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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813740/west-nile-review-15-years-of-human-disease-in-south-dakota-2002-2016
#1
Lon Kightlinger
During the past 15 years, 2002-2016, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged in South Dakota resulting in 509 neuroinvasive disease (NID) cases, 745 hospitalizations and 38 deaths. Culex tarsalis is the state's primary mosquito vector. South Dakota's average annual incidence of WNV-NID and death rate are the highest of any state in the U.S. WNV cases have been reported from all counties in the state. All age groups have been infected with cases peaking in the 40-44 year age group, but deaths peaking in cases 70 years and older...
August 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813660/neutralizing-antibody-responses-to-viral-infections-are-linked-to-the-non-classical-mhc-class-ii-gene-h2-ob
#2
Lisa K Denzin, Aly A Khan, Francesca Virdis, Jessica Wilks, Melissa Kane, Helen A Beilinson, Stanislav Dikiy, Laure K Case, Derry Roopenian, Michele Witkowski, Alexander V Chervonsky, Tatyana V Golovkina
Select humans and animals control persistent viral infections via adaptive immune responses that include production of neutralizing antibodies. The precise genetic basis for the control remains enigmatic. Here, we report positional cloning of the gene responsible for production of retrovirus-neutralizing antibodies in mice of the I/LnJ strain. It encodes the beta subunit of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-like molecule H2-O, a negative regulator of antigen presentation. The recessive and functionally null I/LnJ H2-Ob allele supported the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies independently of the classical MHC haplotype...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811710/single-amino-acid-mutation-of-sr-bi-decreases-infectivity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-derived-from-cell-culture-in-a-cell-culture-model
#3
Rong Gao, Wei Gao, Gang Xu, Jie Xu, Hao Ren
AIM: To investigate the effect of a single amino acid mutation in human class B scavenger receptor I (SR-BI) on the infectivity of cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus (HCVcc) in SR-BI knock-down Huh7-siSR-BI cells. METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct the SR-BI S112F mutation, and the mutation was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. SR-BI knock-down Huh7-siSR-BI cells were transfected with SR-BI S112F, SR-BI wild type (WT) and control plasmids, and then infected with HCVpp (HCV pseudoparticles) and hepatitis C virus derived from cell culture (HCVcc)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811492/interferon-alpha-treatment-rapidly-clears-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-humanized-mice
#4
Martijn D B van de Garde, Suzan D Pas, Gertine W van Oord, Lucio Gama, Youkyung Choi, Robert A de Man, Andre Boonstra, Thomas Vanwolleghem
Antiviral treatment options for chronic Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are limited and immunological determinants of viral persistence remain largely unexplored. We studied the antiviral potency of pegylated interferon-α (pegIFNα) against HEV infections in humanized mice and modelled intrahepatic interferon stimulated gene (ISG) responses. Human gene expression levels in humanized mouse livers were analyzed by qPCR and Nanostring. Human CXCL10 was measured in mouse serum. HEV genotype 3 (gt3) infections were cleared from liver and feces within 8 pegIFNα doses in all mice and relapsed after a single pegIFNα injection in only half of treated animals...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811345/inhibitors-of-the-histone-methyltransferases-ezh2-1-induce-a-potent-antiviral-state-and-suppress-infection-by-diverse-viral-pathogens
#5
Jesse H Arbuckle, Paul J Gardina, David N Gordon, Heather D Hickman, Jonathan W Yewdell, Theodore C Pierson, Timothy G Myers, Thomas M Kristie
Epigenetic regulation is based on a network of complexes that modulate the chromatin character and structure of the genome to impact gene expression, cell fate, and development. Thus, epigenetic modulators represent novel therapeutic targets used to treat a range of diseases, including malignancies. Infectious pathogens such as herpesviruses are also regulated by cellular epigenetic machinery, and epigenetic therapeutics represent a novel approach used to control infection, persistence, and the resulting recurrent disease...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811344/the-capacity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-to-survive-iron-starvation-might-enable-it-to-persist-in-iron-deprived-microenvironments-of-human-granulomas
#6
Krishna Kurthkoti, Hamel Amin, Mohlopheni J Marakalala, Saleena Ghanny, Selvakumar Subbian, Alexandra Sakatos, Jonathan Livny, Sarah M Fortune, Michael Berney, G Marcela Rodriguez
This study was conducted to investigate the role of iron deprivation in the persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis We present evidence of iron restriction in human necrotic granulomas and demonstrate that under iron starvation M. tuberculosis persists, refractive to antibiotics and capable of restarting replication when iron is made available. Transcriptomics and metabolomic analyses indicated that the persistence of M. tuberculosis under iron starvation is dependent on strict control of endogenous Fe utilization and is associated with upregulation of pathogenicity and intrinsic antibiotic resistance determinants...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810620/ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-has-a-crucial-role-in-regulating-breast-cancer-cell-growth-via-activating-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad3-signaling-pathway
#7
Jing Cao, Meng Wang, Tao Wang
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) on human breast cancer cells. The plasmids pCDH-C/EBPβ and pLKO.1-shC/EBPβ were constructed and were infected into MDA-MB-468 cells, to provide C/EBPβ overexpressing and C/EBPβ knockdown cells, respectively. Cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. Protein expression levels of C/EBPβ, TGF-β1, P-Smad3 and Smad3 were detected by western blotting. MTT assay showed that the absorbance of MDA-MB-468 cells in the pCDH-C/EBPβ group was increased, whereas that in the pLKO...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810166/humanized-mouse-models-of-latent-hiv-infection
#8
REVIEW
Maud Deruaz, Andrew M Tager
Antiretroviral therapy can efficiently control HIV viral replication, resulting in low viral loads and sustained CD4(+) T cell counts in HIV-infected persons. However, fast viral rebound occurs in most infected persons when therapy is interrupted. The principal component of persistent infection is a latent but replication-competent HIV reservoir. The long half-life of this reservoir is a major barrier to cure, and its elimination is the target of important research efforts. Animal models that can recapitulate this aspect of human infection are needed to examine the HIV reservoir in tissues in vivo, and to test eradication strategies...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809773/a-macaque-model-for-rectal-lymphogranuloma-venereum-and-non-lymphogranuloma-venereum-chlamydia-trachomatis-impact-on-rectal-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquisition
#9
Sundaram Ajay Vishwanathan, Rachael D Aubert, Monica R Morris, Chunxia Zhao, Christi Philips, George M Khalil, Frank Deyounks, Kristen Kelley, Jana M Ritter, C Y Chen, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl
BACKGROUND: Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. METHODS: Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3)...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809441/design-and-fabrication-of-temperature-sensitive-nanogels-with-controlled-drug-release-properties-for-enhanced-photothermal-sterilization
#10
Luoyuan Li, Limin Fu, Jing Zhou, Xicheng Ai, Jianping Zhang
Excessive free radicals can cause normal protein metamorphic, and further damage healthy cells, while the damaged cells are more prone to infection with pathogenic bacteria. For better removing excessive free radicals and deleterious bacteria from human body, it is urgently needed to develop synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Herein, we designed novel temperature-sensitive, curcumin (Cur)-loaded nanogels to scavenge reactive oxygen species and kill pathogenic bacteria. Photothermal sterilization, different from traditional antibiotics, is a promising and effective treatment for inactivation of pathogenic bacteria...
August 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808299/gut-homing-%C3%AE-42pd1-v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-promote-innate-mucosal-damage-via-tlr4-during-acute-hiv-type-1-infection
#11
Allen Ka Loon Cheung, Hau-Yee Kwok, Yiru Huang, Min Chen, Yufei Mo, Xilin Wu, Ka-Shing Lam, Hoi-Kuan Kong, Terrence Chi Kong Lau, Jingying Zhou, Jingjing Li, Lin Cheng, Boon Kiat Lee, Qiaoli Peng, Xiaofan Lu, Minghui An, Hui Wang, Hong Shang, Boping Zhou, Hao Wu, Aimin Xu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Zhiwei Chen
The innate immune cells underlying mucosal inflammatory responses and damage during acute HIV-1 infection remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a Vδ2 subset of gut-homing γδ T cells with significantly upregulated Δ42PD1 (a PD1 isoform) in acute (~20%) HIV-1 patients compared to chronic HIV-1 patients (~11%) and healthy controls (~2%). The frequency of Δ42PD1(+)Vδ2 cells correlates positively with plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty-acid-binding protein before detectable lipopolysaccharide in acute patients...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808156/the-identification-of-staphylococcus-aureus-factors-required-for-pathogenicity-and-growth-in-human-blood
#12
John Connolly, Emma Boldock, Lynne R Prince, Stephen A Renshaw, Moira K Whyte, Simon J Foster
Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal but also has devastating potential as an opportunist pathogen. S. aureus bacteraemia is often associated with an adverse outcome. To identify potential targets for novel control approaches we have identified S. aureus components that are required for growth on human blood. An ordered transposon mutant library was screened, identifying 9 genes involved specifically in haemolysis or growth on human blood agar compared to the parental strain. Three genes (purA, purB and pabA) were subsequently found to be required for pathogenesis in the zebrafish embryo infection model...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808155/roca-is-an-accessory-protein-to-the-virulence-regulating-covr-s-two-component-system-in-the-group-a-streptococcus
#13
Ira Jain, Eric W Miller, Jessica L Danger, Kathryn J Pflughoeft, Paul Sumby
Regulating gene expression during infection is critical to the ability of pathogens to circumvent the immune response and cause disease. This is true for the group A Streptococcus (GAS), a pathogen that causes both invasive (e.g. necrotizing fasciitis) and non-invasive (e.g. pharyngitis) diseases. The control of virulence (CovR/S) two-component system has a major role in regulating GAS virulence factor expression. The regulator of cov (RocA) protein, which is a predicted kinase, functions in an undetermined manner through CovR/S to alter gene expression and reduce invasive disease virulence...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807913/reducing-antibacterial-development-risk-for-gsk1322322-by-exploring-potential-human-dose-regimens-in-nonclinical-efficacy-studies-using-immunocompetent-rats
#14
Jennifer L Hoover, Christine M Singley, Philippa Elefante, Peter DeMarsh, Magdalena Zalacain, Stephen Rittenhouse
Directly testing proposed clinical dosing regimens in nonclinical studies can reduce risk during the development of novel antibacterial agents. Optimal dosing regimens can be identified in animal models by testing recreated human pharmacokinetic profiles. An example of this approach is presented using continuous intravenous infusions of GSK1322322 in immunocompetent rats to evaluate recreated Phase 1 human exposures in pneumonia models with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae and an abscess model with Staphylococcus aureus GSK1322322 was administered via continuous intravenous infusion to recreate 1000 or 1500 mg oral doses every 12h in humans...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807912/safety-and-efficacy-of-mhaa4549a-a-broadly-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibody-in-a-human-influenza-a-challenge-model-a-phase-2-randomized-trial
#15
Jacqueline M McBride, Jeremy J Lim, Tracy Burgess, Rong Deng, Michael A Derby, Mauricio Maia, Priscilla Horn, Omer Siddiqui, Daniel Sheinson, Haiyin Chen-Harris, Elizabeth M Newton, Dimitri Fillos, Denise Nazzal, Carrie M Rosenberger, Maikke B Ohlson, Rob Lambkin-Williams, Hosnieh Fathi, Jeffrey M Harris, Jorge A Tavel
BACKGROUND: MHAA4549A, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the hemagglutinin stalk region of influenza A virus (IAV), is being developed as a therapeutic for patients hospitalized with severe IAV infection. Safety and efficacy of MHAA4549A were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in a human IAV-challenge model. METHODS: One hundred healthy volunteers were inoculated with A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) IAV and, 24-36 hours later, administered a single intravenous dose of either placebo, MHAA4549A (400, 1200, or 3600 mg) or a standard oral dose of oseltamivir...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807622/community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-emergency-department-patients-in-western-australia
#16
Deirdre A Collins, Linda A Selvey, Antonio Celenza, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is primarily associated with hospitalised patients, however, community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased in Australia. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of CA-CDI cases presenting to hospital emergency departments in Western Australia (WA). A retrospective case-control study of CA-CDI cases presenting at six emergency departments in WA from July 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical signs, recent medication, hospitalisations and potential risk factors for CA-CDI were investigated for cases (n = 34) and unmatched controls (n = 62) who were infected with another gastrointestinal pathogen, including Campylobacter spp...
August 11, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807608/benefits-of-flu-vaccination-for-persons-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-review
#17
REVIEW
M Goeijenbier, T T van Sloten, L Slobbe, C Mathieu, P van Genderen, Walter E P Beyer, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Diabetes mellitus imposes a significant and increasing burden on society, with major consequences for human health, welfare and the economy worldwide. Persons with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing severe complications after influenza virus infection and guidelines advise vaccination. The present evidence for influenza vaccine effectiveness in persons with diabetes mellitus is mainly based on observational studies with clinical endpoints like hospitalization and death, indicating a beneficial reduction of morbidity and mortality...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807566/electrospun-collagen-based-nanofibres-a-sustainable-material-for-improved-antibiotic-utilisation-in-tissue-engineering-applications
#18
Ivan J Hall Barrientos, Eleonora Paladino, Peter Szabó, Sarah Brozio, Peter J Hall, Charles I Oseghale, Melissa K Passarelli, Susan J Moug, Richard A Black, Clive G Wilson, Romana Zelkó, Dimitrios A Lamprou
For the creation of scaffolds in tissue engineering applications, it is essential to control the physical morphology of fibres and to choose compositions which do not disturb normal physiological function. Collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body, is a well-established biopolymer used in electrospinning compositions. It shows high in-vivo stability and is able to maintain a high biomechanical strength over time. In this study, the effects of collagen type I in polylactic acid-drug electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering applications are examined...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807304/association-between-mast-cells-tissue-remodelation-and-parasite-burden-in-the-skin-of-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#19
Jamille Mirelle de Oliveira Cardoso, Henrique Gama Ker, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Nádia das Dores Moreira, Fernando Augusto Siqueira Mathias, Levi Eduardo Soares Reis, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, Wendel Coura-Vital, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Alexandre Barbosa Reis
Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is a zoonosis of major public health impact caused by organisms of the genus Leishmania which is transmitted to human and animals by phlebotomine sand flies. The skin is the first point of contact with Leishmania parasites for sandy fly vectors and it is considered an important reservoir compartment in infected dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the main histophatologic alterations in ear skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum with different clinical status and different degrees of parasitism...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807301/a-candidate-recombinant-antigen-for-diagnosis-of-schistosomiasis-japonica-in-domestic-animals
#20
Jintao Feng, Rui Xu, Xin Zhang, Yu Han, Chuanchuan He, Chao Lu, Yang Hong, Ke Lu, Hao Li, Yamei Jin, Jiaojiao Lin, Jinming Liu
Domestic animals infected with Schistosoma japonicum are a major source of infection and play an important role in transmission to humans. A key strategy for the elimination of schistosomiasis is to control the sources of infection. In the present study, we identified a candidate diagnostic antigen-encoding gene, SjMRP1, the putative multidrug resistance protein 1 gene, by screening a cDNA phage display library from 44-day-old S. japonicum worms using IgGs from goat, cattle, and buffalo infected with S. japonicum...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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