spasmus-nutans
#1
Meredith Bowen, Jason Peragallo, Stephen F Kralik, Andrea Poretti, Thierry A G M Huisman, Bruno P Soares
BACKGROUND: Spasmus nutans (SN) is a rare pediatric ophthalmologic syndrome characterized by nystagmus, head bobbing, and abnormal head positioning. Historically, SN has been associated with underlying optic pathway gliomas (OPG); however, evidence of this association is based primarily on a small number of isolated case reports. Prior retrospective analyses have found the rate of OPG to be <2%, but these studies only intermittently used neuroimaging with computed tomography, which has limited sensitivity for detection of small lesions in the optic pathway...
March 8, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247152/magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-cryptococcal-neuroradiological-lesions-in-hiv-negative-cryptococcal-meningitis
#2
Y Zhong, Z Zhou, X Fang, F Peng, W Zhang
Magnetic resonance (MR) scanning has become an important diagnostic and management tool in cryptococcal meningitis (CM). However, there are only isolated case reports documenting neuroradiological findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with CM and none has clearly addressed the relationship between cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognosis. The MR brain images available from 114 HIV-negative patients with CM were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into Group I with one or more CM-related lesions and Group II without CM-related lesions...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247112/pediatric-infratentorial-meningiomas-a-series-of-19-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Hai Liu, Wei Luo, Jiaxin Li, Jun Yang, Yulun Xu
PURPOSE: Pediatric infratentorial meningiomas are extremely rare. In this article, we present a series of 19 cases operated at our institution in the last 8 years. METHODS: During the 8-year period from January 2008 to December 2015, we encountered 21 cases suffered from infratentorial meningiomas. Two patients were excluded. The clinical profiles, radiological features, surgical procedures, intraoperative findings, and outcomes were extracted from the patient records and neuroimaging data...
February 28, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229840/-magnetic-resonance-imaging-conversion-predictors-of-clinically-isolated-syndrome-to-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Sara Peixoto, Pedro Abreu
INTRODUCTION: Clinically isolated syndrome may be the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis, a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and it is defined by a single clinical episode suggestive of demyelination. However, patients with this syndrome, even with long term follow up, may not develop new symptoms or demyelinating lesions that fulfils multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria. We reviewed, in clinically isolated syndrome, what are the best magnetic resonance imaging findings that may predict its conversion to multiple sclerosis...
November 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214165/agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-aicardi-syndrome-a%C3%A2-neuroimaging-and-clinical-comparison
#5
T Govil-Dalela, A Kumar, R Agarwal, H T Chugani
BACKGROUND: Agenesis of the corpus callosum can occur in individuals with epilepsy, either in isolation or as part of various neurological conditions, such as Aicardi syndrome. In this study, we evaluated the clinical and neuroradiological differences between children with nonsyndromic agenesis of the corpus callosum and those with Aicardi syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 31 children with epilepsy and agenesis of the corpus callosum (11 males, 20 females), 14 of whom had Aicardi syndrome (all females)...
March 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195512/neuroradiological-findings-of-trisomy-13-in-a-rare-long-term-survivor
#6
Ryan D Goff, Bruno P Soares
Patau syndrome remains a difficult diagnosis for parents and a challenging conversation for clinicians due to the overall poor prognosis. Previous population-based reports have documented the sobering life expectancies of these patients, with few surviving to 1 year of age. Despite the high mortality rate in infants born with trisomy 13, there are several reports of survival into late childhood and early adulthood. While clinical outcomes have been well documented, there has been a paucity of literature describing postnatal imaging findings in long-term survivors...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149097/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-isolated-abducent-nerve-palsy-induced-by-vascular-compression-of-vertebrobasilar-dolichoectasia
#7
Hidetaka Arishima, Ken-Ichiro Kikuta
If the origin of isolated abducent nerve palsy cannot be found on neuroradiological examinations, diabetes mellitus is known as a probable cause; however, some cases show no potential causes of isolated abducent nerve palsy. Here, we report a 74-year-old male who suffered from diplopia due to isolated left abducent nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance angiography and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition imaging clearly showed a dolichoectasic vertebrobasilar artery compressing the left abducent nerve upward and outward...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120582/diagnostic-clue-of-meningeal-melanocytoma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
REVIEW
Jae Koo Lee, Young Joon Rho, Dong Mun Jeong, Seung Chul Rhim, Sang Joon Kim
In this report, the patient was pre-diagnosed as meningioma before surgery, which turned out to be meningeal melanocytoma. Hence, we will discuss the interpretation of imaging and neurological statuses that may help avoid this problem. A 45-year-old man had increasing pain around the neck 14 months prior to admission. His cervical spine MR imaging revealed a space-occupying, contrast-enhancing mass within the dura at the level of C1. The neurologic examination revealed that the patient had left-sided lower extremity weakness of 4+, decreased sensation on the right side, and hyperreflexia in both legs...
March 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120074/management-of-cerebral-radiation-necrosis-a-retrospective-study-of-12-patients
#9
Chenlong Liao, Massimiliano Visocchi, Wenchuan Zhang, Min Yang, Wenxiang Zhong, Pengfei Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral radiation necrosis (RN) is a severe complication of radiotherapy for cerebral pathologies. This study discusses the radiographic and pathological features of 12 patients with RN and investigates the management strategy. METHODS: Eleven patients with brain tumors, and one with cerebral cavernous angioma, treated by surgical resection or Gamma Knife alone before radiotherapy developed RN during follow-up. Surgical resection for the cerebral RN was performed in nine patients, and the other three patients received medical treatment...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110369/neuroradiology-of-human-prion-diseases-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis
#10
REVIEW
Simona Gaudino, Emma Gangemi, Raffaella Colantonio, Annibale Botto, Emanuela Ruberto, Rosalinda Calandrelli, Matia Martucci, Maria Gabriella Vita, Carlo Masullo, Alfonso Cerase, Cesare Colosimo
Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are invariably fatal conditions associated with a range of clinical presentations. TSEs are classified as sporadic [e.g. sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), which is the most frequent form], genetic (e.g. Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia, and inherited CJD), and acquired or infectious (e.g. Kuru, iatrogenic CJD, and variant CJD). In the past, brain imaging played a supporting role in the diagnosis of TSEs, whereas nowadays magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays such a prominent role that MRI findings have been included in the diagnostic criteria for sCJD...
January 21, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095899/what-is-the-relationship-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-status-and-the-neuroradiological-correlates-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#11
Clark Funnell, Mary M Doyle-Waters, Samuel Yip, Thalia Field
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common cause of stroke, dementia, and functional decline. In recent years, neuroradiologic correlates of CSVD have been identified. These imaging findings, best characterized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), include some combination of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy. Though some cohorts have reported that participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an important risk factor for CSVD, may have a distinct neuroradiologic phenotype, this relationship is not well-characterized...
January 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018468/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-caused-by-presumed-takayasu-arteritis
#12
Ki Wuk Lee, Sang Taek Lee, Heeyeon Cho
Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that affects mainly the aorta, main aortic branches, and pulmonary arteries. Diverse neurological manifestations of TA have rarely been reported in children. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neuroradiological condition that presents with headache, seizure, visual disturbances, and characteristic lesions on imaging. Inflammatory condition and severe hypertension in TA can cause PRES. We report of a 5-year-old girl with presumed TA who presented with PRES and chronic total occlusion in the renal artery...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007313/neuropsychological-alterations-and-neuroradiological-findings-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-concussion-results-of-a-pilot-study
#13
A Rădoi, M A Poca, V Cañas, J M Cevallos, L Membrado, M C Saavedra, M Vidal, F Martínez-Ricarte, J Sahuquillo
INTRODUCTION: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has traditionally been considered to cause no significant brain damage since symptoms spontaneously remit after a few days. However, this idea is facing increasing scrutiny. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the presence of early cognitive alterations in a series of patients with mTBI and to link these findings to different markers of brain damage. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of a consecutive series of patients with mTBI who were evaluated over a 12-month period...
December 19, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942468/isolated-macrocerebellum-description-of-six-cases-and-literature-review
#14
Felice D'Arco, Lorenzo Ugga, Ferdinando Caranci, Maria Pia Riccio, Chiara Figliuolo, Kshitij Mankad, Alessandra D'Amico
BACKGROUND: Macrocerebellum is a rare entity described as an isolated and abnormal increase of the cerebellum (CB) size without morphological or signal abnormalities. There have been only eleven patients with macrocerebellum reported in the literature so far. METHODS: From December 2011 to March 2014, among 950 paediatric patients that underwent a magnetic resonance scan of the brain in our department, in six subjects an abnormal increase of the cerebellar volume was suspected...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933410/magnetic-resonance-imaging-patterns-of-treatment-related-toxicity-in-the-pediatric-brain-an-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet, Luca Pasquini, Antonio Napolitano, Antonella Cacchione, Angela Mastronuzzi, Roberta Caruso, Paolo Tomà, Daniela Longo
Treatment-related neurotoxicity is a potentially life-threatening clinical condition that can represent a diagnostic challenge. Differentiating diagnoses between therapy-associated brain injury and recurrent disease can be difficult, and the immediate recognition of neurotoxicity is crucial to providing correct therapeutic management, ensuring damage reversibility. For these purposes, the knowledge of clinical timing and specific treatment protocols is extremely important for interpreting MRI patterns. Neuroradiologic findings are heterogeneous and sometimes overlapping, representing the compounding effect of the different treatments...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917700/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-following-elevated-mean-arterial-pressures-for-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Jeffrey H Zimering, Addisu Mesfin
BACKGROUND: Increasing the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an accepted treatment modality to minimize the risk for irreversible neurologic damage secondary to spinal cord ischemia. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication occurring after transplantation surgery, in persons having an autoimmune disorder or after abrupt increases in blood pressure of various etiologies. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of medical records...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785412/neuroradiological-neurophysiological-and-molecular-findings-in-infantile-krabbe-disease-two-case-reports
#17
E Vargiami, E Papathanasiou, S Batzios, M Kyriazi, E Dimitriou, A Anastasiou, H Michelakakis, A-K Giese, D I Zafeiriou
Krabbe disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder due to a defect of the lysosomal enzyme β-galactocerebrosidase (β-GALC). Depending on the age of onset, the disease is classified into infantile and later-onset forms. We report neuroradiological, neurophysiological and molecular findings in two Greek patients with the infantile form of Krabbe disease. The index patients presented at the age of 3.5 and 6 months, respectively, due to developmental delay. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the first patient's brain demonstrated signs of leukodystrophy, while nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) were significantly decreased...
July 1, 2016: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781952/a-novel-mutation-of-the-notch3-gene-in-a-chinese-pedigree-with-cadasil
#18
Xiaoxia Hou, Yudong Zhang, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) results from NOTCH3 gene mutations, which lead to the degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The clinical presentation of CADASIL patients is dependent on the impact of other vascular risk factors and the type of NOTCH3 mutation present. METHODS: Here, we report a rare pathogenic mutation on exon 14 of the NOTCH3 gene in a Chinese family affected by CADASIL with phenotypic peculiarities...
October 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743887/severe-leukoencephalopathy-with-cortical-involvement-and-peripheral-neuropathy-due-to-folr1-deficiency
#19
Yu Kobayashi, Jun Tohyama, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Shinichi Magara, Hideshi Kawashima, Noriyuki Akasaka, Mitsuko Nakashima, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto
Cerebral folate deficiency due to folate receptor 1 gene (FOLR1) mutations is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from a brain-specific folate transport defect. It is characterized by late infantile onset, severe psychomotor regression, epilepsy, and leukodystrophy. We describe a consanguineous girl exhibiting severe developmental regression, intractable epilepsy, polyneuropathy, and profound hypomyelination with cortical involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical disturbances in addition to profound hypomyelination and cerebellar atrophy...
March 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692991/chronic-brain-damage-in-sickle-cell-disease-and-its-relation-with-quality-of-life
#20
Elena Cela, Ana G Vélez, Alejandra Aguado, Gabriela Medín, José M Bellón, Cristina Beléndez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell anaemia causes progressive organ damage. The objective is to describe school performance of patients with sickle cell anaemia and their clinical parameters and quality of life that may have an influence. The hypothesis is that if school alterations occur without other objective data, additional factors must be present besides the disease itself. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Transversal study performed in November 2015 considering analytical variables, complications and neuroradiological images of children with sickle cell anaemia, and family survey on school performance and quality of life...
December 16, 2016: Medicina Clínica
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