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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449278/seroepidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-swine-and-occupationally-exposed-workers-in-punjab-india
#1
M Bansal, S Kaur, D Deka, R Singh, J P S Gill
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has two discrete epidemiological patterns: waterborne epidemics in developing countries only, caused by HEV genotype I, and sporadic zoonotic outbreaks in developing and developed countries caused by genotypes III and IV. This study was designed to investigate seroprevalence, molecular detection and the characterization of HEV by nested RT-PCR in swine as well as the occupational risk to exposed human population in Punjab state of north-western India. The occupational risk-exposed group comprised of swine farmers (organized - mixed feed feeders and unorganized - swill feeders), slaughterhouse workers, sewage workers and veterinary internes...
April 27, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447399/genome-wide-association-study-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-a-charter-group-study
#2
Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Todd Hulgan, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Cinnamon S Bloss, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Nicholas Schork, Christina M Marra, Ann C Collier, David B Clifford, Benjamin B Gelman, Ned Sacktor, Susan Morgello, David M Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Donald R Franklin, Debralee Rosario, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) often complicates HIV infection despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may be influenced by host genomics. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HAND in 1,050 CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Study participants. All participants underwent standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive, and neuromedical assessments to determine if they had cognitive impairment as assessed by the Global Deficit Score (GDS), and individuals with comorbidities that could confound diagnosis of HAND were excluded...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447026/genome-dynamics-of-escherichia-coli-during-antibiotic-treatment-transfer-loss-and-persistence-of-genetic-elements-in-situ-of-the-infant-gut
#3
Andreas Porse, Heidi Gumpert, Jessica Z Kubicek-Sutherland, Nahid Karami, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Agnes E Wold, Dan I Andersson, Morten O A Sommer
Elucidating the adaptive strategies and plasticity of bacterial genomes in situ is crucial for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of pathogens threatening human health. While much is known about the evolution of Escherichia coli in controlled laboratory environments, less effort has been made to elucidate the genome dynamics of E. coli in its native settings. Here, we follow the genome dynamics of co-existing E. coli lineages in situ of the infant gut during the first year of life. One E. coli lineage causes a urinary tract infection (UTI) and experiences several alterations of its genomic content during subsequent antibiotic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446739/suspected-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-sample-of-westerns-sicily-residents-what-correlation-with-occupation
#4
Maria Gabriella Verso, Fabrizio Vitale, Germano Castelli, Federica Bruno, Antonella Migliazzo, Maria Rita Bongiorno, Fiorella Santi, Giuseppe Pistone, Emanuele Amodio, Diego Picciotto
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a widespread infectious disease, but there is not much information about its prevalence in high risk occupational categories. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of Leishmania immunological positivity in human skin tissues collected from subjects living in Western Sicily, with suspected cutaneous Leishmania infection, in order to explore the risk possibly related to occupation. METHODS: 318 consecutive subjects (M/F ratio=1...
April 21, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446674/broadening-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-against-hepatitis-c-virus-by-vaccination-with-ns3-overlapping-peptide-panels-in-cross-priming-liposomes
#5
Jonathan Filskov, Marianne Mikkelsen, Paul R Hansen, Jan P Christensen, Allan R Thomsen, Peter Andersen, Jens Bukh, Else Marie Agger
Despite the introduction of effective drugs to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a vaccine would be the only means to substantially reduce the worldwide disease burden. An incomplete understanding of how HCV interacts with its human host and evades immune surveillance has hampered vaccine development. It is generally accepted that in infected individuals, a narrow repertoire of exhausted T cells is a hallmark of persistent infection, whereas broad vigorous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses are associated with control of acute hepatitis C...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446620/how-to-win-the-hiv-1-drug-resistance-hurdle-race-running-faster-or-jumping-higher
#6
REVIEW
Anna Garbelli, Valentina Riva, Emmanuele Crespan, Giovanni Maga
Infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are still totaling an appalling 36.7 millions worldwide, with 1.1 million AIDS deaths/year and a similar number of yearly new infections. All this, in spite of the discovery of HIV-1 as the AIDS etiological agent more than 30 years ago and the introduction of an effective combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART), able to control disease progression, more than 20 years ago. Although very effective, current cART is plagued by the emergence of drug-resistant viral variants and most of the efforts in the development of novel direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against HIV-1 have been devoted toward the fighting of resistance...
April 26, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446260/human-papillomavirus-9-valent-vaccine-for-cancer-prevention-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#7
C Signorelli, A Odone, V Ciorba, P Cella, R A Audisio, A Lombardi, L Mariani, F S Mennini, S Pecorelli, G Rezza, G V Zuccotti, A Peracino
In 2014, the Food and Drug Administration approved a new human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine (9vHPV), targeting nine HPV types: HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, which are also targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), plus five additional high cancer risk HPV types (HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). The aim of the current study was to systematically retrieve, qualitatively and quantitatively pool, as well as critically appraise all available evidence on 9vHPV from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a systematic review of the literature on 9vHPV efficacy, immunogenicity and safety, as well as a systematic search of registered, completed, and ongoing RCTs...
April 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446227/pattern-analysis-of-schistosomiasis-prevalence-by-exploring-predictive-modeling-in-jiangling-county-hubei-province-p-r-china
#8
Shang Xia, Jing-Bo Xue, Xia Zhang, He-Hua Hu, Eniola Michael Abe, David Rollinson, Robert Bergquist, Yibiao Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of schistosomiasis remains a key public health issue in China. Jiangling County in Hubei Province is a typical lake and marshland endemic area. The pattern analysis of schistosomiasis prevalence in Jiangling County is of significant importance for promoting schistosomiasis surveillance and control in the similar endemic areas. METHODS: The dataset was constructed based on the annual schistosomiasis surveillance as well the socio-economic data in Jiangling County covering the years from 2009 to 2013...
April 26, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#9
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445362/effect-of-human-fat-graft-on-breast-cancer-metastasis-in-a-murine-model
#10
Roberto Moltó-García, Virina González-Alonso, María Eloísa Villaverde-Doménech, Edurne Novella-Maestre
BACKGROUND: Isolated adipose stem cells have been reported to encourage migration and early metastasis of breast cancer. Mimicking a surgical situation, the authors developed a human breast cancer model to evaluate in vivo whether human adipose tissue promotes tumor growth and invasion. METHODS: Human adipose tissue was obtained from four patients. The MDA-MB-468 cell line was cultured with a lentiviral vector encoding a puromycin resistance gene and mCherry fluorescent protein...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443609/the-hiv-1-viral-synapse-signals-human-foreskin-keratinocytes-to-secrete-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-facilitating-hiv-1-foreskin-entry
#11
Z Zhou, L Xu, A Sennepin, C Federici, Y Ganor, D Tudor, D Damotte, N Barry Delongchamps, M Zerbib, M Bomsel
The complexity of signal transduction resulting from the contact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells and mucosal cells has hampered our comprehension of HIV-1 mucosal entry. Such process is driven efficiently only by viral synapse contacts, whereas cell-free HIV-1 remains poorly infectious. Using CD4(+) T-cells expressing only HIV-1 envelope inoculated on human adult foreskin tissues, we designed methodologies to identify the signals transduced in foreskin keratinocytes following HIV-1-envelope-dependent viral synapse formation...
April 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443473/proteomic-identification-of-potential-biomarkers-for-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-human-papillomavirus-infection
#12
Song Qing, Wuniqiemu Tulake, Mingfang Ru, Xiaohong Li, Reziwanguli Yuemaier, Dilare Lidifu, Aierken Rouzibilali, Axiangu Hasimu, Yun Yang, Reziya Rouziahong, Halmurat Upur, Abulizi Abudula
It is known that high-risk human papillomavirus infection is the main etiological factor in cervical carcinogenesis. However, human papillomavirus screening is not sufficient for early diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers common to cervical carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection by proteomics for human papillomavirus-based early diagnosis and prognosis. To this end, we collected 76 cases of fresh cervical tissues and 116 cases of paraffin-embedded tissue slices, diagnosed as cervical squamous cell carcinoma, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III, or normal cervix from ethnic Uighur and Han women...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443094/serum-igg-antibodies-from-pregnant-women-reacting-to-mimotopes-of-simian-virus-40-large-t-antigen-the-viral-oncoprotein
#13
Elisa Mazzoni, Mariantonietta Di Stefano, Josè R Fiore, Federica Destro, Marco Manfrini, John Charles Rotondo, Maria V Casali, Fortunato Vesce, Pantaleo Greco, Gennaro Scutiero, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) coding sequences were revealed in different human samples, whereas SV40 antibodies (Ab) were detected in human sera of cancer patients and healthy individuals, although with a lower prevalence. Previous studies carried out by the neutralization assay gave a SV40 seroprevalence, in the general population, up to 8%, although higher rates, 12%, were detected in kidney transplant children, in a group of HIV-positive patients, and in healthy females. In this study, serum samples from pregnant women, together with those from non-pregnant women, were analyzed to check the prevalence of IgG Ab reacting to SV40 LT antigens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443081/helicobacter-pullorum-an-emerging-zoonotic-pathogen
#14
REVIEW
Sundus Javed, Farzana Gul, Kashaf Javed, Habib Bokhari
Helicobacter pullorum (H.pullorum) commonly colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of poultry causing gastroenteritis. The bacterium may be transmitted to humans through contaminated meat where it has been associated with colitis and hepatitis. Despite the high prevalence of H. pullorum observed in poultry, little is known about the mechanisms by which this bacterium establishes infection in host and its virulence determinants. In this article we aim to provide an overview of this emerging zoonotic pathogen; its general characteristics, hosts, prevalence, and transmission as well as its pathogenic potential...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443073/feed-supplementation-with-red-seaweeds-chondrus-crispus-and-sarcodiotheca-gaudichaudii-reduce-salmonella-enteritidis-in-laying-hens
#15
Garima Kulshreshtha, Bruce Rathgeber, Janice MacIsaac, Martine Boulianne, Lehoux Brigitte, Glenn Stratton, Nikhil A Thomas, Alan T Critchley, Jeff Hafting, Balakrishnan Prithiviraj
Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442803/effects-of-fitness-training-on-physical-fitness-parameters-and-quality-of-life-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-indian-females
#16
Renuka Patil, Apurv Shimpi, Savita Rairikar, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti
PURPOSE: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly extended survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. These drugs suppress replication of HIV but at the same time, have many physical and mental side effects which may affect daily activities of the patients. The present study assessed if moderate intensity exercise program helped in enhancing the physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in HIV positive females which may reduce the comorbidities associated with the disease and medications...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442719/chlamydia-trachomatis-neither-exerts-deleterious-effects-on-spermatozoa-nor-impairs-male-fertility
#17
Jenniffer Puerta Suarez, Leonardo R Sanchez, Florencia C Salazar, Hector A Saka, Rosa Molina, Andrea Tissera, Virginia E Rivero, Walter D Cardona Maya, Ruben D Motrich
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infection. However, whether Chlamydia trachomatis has a negative impact on sperm quality and male fertility is still controversial. Herein, we report the effects on sperm quality of the in vitro exposure of spermatozoa to Chlamydia trachomatis, and also the effects of male genital infection on male fertility using an animal model. Human and mouse sperm were obtained from healthy donors and cauda epididimys from C57BL/6 mice, respectively...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442365/b-cell-activating-factor-regulates-the-survival-of-b-lymphocytes-infected-with-human-cytomegalovirus
#18
Haiyan Xu, Panpan Dong, Xuyi Ma, Dan Song, Dong Xue, Renfang Xu, Hao Lu, Xiaozhou He
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that B lymphocytes can be polyclonally activated by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and individuals infected by HCMV exhibit characteristic features of an autoimmunity disease. B cell-activating factor (BAFF) plays important roles in the survival and differentiation of B cells; however, few studies have examined the potential role of BAFF on B cells infected by HCMV. METHODS: HCMV virus strain (HCMV AD-169) was concentrated by normal methods and used to infect microbead-purified tonsil CD19+ B cells...
April 22, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440978/methylation-status-of-p16ink4a-in-human-papillomavirus-associated-cancer-of-oral-cavity-and-oropharynx-in-northeastern-thailand
#19
Piyawut Swangphon, Chamsai Pientong, Ati Burassakarn, Patravoot Vatanasapt, Pilaiwan Kleebkaow, Natcha Patarapadungkit, Thanabut Treebupachatsakul, Supannee Promthet, Bunkerd Kongyingyoes, Tipaya Ekalaksananan
Background: Over-expression of p16INK4a protein is a biomarker for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer. However, absence of p16INK4a protein expression in HPV-associated cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx has been reported. Among a number of possible reasons for this is methylation, which is frequently noted in the promoter region of p16INK4a and is associated with silencing of the gene and disease severity. Methods: We investigated the relationships between p16INK4a protein expression, HPV infection and methylation status of the p16INK4a promoter in cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440688/simultaneous-identification-of-campylobacter-jejuni-campylobacter-coli-and-campylobacter-lari-with-smartcycler-based-multiplex-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#20
Kun C Liu, Karen C Jinneman, Jason Neal-McKinney, Wen-Hsin Wu, Daniel H Rice
BACKGROUND: Consumption of Campylobacter contaminated food or water is a leading cause of human acute gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari account for over 95% of total Campylobacter infections. A multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for simultaneous identification of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari was developed for use with the SmartCycler II system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated and combined previously described primers and probes for Campylobacter detection, designed a new internal amplification control, and optimized the multiplex qPCR for the detection of C...
April 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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