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Laboratory utilization

Marie Louise Landry, Kirsten St George
CONTEXT: -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. OBJECTIVE: -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. DATA SOURCES: -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. CONCLUSIONS: -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Daniel D Rhoads, Jonathan R Genzen, Christine P Bashleben, James D Faix, M Qasim Ansari
CONTEXT: -Syphilis serology screening in laboratory practice is evolving. Traditionally, the syphilis screening algorithm begins with a nontreponemal immunoassay, which is manually performed by a laboratory technologist. In contrast, the reverse algorithm begins with a treponemal immunoassay, which can be automated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized both approaches, but little is known about the current state of laboratory practice, which could impact test utilization and interpretation...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
M A Cardoso, A Poças, M S Silva, R Ribeiro, M C Almeida, R S Brito, S T Coelho, H Alegre
The requirement to provide urban water services continuously while infrastructures are ageing, imposes the need for increasingly sustainable infrastructure asset management (IAM). To achieve and maintain adequate levels of service, the AWARE-P IAM methodology has been applied in collaborative projects launched by the National Civil Engineering Laboratory, in partnership with IST (Technical University of Lisbon), Addition (software company) and several water utilities. The objective of these projects is to support urban water utilities in the development, implementation and maintenance of IAM plans...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
David P Seamans, Boshra F Louka, F David Fortuin, Bhavesh M Patel, John P Sweeney, Louis A Lanza, Patrick A DeValeria, Kim M Ezrre, Harish Ramakrishna
BACKGROUND: The surgical and procedural specialties are continually evolving their methods to include more complex and technically difficult cases. These cases can be longer and incorporate multiple teams in a different model of operating room synergy. Patients are frequently older, with comorbidities adding to the complexity of these cases. Recording of this environment has become more feasible recently with advancement in video and audio capture systems often used in the simulation realm...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Maa-Ohui Quarmyne, Wei Dong, Rodney Theodore, Sonia Anand, Vaughn Barry, Olufolake Adisa, Iris D Buchanan, James Bost, Robert C Brown, Clinton H Joiner, Peter A Lane
The clinical efficacy of hydroxyurea in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) has been well established. However, data about its clinical effectiveness in practice is limited. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of hydroxyurea in a large pediatric population using a retrospective cohort, pre-post treatment study design to control for disease severity selection bias. The cohort included children with SCA (SS, Sβ(0) thalassemia) who received care at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (CHOA) and who initiated hydroxyurea in 2009-2011...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Ming Han Lincoln Liow, Young-Min Kwon
The potential advantages of contemporary MoM THA implants include less volumetric wear with subsequent reduction of polyethylene wear-induced osteolysis and greater component stability with use of large-diameter femoral heads. However, there have been concerns regarding significantly elevated revision rates in MoM THA due to MoM-related complications such as adverse local tissue reaction (pseudotumour) formation. The increased failure rate in MoM hip arthroplasty is associated with the generation of biologically active, nanometer sized metal particles from the MoM bearing surfaces and taper junctions, which result in the development of a localized, adverse periprosthetic soft tissue response...
October 20, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Jennifer L Kuntz, Jennifer M Baker, Patricia Kipnis, Sherian Xu Li, Vincent Liu, Yang Xie, Stephen Marcella, Gabriel J Escobar
BACKGROUND Considerable efforts have been dedicated to developing strategies to prevent and treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI); however, evidence of the impact of rCDI on patient healthcare utilization and outcomes is limited. OBJECTIVE To compare healthcare utilization and 1-year mortality among adults who had rCDI, nonrecurrent CDI, or no CDI. METHODS We performed a nested case-control study among adult Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members from September 1, 2001, through December 31, 2013...
October 20, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Noah Edward Jemison, Thomas M Johnson, Alyssa Shiel, Craig Lundstrom
Uranium groundwater contamination due to U mining and processing affects numerous sites globally. Bioreduction of soluble, mobile U(VI) to U(IV)-bearing solids is potentially a very effective remediation strategy. Uranium isotopes (238U/235U) have been utilized to track the progress of microbial reduction, with laboratory and field studies finding a ~1‰ isotopic fractionation, with the U(IV) product enriched in 238U. However, the isotopic fractionation produced by adsorption may complicate the use of 238U/235U to trace microbial reduction...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Peri E Bolton, Lee Ann Rollins, James Brazill-Boast, Kang-Wook Kim, Terry Burke, Simon C Griffith
In socially monogamous species, individuals can use extra-pair paternity and offspring sex allocation as adaptive strategies to ameliorate costs of genetic incompatibility with their partner. Previous studies on domesticated Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) demonstrated a genetic incompatibility between head colour morphs, the effects of which are more severe in female offspring. Domesticated females use differential sex allocation, and extra-pair paternity with males of compatible head colour, to reduce fitness costs associated with incompatibility in mixed-morph pairings...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tadashi Kawai, Yuji Tanuma, Keiko Matsui, Osamu Suzuki, Tetsu Takahashi, Shinji Kamakura
It was demonstrated that octacalcium phosphate collagen composite achieved notable bone regeneration in bone defects in preclinical studies. On the basis of the research results, an investigator-initiated exploratory clinical trial was conducted after approval from a local Institutional Review Board. This clinical study was performed as a single-arm non-randomized intervention study. Octacalcium phosphate collagen composite was implanted into a total of 10 cases of alveolar bone defects after tooth extractions and cystectomy...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Joel B Krier, Sarah S Kalia, Robert C Green
The development of massively parallel sequencing (or next-generation sequencing) has facilitated a rapid implementation of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine. Genomic sequencing (GS) is now an essential tool for evaluating rare disorders, identifying therapeutic targets in neoplasms, and screening for prenatal aneuploidy. Emerging applications, such as GS for preconception carrier screening and predisposition screening in healthy individuals, are being explored in research settings and utilized by members of the public eager to incorporate genomic information into their health management...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Rille Pullerits, Hanna Schierbeck, Karin Uibo, Hille Liivamägi, Sirje Tarraste, Tiina Talvik, Erik Sundberg, Chris Pruunsild
OBJECTIVE: High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is an important pro-inflammatory mediator in adult rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnostic utility of HMGB1 in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is still unclear. The aim was to examine whether serum HMGB1 levels are associated with inflammation, radiological disease progression, and long-term prognosis in JIA. METHODS: We included 131 children with JIA from a population-based prevalence study; 38 of them were prospectively followed up for 10 years...
August 26, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Dennis G Hall, Taras Rybak, Tristan Verdelet
Multicomponent reactions (MCR), transformations employing three or more simple substrates in a single and highly atom-economical operation, are very attractive in both natural product synthesis and diversity-oriented synthesis of druglike molecules. Several popular multicomponent reactions were designed by combining two well-established individual reactions that utilize mutually compatible substrates. In this regard, it is not surprising that the merging of two reactions deemed as workhorses of stereoselective synthesis, the Diels-Alder cycloaddition and carbonyl allylboration, would produce a powerful and highly versatile tandem MCR process...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Suzanne Drury, Sarah Mason, Fiona McKay, Kitty Lo, Christopher Boustred, Lucy Jenkins, Lyn S Chitty
Our UK National Health Service regional genetics laboratory offers NIPD for autosomal dominant and de novo conditions (achondroplasia, thanataphoric dysplasia, Apert syndrome), paternal mutation exclusion for cystic fibrosis and a range of bespoke tests. NIPD avoids the risks associated with invasive testing, making prenatal diagnosis more accessible to families at high genetic risk. However, the challenge remains in offering definitive diagnosis for autosomal recessive diseases, which is complicated by the predominance of the maternal mutant allele in the cell-free DNA sample and thus requires a variety of different approaches...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mitchell K Monninger, Chrystal A Nguessan, Candace D Blancett, Kathleen A Kuehl, Cynthia A Rossi, Scott P Olschner, Priscilla L Williams, Steven L Goodman, Mei G Sun
Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe the ultrastructure of viruses and other microbial pathogens with nanometer resolution. In a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the image is created by passing an electron beam through a specimen with contrast generated by electron scattering from dense elements in the specimen. Viruses do not normally contain dense elements, so a negative stain that places dense heavy metal salts around the sample is added to create a dark border. To prepare a virus sample for a negative stain transmission electron microscopy, a virus suspension is applied to a TEM grid specimen support, which is a 3mm diameter fragile specimen screen coated with a few nanometers of plastic film...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
David S Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Urology
Mukundh N Balasubramanian, Nejc Rački, José Gonçalves, Katarina Kovač, Magda T Žnidarič, Valentina Turk, Maja Ravnikar, Ion Gutiérrez-Aguirre
Currently, around 50% of the world's population lives in towns and cities within 100 km of the coast. Monitoring of viruses that are frequently present in contaminated coastal environments, such as rotavirus (RoV) and norovirus (NoV), which are also the major cause of human viral gastroenteritis, is essential to ensure the safe use of these water bodies. Since exposure to as few as 10-100 particles of RoV or NoV may induce gastrointestinal disease, there is a need to develop a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method for their detection in coastal water samples...
October 8, 2016: Water Research
Julie L Huffmyer, Lucas G Fernandez, Cyrus Haghighian, Abdullah S Terkawi, Danja S Groves
BACKGROUND: The Quantra Hemostasis Analyzer is a novel diagnostic device that uses an ultrasound-based technology, sonic estimation of elasticity via resonance (SEER) sonorheometry, to characterize the dynamic changes in viscoelastic properties of a blood sample during coagulation. Cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a significant impact on the coagulation system and can result in perioperative coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to correlate SEER sonorheometry results to corresponding rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and laboratory parameters obtained before, during, and after CPB...
October 4, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Anita Chopra, Sushant Soni, Haraprasad Pati, Dev Kumar, Rahul Diwedi, Deepak Verma, Garima Vishwakama, Sameer Bakhshi, Suman Kumar, Ajay Gogia, Rajive Kumar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Mutation of nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene in the absence of FLT3-ITD (FMS related tyrosine kinase 3 - internal tandem duplications) mutation carries a good prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). NPM1, a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein that shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm, gets trapped in the cytoplasm when mutated. Immunohistochemical (IHC) demonstration of its aberrant cytoplasmic location (NPMc+) has been suggested as a simple substitute for the standard screening molecular method...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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