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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821868/dysmobility-syndrome-and-risk-of-mortality-for-community-dwelling-middle-aged-and-older-adults-the-nexus-of-aging-and-body-composition
#1
Wei-Ju Lee, Li-Kuo Liu, An-Chun Hwang, Li-Ning Peng, Ming-Hsien Lin, Liang-Kung Chen
Dysmobility syndrome is a newly proposed concept to comprehensively consider bone-muscle-adiposity as a whole to associate with mortality and other adverse outcomes in the older adults. Little was known in Asian populations since the body composition was highly related to ethnicity. The study aimed to evaluate the association between dysmobility syndrome and mortality and to explore the most optimal operational definition for dysmobility syndrome. The prevalence of dysmobility syndrome was 3.9-10.1% based on different operational definitions of adiposity and skeletal muscle index...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821636/twenty-four-hour-rhythmicity-of-circulating-metabolites-effect-of-body-mass-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
Cheryl M Isherwood, Daan R Van der Veen, Jonathan D Johnston, Debra J Skene
Metabolic profiling of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has previously been limited to single-time-point samples, ignoring time-of-day variation. Here, we tested our hypothesis that body mass and T2DM affect daily rhythmicity and concentrations of circulating metabolites across a 24-h day in 3 age-matched, male groups-lean, overweight/obese (OW/OB), and OW/OB with T2DM-in controlled laboratory conditions, which were not confounded by large meals. By using targeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics, we quantified 130 plasma metabolites every 2 h over 24 h, and we show that average metabolite concentrations were significantly altered by increased body mass (90 of 130) and T2DM (56 of 130)...
August 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820450/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-long-intergenic-noncoding-rnas-contributed-to-growth-and-meat-quality-differences-between-yorkshire-and-wannanhua-pig
#3
Cheng Zou, Sha Li, Lulu Deng, Yang Guan, Dake Chen, Xiongkun Yuan, Tianrui Xia, Xinglin He, Yawei Shan, Changchun Li
There are major differences between Yorkshire (lean-type) and Wannanhua pig (fat-type) in terms of growth performance and meat quality. Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a class of regulators that are involved in numerous biological processes and widely identified in many species. However, the role of lincRNAs in pig is largely unknown, and the mechanisms by which they affect growth and meat quality are elusive. In this study, we used published data to identify 759 lincRNAs in porcine longissimus dorsi muscle...
August 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819228/convergent-and-divergent-genetic-changes-in-the-genome-of-chinese-and-european-pigs
#4
Jing Wang, Huiying Zou, Lei Chen, Xi Long, Jing Lan, Wenjie Liu, Li Ma, Chao Wang, Xinyu Xu, Liming Ren, Zhenglong Gu, Ning Li, Xiaoxiang Hu, Yaofeng Zhao, Yiqiang Zhao
Since 10,000 BC, continuous human selection has led to intense genetic and phenotypic changes in pig (Sus scrofa) domestication. Through whole genome analysis of 257 individuals, we demonstrated artificial unidirectional and bidirectional selection as the primary force to shape the convergent and divergent changes between Chinese domestic pigs (CHD) and European domestic pigs (EUD). We identified 31 genes in unidirectional selection regions that might be related to fundamental domestication requirements in pigs...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818852/accuracy-of-11-formulae-to-guide-umbilical-arterial-catheter-tip-placement-in-newborn-infants
#5
Wei Ling Lean, Jennifer A Dawson, Peter G Davis, Christiane Theda, Marta Thio
BACKGROUND: Umbilical arterial catheter (UAC) insertion is a common procedure in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Correct placement of the tip of the UAC at first attempt minimises handling of the infant and reduces the risk of infection and complications. We aimed to determine the accuracy of 11 published formulae to guide UAC placement. METHODS: This was a one-year prospective observational study in a tertiary NICU. Clinicians used their preferred formula for UAC insertion, with X-rays performed immediately post-procedure to check the tip position...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817716/endothelial-dysfunction-in-renal-arcuate-arteries-of-obese-zucker-rats-the-roles-of-nitric-oxide-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarizing-factors-and-calcium-activated-k-channels
#6
Dandan Yin, Qianchen Wang, Xun Zhou, Ying Li
The roles of nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF), and calcium-activated K+ (KCa) channels in diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction of small renal arteries are not clear. The present study investigated acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation of renal arcuate arteries from obese Zucker (OZ) rats at different diabetes durations, and the relative contribution of NO, EDHF, and KCa channels to the endothelial dysfunction. OZ rats of 7 weeks (prediabetic stage), 12 weeks (early diabetic stage), and 20 weeks (late diabetic stage), and time-matched lean control rats, were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817419/the-association-of-fat-and-lean-tissue-with-whole-body-and-spine-bone-mineral-density-is-modified-by-hiv-status-and-sex-in-children-and-youth
#7
Denise L Jacobson, Jane C Lindsey, Brent A Coull, Kathleen Mulligan, Priya Bhagwat, Grace M Aldrovandi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV-pos) male children/youth showed lower bone mineral density at sexual maturity than HIV-uninfected (HIV-neg) females. It is not known whether complications of HIV disease, including abnormal body fat distribution, contribute to lower bone accrual in male HIV-pos adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between body composition (fat and lean mass) and bone mass in HIV-pos and HIV-neg children/youth and determined if it is modified by HIV status and sex...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817153/a-comparative-study-on-the-cardiac-morphology-and-vertical-jump-height-of-adolescent-black-south-african-male-and-female-amateur-competitive-footballers
#8
Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Demitri Constantinou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this comparative study was to determine the gender differences in cardiac morphology and performance in adolescent black South African footballers. METHODS: Anthropometry, electrocardiography and echocardiography data were measured in 167 (85 males and 82 females) adolescent black South African footballers (mean age: 14.8 ± 1.3 years). Vertical jump height was used as a performance measure of explosive lower-limb power. RESULTS: The males had less body fat compared with the females (12...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816931/effects-of-multicomponent-training-on-lean-and-bone-mass-in-postmenopausal-and-older-women-a-systematic-review
#9
Elena Marín-Cascales, Pedro E Alcaraz, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to update and examine to what extent multicomponent training interventions could improve lean and bone mass at different anatomical regions of the body in postmenopausal and older women. METHODS: A computerized literature search was performed in the following online databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Web of Knowledge. The search was performed to include articles up until February 2017. The methodological quality of selected studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool...
August 14, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816770/prevalence-of-disability-in-patients-with-musculoskeletal-pain-and-rheumatic-diseases-in-a-population-from-cuenca-ecuador
#10
Sergio Vicente Guevara-Pacheco, Astrid Feican-Alvarado, Jorge Delgado-Pauta, Angelita Lliguisaca-Segarra, Ingris Pelaez-Ballestas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of disability in patients with musculoskeletal pain and rheumatic diseases in Cuenca, Ecuador. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analytical study with randomized sampling in 4877 subjects, from urban and rural areas. COPCORD (Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases)-validated questionnaire was administered house-to-house to identify subjects with nontraumatic musculoskeletal pain and rheumatic diseases...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815984/relationships-between-central-arterial-stiffness-lean-body-mass-and-absolute-and-relative-strength-in-young-and-older-men-and-women
#11
Christopher A Fahs, Robert S Thiebaud, Lindy M Rossow, Jeremy P Loenneke, Debra A Bemben, Michael G Bemben
Relationships between muscular strength and arterial stiffness as well as between muscle mass and arterial stiffness have been observed suggesting a link between the neuromuscular system and vascular health. However, the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength along with muscle mass has not been investigated in both sexes across a broad age range. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength as well as between central arterial stiffness and lean body mass (LBM) in men and women across a broad age range...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815738/the-effect-of-depression-generalized-anxiety-and-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-change-in-bone-metabolism-in-adolescents-and-emerging-adults
#12
Chadi A Calarge, James A Mills, Kathleen F Janz, Trudy L Burns, Janet A Schlechte, William H Coryell, Babette S Zemel
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine the independent contribution of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use to changes in bone metabolism in older adolescents and emerging adults. METHODS: Medically-healthy 15 to 20 year-olds who were unmedicated or within one month of starting an SSRI were prospectively followed. Psychiatric functioning and medication treatment were assessed monthly...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815303/effect-of-barley-supplementation-on-the-fecal-microbiota-caecal-biochemistry-and-key-biomarkers-of-obesity-and-inflammation-in-obese-db-db-mice
#13
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, David A Mills, Kevin Murphy, Giuliana Noratto
PURPOSE: Barley is a low-glycemic index grain that can help diabetic and obese patients. The effect of barley intake depends on the host and the associated gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of barley intake on the fecal microbiota, caecal biochemistry, and key biomarkers of obesity and inflammation. METHODS: Obese db/db mice were fed diets with and without barley during 8 weeks; lean mice were used as lean controls. Fecal microbiota was evaluated using 16S marker gene sequencing in a MiSeq instrument; several markers of caecal biochemistry, obesity, and inflammation were also evaluated using standard techniques...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814530/a-high-fat-diet-decreases-bone-mass-in-growing-mice-with-systemic-chronic-inflammation-induced-by-low-dose-slow-release-lipopolysaccharide-pellets
#14
Jay J Cao, Brian R Gregoire, Chwan-Li Shen
Background: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption and is linked to osteopenia, or low bone mass. Obesity is also associated with low-grade chronic upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on bone structure changes in growing mice with existing systemic chronic inflammation induced by low-dose, slow-release lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods: Forty-eight 6-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 12/group) in a 2 × 2 factorial design-control (placebo) or LPS treatment (1...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814401/effects-of-protein-supplementation-combined-with-resistance-exercise-on-body-composition-and-physical-function-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Yen-Tzu Wu, Chin-Pao Cheng, Hui-Chuen Chen, Yi-Ching Huang, Hung-Chou Chen, Tsan-Hon Liou
Background: Overweight and obese older people face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function, which may contribute to sarcopenic obesity. Resistance exercise training (RET) has a beneficial effect on muscle protein synthesis and can be augmented by protein supplementation (PS). However, whether body weight affects the augmentation of muscular and functional performance in response to PS in older people undergoing RET remains unclear.Objective: This study was conducted to identify the effects of PS on the body composition and physical function of older people undergoing RET...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814064/electrical-properties-assessed-by-bioelectrical-impedance-spectroscopy-as-biomarkers-of-age-related-loss-of-skeletal-muscle-quantity-and-quality
#16
Yosuke Yamada, Bjoern Buehring, Diane Krueger, Rozalyn M Anderson, Dale A Schoeller, Neil Binkley
Skeletal muscle, in addition to being comprised of a heterogeneous muscle fiber population, also includes extracellular components that do not contribute to positive tensional force production. Here we test segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (S-BIS) to assess muscle intracellular mass and composition. S-BIS can evaluate electrical properties that may be related to muscle force production. Muscle fiber membranes separate the intracellular components from the extracellular environment and consist of lipid bilayers which act as an electrical capacitor...
September 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813845/an-assistance-device-to-help-people-with-trunk-impairment-maintain-posture
#17
Tomoka Ogura, Taku Itami, Ken'ichi Yano, Ichidai Mori, Kazuhiro Kameda
People with trunk impairment cannot lean forward because of the dysfunction of the trunk resulting from events such as cervical cord injury (CCI). It is therefore difficult for such people to work at a table because they may easily fall from their wheelchair, and it is also hard for them to return to their original position. This limits the activities of daily living (ADLs) of people with trunk impairment. These problems can be solved to some extent with equipment such as a wheelchair belt or a spinal orthosis that can help the person to maintain his or her posture...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813516/correction-salivary-inflammatory-markers-and-microbiome-in-normoglycemic-lean-and-obese-children-compared-to-obese-children-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Waleed F Janem, Frank A Scannapieco, Amarpreet Sabharwal, Maria Tsompana, Harvey A Berman, Elaine M Haase, Jeffrey C Miecznikowski, Lucy D Mastrandrea
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172647.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812292/effect-of-low-selenium-high-fat-diet-on-pig-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-perspectives-from-selenoproteins-heat-shock-proteins-and-cytokines
#19
Tianqi Liu, Tianshu Yang, Tingru Pan, Ci Liu, Shu Li
The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of low selenium (Se)/high fat on the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and cytokines in pig peripheral blood lymphocytes. Forty crossbred boar piglets with healthy lean body weights of 10 kg were randomly divided into four treatment groups (group C, group L-Se, group H-fat, and group L-Se-H-fat) (n = 10/group) and fed with the corresponding diet for 16 weeks. The pig peripheral blood lymphocytes were extracted, and the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, HSPs, and cytokines was measured...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811968/il-32%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-constitutes-a-link-between-obesity-and-colon-cancer
#20
Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Victor A Ortega, José Luis Hernández-Lizoain, Jorge Baixauli, Sara Becerril, Fernando Rotellar, Víctor Valentí, Rafael Moncada, Camilo Silva, Javier Salvador, Gema Frühbeck
Growing evidence indicates that adipose tissue inflammation is an important mechanism whereby obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Since IL-32 is an important inflammatory and remodeling factor in obesity and is also related to colon cancer (CC) development, the aim of this study was to explore whether IL-32 could function as an inflammatory factor in human obesity-associated CC promoting a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Samples obtained from 84 subjects [27 lean (LN) and 57 obese (OB)] were used in the study...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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