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Lan Zhang, LiWei Tan, LiJuan Chen, XiaoXin Chen, ChaoFeng Long, JinRong Peng, ZhiYong Qian
Self-assembled polymeric micelles have been widely applied in drug delivery systems. In this study, we found that pH value of micellar system solution was the decisive factor of physical stability. Furthermore, the weak basic solution could maintain the solution clarification for a relative long time. To investigate the stability of polymeric micelles in different pH solutions, the micellar particle size and the docetaxel content remaining in solution were detected at predetermined time points. The crystallographic assay of freeze-drying powder was characterized by an X-ray diffractometer...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sunil S Adav, Siu Kwan Sze
Dementia is a syndrome associated with a wide range of clinical features including progressive cognitive decline and patient inability to self-care. Due to rapidly increasing prevalence in aging society, dementia now confers a major economic, social, and healthcare burden throughout the world, and has therefore been identified as a public health priority by the World Health Organization. Previous studies have established dementia as a 'proteinopathy' caused by detrimental changes in brain protein structure and function that promote misfolding, aggregation, and deposition as insoluble amyloid plaques...
November 3, 2016: Molecular Brain
Putty-Reddy Sudhir, Madireddy Pavana Kumari, Wei-Ting Hsu, Chein-Hung Chen, Hung-Chih Kuo, Chung-Hsuan Chen
Molecular-level differences ranging from genomes to proteomes, but not N-glycoproteomes, between human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been assessed to gain insights into cell reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Our multiplexed quantitative N-glycoproteomics study identified altered N-glycoproteins that significantly regulate cell adhesion processes in hiPSCs compared to hESCs. The integrative proteomics and functional network analyses of the altered N-glycoproteins revealed their significant interactions with known PluriNet (pluripotency-associated network) proteins...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
K K S Skripnik, M K Riekes, B R Pezzini, S G Cardoso, H K Stulzer
In the absence of an official dissolution method for modified-release tablets of gliclazide, dissolution parameters, such as apparatuses (1, 2, and 3), rotation speeds, pH, and composition of the dissolution medium were investigated. The results show that although the drug presents a pH-mediated solubility (pH 7.0 > 6.8 > 6.4 > 6.0 > 5.5 > 4.5), the in vitro release of the studied tablets was not dependent on this parameter, despite of the apparatus tested. On the other hand, the rotation speed demonstrated a greater influence (100 rpm >50 rpm)...
October 31, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Daniel Hausmann, Cristina Zulian, Edouard Battegay, Lukas Zimmerli
BACKGROUND: Decision-making processes in a medical setting are complex, dynamic and under time pressure, often with serious consequences for a patient's condition. OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of the present study was to trace and map the individual diagnostic process of real medical cases using a Decision Process Matrix [DPM]). METHODS: The naturalistic decision-making process of 11 residents and a total of 55 medical cases were recorded in an emergency department, and a DPM was drawn up according to a semi-structured technique following four steps: 1) observing and recording relevant information throughout the entire diagnostic process, 2) assessing options in terms of suspected diagnoses, 3) drawing up an initial version of the DPM, and 4) verifying the DPM, while adding the confidence ratings...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Sara Vidal, Marta Izquierdo, Wai Kit Law, Kui Jiang, Salvatore Filippone, Josefina Perles, He Yan, Nazario Martín
Methanofullerenes such as the well-known [70]PCBM are commonly synthesized under harsh conditions to obtain the product as a mixture of site-isomers (namely α, β and minor γ) due to the D5h symmetry of the C70 cage. We report the first site-selective synthesis of [70]methanofullerenes under light irradiation and low temperatures, thus avoiding time-consuming and highly expensive HPLC separations. Pure major site-isomers α-[70]PCBM and α-[70]DPM have been thus efficiently prepared including the crystal structure of 5b...
October 10, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
K Suzuki, G Michael, Y Tamire
OBJECTIVE: Advances in wound treatment have yielded successful approaches to complex wound closure through plastic surgery or other staged surgical methods. However, not all patients or wounds are candidates for such increasingly rigorous levels of interventions. The exploration of non-surgical treatment options that promote anatomical and functional tissue replacement on an outpatient basis without donor site morbidity is necessary to maximise opportunities for patient mobility and rehabilitation...
October 2016: Journal of Wound Care
Yongqiu Xia, Donald E Weller, Meghan N Williams, Thomas E Jordan, Xiaoyuan Yan
Export coefficient models (ECMs) are often used to predict nutrient sources and sinks in watersheds because ECMs can flexibly incorporate processes and have minimal data requirements. However, ECMs do not quantify uncertainties in model structure, parameters, or predictions; nor do they account for spatial and temporal variability in land characteristics, weather, and management practices. We applied Bayesian hierarchical methods to address these problems in ECMs used to predict nitrate concentration in streams...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Oriane Turrel, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Thomas Préat, Valérie Goguel
UNLABELLED: Neprilysins are type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides. Neprilysins in particular are the major amyloid-β peptide-degrading enzymes. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, neprilysin overexpression improves learning and memory deficits, whereas neprilysin deficiency aggravates the behavioral phenotypes. However, whether these enzymes are involved in memory in nonpathological conditions is an open question. Drosophila melanogaster is a well suited model system with which to address this issue...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Konstantinos Koutroumpas, Paolo Ballarini, Irene Votsi, Paul-Henry Cournède
MOTIVATION: Likelihood-free methods, like Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), have been extensively used in model-based statistical inference with intractable likelihood functions. When combined with Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithms they constitute a powerful approach for parameter estimation and model selection of mathematical models of complex biological systems. A crucial step in the ABC-SMC algorithms, significantly affecting their performance, is the propagation of a set of parameter vectors through a sequence of intermediate distributions using Markov kernels...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Jean Claude Reubi, Beatrice Waser, Helmut R Maecke, Jean E Rivier
: There is recent in vitro and in vivo evidence that somatostatin receptor sst2 antagonists are better tools to target neuroendocrine tumors (NET) than sst2 agonists. Indeed, antagonists bind to a greater number of sst2 sites than agonists. Whether sst2 antagonists could be used successfully to target non-NET tumors, expressing low sst2 density, is unknown. Here, we compare quantitatively (125)I-JR11 sst2 antagonist binding in vitro with that of the sst2 agonist (125)I-Tyr3-octreotide in large varieties of non-NET and NET...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
V L Newton, R S Bradley, P Seroul, M Cherel, C E M Griffiths, A V Rawlings, R Voegeli, R E B Watson, M J Sherratt
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) forms epidermal protrusions down into the dermis (rete ridges) and dermal projections up into the epidermis (dermal papillae). Usually visualized in two-dimensions (2D), our knowledge of how the DEJ changes with ageing is limited. We aimed to characterize how this structure exists in 3D and changes with age. METHODS: Photoprotected and photoexposed skin were imaged using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in young and aged individuals...
August 9, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
Yasuaki Tokudome, Megu Fukui, Naoki Tarutani, Sari Nishimura, Vanessa Prevot, Claude Forano, Gowsihan Poologasundarampillai, Peter D Lee, Masahide Takahashi
Hierarchically porous biocompatible Mg-Al-Cl-type layered double hydroxide (LDH) composites containing aluminum hydroxide (Alhy) have been prepared using a phase-separation process. The sol-gel synthesis allows for the hierarchical pores of the LDH-Alhy composites to be tuned, leading to a high specific solid surface area per unit volume available for high-molecular-weight protein adsorptions. A linear relationship between the effective surface area, SEFF, and loading capacity of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), is established following successful control of the structure of the LDH-Alhy composite...
September 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jonathan Lombard
BACKGROUND: The N-glycosylation is an essential protein modification taking place in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes and the plasma membranes in archaea. It shares mechanistic similarities based on the use of polyisoprenol lipid carriers with other glycosylation pathways involved in the synthesis of bacterial cell wall components (e.g. peptidoglycan and teichoic acids). Here, a phylogenomic analysis was carried out to examine the validity of rival hypotheses suggesting alternative archaeal or bacterial origins to the eukaryotic N-glycosylation pathway...
2016: Biology Direct
Scott E Davidson, Jing Cui, Stephen Kry, Joseph O Deasy, Geoffrey S Ibbott, Milos Vicic, R Allen White, David S Followill
PURPOSE: A dose calculation tool, which combines the accuracy of the dose planning method (DPM) Monte Carlo code and the versatility of a practical analytical multisource model, which was previously reported has been improved and validated for the Varian 6 and 10 MV linear accelerators (linacs). The calculation tool can be used to calculate doses in advanced clinical application studies. One shortcoming of current clinical trials that report dose from patient plans is the lack of a standardized dose calculation methodology...
August 2016: Medical Physics
L Tesi, A Lunghi, M Atzori, E Lucaccini, L Sorace, F Totti, R Sessoli
Vanadium(iv) complexes have recently shown record quantum spin coherence times that in several circumstances are limited by spin-lattice relaxation. The role of the environment and vibronic properties in the low temperature dynamics is here investigated by a comparative study of the magnetization dynamics as a function of crystallite size and the steric hindrance of the β-diketonate ligands in VO(acac)2 (1), VO(dpm)2 (2) and VO(dbm)2 (3) evaporable complexes (acac(-) = acetylacetonate, dpm(-) = dipivaloylmethanate, and dbm(-) = dibenzoylmethanate)...
August 3, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Juma Obayashi, Kunihide Tanaka, Kei Ohyama, Shutaro Manabe, Hideki Nagae, Hideki Shima, Hideaki Sato, Shigeyuki Furuta, Munechika Wakisaka, Junki Koike, Masayuki Takagi, Hiroaki Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: There is no good prognostic indicator for biliary atresia (BA). We reviewed liver biopsies taken during the initial procedure to find a prognostic marker. METHODS: Thirty-two BA cases underwent Kasai operation from 1976 to 2009. We compared two groups at 1, 3, and 9 years. Group A required liver transplantation or died. Group B survived with their native liver. Biopsies were analyzed for liver fibrosis, portal-central vein bridging (P-C bridging), ductal plate malformation (DPM) and the number of the bile ducts in portal canal/measured surface area of the portal canal (BDP ratio)...
September 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Nawel Khaldi, Yoldoss Chouari, Hatem Mhiri, Philippe Bournot
A series of numerical simulations are performed to study the pollutant and sediment transport in free surface channel flow. The present paper examines the dispersion of passive contaminants injected from a time periodic source in a fully developed turbulent flow. More precisely, the pulsation effects on the distribution behaviors of dissolved and particulate pollutants are analyzed and discussed. Simulations are carried out using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code, Fluent 6.3, which is based on the finite volume approach...
July 13, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Youngmin Kim, Ki-Seong Lee, Ngoc-Son Pham, Sun-Ro Lee, Chan-Gun Lee
Energy efficiency is considered as a critical requirement for wireless sensor networks. As more wireless sensor nodes are equipped with multi-cores, there are emerging needs for energy-efficient real-time scheduling algorithms. The T-L plane-based scheme is known to be an optimal global scheduling technique for periodic real-time tasks on multi-cores. Unfortunately, there has been a scarcity of studies on extending T-L plane-based scheduling algorithms to exploit energy-saving techniques. In this paper, we propose a new T-L plane-based algorithm enabling energy-efficient real-time scheduling on multi-core sensor nodes with dynamic power management (DPM)...
2016: Sensors
Shrawan Baghel, Helen Cathcart, Niall J O'Reilly
Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) have the potential to offer higher apparent solubility and bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. Knowledge of the solid state drug-polymer solubility/miscibility and their mutual interaction are fundamental requirements for the effective design and development of such systems. To this end, we have carried out a comprehensive investigation of various ASD systems of dipyridamole and cinnarizine in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) at different drug loadings...
October 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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