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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335529/effects-of-momordica-charantia-bitter-melon-on-ischemic-diabetic-myocardium
#1
Attila Czompa, Alexandra Gyongyosi, Kitti Szoke, Istvan Bak, Evelin Csepanyi, David D Haines, Arpad Tosaki, Istvan Lekli
Objective: A rat model is here used to test a hypothesis that Momordica charantia (Bitter melon (BM)) extract favorably alters processes in cardiovascular tissue and is systemically relevant to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease. Methods: Male Lean and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats were gavage-treated for six weeks with 400 mg/kg body weight bitter melon (BM) extract suspended in mucin-water vehicle, or with vehicle (Control). Animals were segregated into four treatment groups, 10 animals in each group, according to strain (Lean or ZO) and treatment (Control or BM)...
March 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335426/elevated-serum-hepcidin-levels-during-an-intensified-training-period-in-well-trained-female-long-distance-runners
#2
Aya Ishibashi, Naho Maeda, Daichi Sumi, Kazushige Goto
Iron is essential for providing oxygen to working muscles during exercise, and iron deficiency leads to decreased exercise capacity during endurance events. However, the mechanism of iron deficiency among endurance athletes remains unclear. In this study, we compared iron status between two periods involving different training regimens. Sixteen female long-distance runners participated. Over a seven-month period, fasting blood samples were collected during their regular training period (LOW; middle of February) and during an intensified training period (INT; late of August) to determine blood hematological, iron, and inflammatory parameters...
March 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335095/genetic-correlation-between-live-body-measurements-and-beef-cutability-traits-in-hanwoo-steers
#3
Yun Ho Choy, Jae Goo Lee, Alam Mahboob, Tae Jeong Choi, Seung Hee Rho
The growth, carcass and retail cut yield records on 1,428 Hanwoo steers obtained through progeny testing were analyzed in this study, and their heritability and genetic relationships among the traits were estimated using animal models. Two different models were compared in this study. Each model was fitted for different fixed class effects, date of slaughter for carcass traits and batch of progeny test live measurement traits, and a choice of covariates (carcass weight in Model 1 or backfat thickness in Model 2) for carcass traits...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334566/improving-communication-with-primary-care-physicians-at-the-time-of-hospital-discharge
#4
Lauren A Destino, Amy Dixit, Julie L Pantaleoni, Matthew S Wood, Natalie M Pageler, Joe Kim, Terry S Platchek
BACKGROUND: Communication with primary care physicians (PCPs) at the time of a patient's hospital discharge is important to safely transition care to home. The goal of this quality improvement initiative was to increase discharge communication to PCPs at an academic children's hospital. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford used Lean A3 problem solving methodology to address the problem of inadequate discharge communication with PCPs...
February 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#5
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333151/fto-is-required-for-myogenesis-by-positively-regulating-mtor-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-mediated-mitochondria-biogenesis
#6
Xiaobo Wang, Ning Huang, Min Yang, Dandan Wei, Haoran Tai, Xiaojuan Han, Hui Gong, Jiao Zhou, Jianqiong Qin, Xiawei Wei, Honghan Chen, Tingting Fang, Hengyi Xiao
Global germ line loss of fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene results in both the reduction of fat mass and lean mass in mice. The role of FTO in adipogenesis has been proposed, however, that in myogenesis has not. Skeletal muscle is the main component of body lean mass, so its connection with FTO physiologic significance need to be clarified. Here, we assessed the impact of FTO on murine skeletal muscle differentiation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. We found that FTO expression increased during myoblasts differentiation, while the silence of FTO inhibited the differentiation; in addition, skeletal muscle development was impaired in skeletal muscle FTO-deficient mice...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332577/absence-of-role-of-dietary-protein-sensing-in-the-metabolic-benefits-of-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-in-the-mouse
#7
Aude Barataud, Daisy Goncalves, Jennifer Vinera, Carine Zitoun, Adeline Duchampt, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Gilles Mithieux
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces remission or substantial improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The beneficial effects of dietary proteins on energy and glucose homeostasis are mediated by the antagonist effects of peptides toward mu-opioid receptors (MORs), which are highly expressed in the distal gut. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of RYGB could depend at least in part on the interaction of peptides from food with intestinal MORs. Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) was performed in obese and lean wild-type (WT) or MOR deficient (MOR(-/-)) mice...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331967/decreased-basal-hepatic-glucose-uptake-in-impaired-fasting-glucose
#8
Mariam Alatrach, Christina Agyin, John Adams, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad A Abdul-Ghani
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This research aimed to define the pathophysiological defects responsible for the elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration and excessive rise in post-load plasma glucose observed in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: We used tracer techniques to quantify basal splanchnic (primarily hepatic) glucose uptake and glucose fluxes following glucose ingestion in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 10) and IFG (n = 10)...
March 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331906/associations-between-sarcopenia-and-degenerative-lumbar-scoliosis-in-older-women
#9
Yawara Eguchi, Munetaka Suzuki, Hajime Yamanaka, Hiroshi Tamai, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuyo Yamauchi, Miyako Suzuki, Kazuhide Inage, Kazuki Fujimoto, Hirohito Kanamoto, Koki Abe, Yasuchika Aoki, Tomoaki Toyone, Tomoyuki Ozawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori
BACKGROUND: Age-related sarcopenia can cause various forms of physical disabilities. We investigated how sarcopenia affects degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). METHODS: Subjects comprised 40 elderly women (mean age 74 years) with spinal disease whose chief complaints were low back pain and lower limb pain. They included 15 cases of DLS (mean 74.8 years) and 25 cases of LSCS (mean age 72.9 years). We performed whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to analyze body composition, including appendicular and trunk skeletal muscle mass index (SMI; lean mass (kg)/height (m)(2)) and bone mineral density (BMD)...
2017: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331054/ambient-uvb-dose-and-sun-enjoyment-are-important-predictors-of-vitamin-d-status-in-an-older-population
#10
Fiona O'Sullivan, Eamon Laird, Dervla Kelly, Jos van Geffen, Michiel van Weele, Helene McNulty, Leane Hoey, Martin Healy, Kevin McCarroll, Conal Cunningham, Miriam Casey, Mary Ward, J J Strain, Anne M Molloy, Lina Zgaga
Background: UVB-induced skin synthesis is considered the key source of vitamin D, yet exposure to UVB is poorly accounted for in epidemiological studies.Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with accurately measured ambient UVB dose, sun enjoyment, supplements, and other factors.Methods: An all-Irish cohort of community-dwelling participants aged >60 y [median age: 73; 67% female; median 25(OH)D: 54.5 nmol/L] was used. Participants from this large, cross-sectional study completed a questionnaire to provide information on demographic factors and lifestyle (including supplement use and sun enjoyment)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329433/understanding-maternal-postpartum-needs-a-descriptive-survey-of-current-maternal-health-services
#11
Mona Ma Almalik
OBJECTIVE: To assess mothers' learning needs and concerns after giving birth and to examine whether these needs were met at 6-8 weeks postpartum. BACKGROUND: Women experience many physiologic and psychological changes during postpartum period which is considered a vital transitional time. Exploring and meeting women's needs help woman to pass this period with little complications and enhance health care provider's ability to provide appropriate care following childbirth...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329314/sirt1-polymorphisms-and-serum-induced-sirt1-protein-expression-in-aging-and-frailty-the-champ-study
#12
Shajjia Razi, Victoria C Cogger, Marina Kennerson, Vicky L Benson, Aisling C McMahon, Fiona M Blyth, David J Handelsman, Markus J Seibel, Vasant Hirani, Vasikaran Naganathan, Louise Waite, Rafael de Cabo, Robert G Cumming, David G Le Couteur
The nutrient sensing protein, SIRT1 influences aging and nutritional interventions such as caloric restriction in animals, however, the role of SIRT1 in human aging remains unclear. Here, the role of SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum-induced SIRT1 protein expression (a novel assay that detects circulating factors that influence SIRT1 expression in vitro) were studied in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a prospective cohort of community dwelling men aged 70 years and older...
March 14, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329121/very-low-calorie-diets-for-weight-loss-in-obese-older-adults-a-randomized-trial
#13
Cilla J Haywood, Luke A Prendergast, Katrina Purcell, Lauren Le Fevre, Wen Kwang Lim, Mary Galea, Joseph Proietto
Background: Obesity contributes to disability in older adults, and this is offset by weight loss and exercise. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCDs) achieve rapid weight loss; however, these have not been rigorously evaluated in older people. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted from August 2012 through December 2015. The intervention was 12 weeks of thrice weekly exercise combined with either healthy eating advice (Ex/HE), hypocaloric diet (Ex/Diet), or VLCD (Ex/VLCD)...
February 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329087/clinical-definitions-of-sarcopenia-and-risk-of-hospitalization-in-community-dwelling-older-men-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-study
#14
Peggy M Cawthon, Li-Yung Lui, Brent C Taylor, Charles E McCulloch, Jane A Cauley, Jodi Lapidus, Eric Orwoll, Kristine E Ensrud
Background: The association between various definitions of sarcopenia and hospitalization has not been evaluated in community-dwelling older men. Methods: We used data from 1,516 participants at Visit 3 of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study who also had linked Medicare Fee-For-Service Claims data available. We examined the association between several sarcopenia definitions (International Working Group, European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons, Foundation for the NIH Sarcopenia Project, Baumgartner, and Newman) and hospitalization, using two-part ("hurdle") models, adjusted for age, clinical center, functional limitations, self-reported health, comorbidity, and cognitive function...
January 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328996/diaphragmatic-function-is-enhanced-in-fatty-and-diabetic-fatty-rats
#15
Audrey De Jong, Serge Carreira, Na Na, Aude Carillion, Cheng Jiang, Maud Beuvin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Bruno Riou, Catherine Coirault
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. METHODS: Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328714/somatic-profile-of-the-elite-boulderers-in-poland
#16
Mariusz Ozimek, Marcin Krawczyk, Emilian Zadarko, Zbigniew Barabasz, Tadeusz Ambroży, Arkadiusz Stanula, Dawid K Mucha, Adam Jurczak, Dariusz Mucha
Ozimek, M, Krawczyk, M, Zadarko, E, Barabasz, Z, Ambroży, T, Stanula, A, Mucha, DK, Jurczak, A, and Mucha, D. Somatic profile of the elite boulderers in Poland. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 963-970, 2017-The study was designed to determine the values of selected somatic characteristics, body proportions, and the somatotype of elite bouldering climbers in Poland and to establish the relationships between the values of the somatic characteristics and climber's performance in bouldering. The study was conducted in a group of elite sport climbers (n = 10) who were ranked by the Polish Mountaineering Association in 2011, 2012, and 2013...
April 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328712/resistance-training-induced-elevations-in-muscular-strength-in-trained-men-are-maintained-after-2-weeks-of-detraining-and-not-differentially-affected-by-whey-protein-supplementation
#17
Paul S Hwang, Thomas L Andre, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Flor E Morales Marroquín, Joshua J Gann, Joon J Song, Darryn S Willoughby
Hwang, PS, Andre, TL, McKinley-Barnard, SK, Morales Marroquín, FE, Gann, JJ, Song, JJ, and Willoughby, DS. Resistance training-induced elevations in muscular strength in trained men are maintained after 2 weeks of detraining and not differentially affected by whey protein supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 869-881, 2017-Resistance training (RT) with nutritional strategies incorporating whey protein intake postexercise can stimulate muscle protein synthesis and elicit hypertrophy. The early phases of training-induced anabolic responses can be attenuated with longer-term training...
April 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328493/a-balancing-act-scientists-seek-to-reduce-the-risk-of-falls-in-the-elderly
#18
Jennifer Berglund
It was the inaugural day of the study in 2005 when Brad Manor went out into the hot Louisiana sun to meet his first patient, a gentleman we'll call James. Manor, now director of the Mobility and Brain Function Lab at the Harvard-affiliated Institute for Aging Research, was, at that time, a Ph.D. student at Louisiana State University (Figure 1). James, a man in his early 70s, suffered from peripheral neuropathy, a condition that caused significant nerve damage in his legs and feet. James got out of his car, carrying his cane in his hand, and walked with Manor to the lab...
March 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327461/muscle-strength-is-impaired-in-men-but-not-in-women-living-with-hiv-taking-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Vitor Hf Oliveira, Susana L Wiechmann, Argéria Ms Narciso, Allison R Webel, Rafael Deminice
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that HIV Antiretroviral Therapy adverse effects may be sex-dependent, but data examing these sex differences in muscle strength is scarce. Our aim was to compare dynamic and isokinetic parameters of muscle strength between HIV-infected men and women to HIV-uninfected subjects. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, muscle strength was evaluated in 44 HIV-infected (20 men, 24 women) and 25 age-, race- and body mass index-matched HIV-uninfected subjects (11 men, 14 women)...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327109/a-cross-sectional-study-on-sarcopenia-using-different-methods-reference-values-for-healthy-saudi-young-men
#20
Shaea A Alkahtani
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine reference values for sarcopenia indices using different methods in healthy Saudi young men. METHODS: Participants included 232 Saudi men aged between 20 and 35 years. The study measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure, hand grip strength, and lean muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed using Inbody 770 and Tanita 980 devices. RESULTS: Using DXA, the mean value of appendicular lean mass divided by the height squared (ALM/ht(2)) was found to be 8...
March 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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