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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036766/resistance-training-increases-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-irisin-levels-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#1
Hee-Jae Kim, Wook Song
PURPOSE: Although the fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and irisin roles are well demonstrated in metabolic disease, there have been no reports investigating the effect of resistance exercise on FGF-21 and irisin levels in diabetic skeletal muscles. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the change of FGF-21 and irisin levels in various skeletal muscles, and their association with muscle strength, following 8 weeks of resistance training using Zucker diabetic fatty rats (type 2 diabetic animal models)...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036016/exercise-preserves-physical-function-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-bone-metastases
#2
Daniel A Galvão, Dennis R Taaffe, Nigel Spry, Prue Cormie, David Joseph, Suzanne K Chambers, Raphael Chee, Carolyn Peddle-McIntyre, Nicolas H Hart, Freerk T Baumann, James Denham, Michael Baker, Robert U Newton
PURPOSE: The presence of bone metastases has excluded participation of cancer patients in exercise interventions and is a relative contraindication to supervised exercise in the community setting due to concerns of fragility fracture. We examined the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 57 prostate cancer patients (70.0±8.4 years; BMI 28.7±4.0 kg/m) with bone metastases (pelvis 75...
October 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035695/expression-of-macrophage-genes-within-skeletal-muscle-correlates-inversely-with-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance-in-humans
#3
Dongmei Liu, Flor Elisa Morales, Heidi B IglayReger, Mary K Treutelaar, Amy E Rothberg, Monica J Hubal, Evan P Nadler, Jacques Robidoux, Hisham Barakat, Jeffrey F Horowitz, Eric P Hoffman, Charles F Burant, Paul M Gordon
Background Local inflammation in obese adipose tissue has been shown to contribute to insulin resistance, however, the role of macrophage infiltration within skeletal muscle is still debateable. This study aimed to evaluate the association of skeletal muscle macrophage gene expression with adiposity levels and insulin sensitivity in obese patients. Methods Twenty-two non-diabetic obese patients and 23 healthy lean controls were included. Obese patients underwent a 3-month weight loss intervention. Macrophage gene expression in skeletal muscle (quantitative RT-PCR), body composition (DXA) and insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment and oral glucose tolerance test) were compared between groups and their associations were analyzed...
October 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035601/skinfold-prediction-equations-fail-to-provide-an-accurate-estimate-of-body-composition-in-elite-rugby-union-athletes-of-caucasian-and-polynesian-ethnicity
#4
Adam Zemski, Elizabeth Broad, Gary Slater
Body composition in elite rugby union athletes is routinely assessed using surface anthropometry, which can be utilised to provide estimates of absolute body composition using regression equations. This study aims to assess the ability of available skinfold equations to estimate body composition in elite rugby union athletes, who have unique physique traits and divergent ethnicity. The development of sport-specific and ethnicity-sensitive equations was also pursued. Forty-three male international Australian rugby union athletes of Caucasian and Polynesian descent underwent surface anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) assessment...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035404/-biological-significance-of-chromium-iii-for-the-human-organism
#5
REVIEW
Anna Piotrowska, Wanda Pilch, Łukasz Tota, Gabriel Nowak
Currently, chromium is probably the most controversial transition metal. In recent publications it is clearly stated that it is not an essential micronutrient and should be considered to have a pharmacological effect. Conflicting scientific reports along with a huge amount of dietary supplements, as well as dietary and sports nutrients available on the market have prompted the authors to investigate the available information on the range of possible application, efficacy and safety of products containing salts or chelates of chromium III...
October 12, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035280/adipocyte-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-regulates-energy-homeostasis-and-alternatively-activated-macrophages
#6
Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Giacomo Mancini, Raj Kamal Srivastava, Alejandro Aparisi Rey, Pierre Cardinal, Laura Tedesco, Cristina Maria Zingaretti, Antonia Sassmann, Carmelo Quarta, Claudia Schwitter, Andrea Conrad, Nina Wettschureck, V Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jens Hartwig, Maria Mendez-Lago, Laura Bindila, Krisztina Monory, Antonio Giordano, Saverio Cinti, Giovanni Marsicano, Stefan Offermanns, Enzo Nisoli, Uberto Pagotto, Daniela Cota, Beat Lutz
Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035138/body-weight-predicts-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-activity-in-mouse-fat
#7
Bianca Rudolphi, Benedikt Zapp, Nils A Kraus, Franziska Ehebauer, Bettina J Kraus, Daniel Kraus
AIM: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a novel regulator of energy homeostasis in adipose tissue. NNMT expression is higher in obese mice than in lean mice, and NNMT knockdown prevents diet-induced obesity. Little is known about the regulation of enzyme activity during the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyze NNMT activity in tissues of mice with incipient and established obesity. METHODS: A fluorescence-based, sensitive, low-volume, high-throughput method was developed to assay NNMT activity...
October 16, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034327/high-fat-diet-changes-fungal-microbiomes-and-interkingdom-relationships-in-the-murine-gut
#8
Timothy Heisel, Emmanuel Montassier, Abigail Johnson, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Yi-Wei Lin, Li-Na Wei, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
Dietary fat intake and shifts in gut bacterial community composition are associated with the development of obesity. To date, characterization of microbiota in lean versus obese subjects has been dominated by studies of gut bacteria. Fungi, recently shown to affect gut inflammation, have received little study for their role in obesity. We sought to determine the effects of high-fat diet on fungal and bacterial community structures in a mouse model using the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033242/weight-trajectories-from-birth-and-bone-mineralization-at-7-years-of-age
#9
Teresa Monjardino, Teresa Rodrigues, Hazel Inskip, Nicholas Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Ana Cristina Santos, Raquel Lucas
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether different trajectories of weight gain since birth influence bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at 7 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a subsample of 1889 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort who underwent whole-body dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry. Weight trajectories identified through normal mixture modeling for model-based clustering and labeled "normal weight gain," "weight gain during infancy," "weight gain during childhood," and "persistent weight gain" were used...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032486/population-pharmacokinetics-of-subcutaneous-pasireotide-in-healthy-volunteers-and-cushing-s-disease-patients
#10
Jerry Nedelman, Roland Fisch, Ke Hu, Ines Paule, Jocelyn Zhou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pasireotide (SOM230, Signifor(®)) is a somatostatin analog approved in a subcutaneous formulation for the treatment of Cushing's disease. This analysis characterizes the population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) of subcutaneous pasireotide jointly in healthy volunteers (HVs) and Cushing's disease patients (CDPs), evaluating the effects of age, body size, and population on pasireotide pharmacokinetics. METHODS: The analysis dataset included five phase I studies and one each from phase II and phase III...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032157/effects-of-fat-and-exoskeletal-mass-on-the-mass-scaling-of-metabolism-in-carabidae-beetles
#11
Bartosz W Schramm, Agnieszka Gudowska, Andrzej Antoł, Anna Maria Labecka, Ulf Bauchinger, Jan Kozłowski, Marcin Czarnoleski
The rate at which organisms metabolize resources and consume oxygen is tightly linked to body mass. Typically, there is a sub-linear allometric relationship between metabolic rates and body mass (mass-scaling exponent b<1). The origin of this pattern remains one of the most intriguing and hotly debated topics in evolutionary physiology. A decrease in mass-specific metabolic rates in larger organisms might reflect disproportionate increases in body components with low metabolic activity, such as storage and skeletal tissues...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031994/clinical-classification-criteria-for-neurogenic-claudication-caused-by-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-the-n-class-criteria
#12
Stéphane Genevay, Delphine S Courvoisier, Kika Konstantinou, Francisco M Kovacs, Marc Marty, James Rainville, Michael Norberg, Jean-François Kaux, Thomas D Cha, Jeffrey N Katz, Steven J Atlas
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Since imaging findings of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) may not be associated with symptoms, clinical classification criteria based on patient symptoms and physical examination findings are needed. PURPOSE: To develop clinical classification criteria that identify patients with neurogenic claudication (NC) caused by LSS. STUDY DESIGN: Two stage process. Phase 1: Delphi process; Phase 2: cross-sectional study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Outpatients recruited from spine clinics in 5 countries...
October 12, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031721/cdkal1-a-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-gene-regulates-mitochondrial-function-in-adipose-tissue
#13
Colin J Palmer, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Lawrence Kazak, Jonathan Z Long, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Katherine B LeClair, Jessica A Hall, Shangyu Hong, Peter-James H Zushin, Kyle L Smith, Steven P Gygi, Susan Hagen, David E Cohen, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVES: Understanding how loci identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathogenesis requires new mechanistic insights. Variants within CDKAL1 are strongly linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Investigations in mouse models have focused on the function of Cdkal1 as a tRNA(Lys) modifier and downstream effects of Cdkal1 loss on pro-insulin translational fidelity in pancreatic β-cells. However, Cdkal1 is broadly expressed in other metabolically relevant tissues, including adipose tissue...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031713/peripheral-cannabinoid-1-receptor-blockade-restores-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#14
Joseph Tam, Gergő Szanda, Adi Drori, Ziyi Liu, Resat Cinar, Yoshihiro Kashiwaya, Marc L Reitman, George Kunos
OBJECTIVE: In visceral obesity, an overactive endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor (CB1R) system promotes increased caloric intake and decreases energy expenditure, which are mitigated by global or peripheral CB1R blockade. In mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), inhibition of food intake by the peripherally restricted CB1R antagonist JD5037 could be attributed to endogenous leptin due to the rapid reversal of hyperleptinemia that maintains leptin resistance, but the signaling pathway engaged by leptin has remained to be determined...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031552/agrp-knockdown-blocks-long-term-appetitive-but-not-consummatory-feeding-behaviors-in-siberian-hamsters
#15
REVIEW
M Alex Thomas, Vy Tran, Vitaly Ryu, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
Arcuate hypothalamus-derived agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are critical for maintaining energy homeostasis. Fasting markedly upregulates AgRP/NPY expression and circulating ghrelin, and exogenous ghrelin treatment robustly increases acute food foraging and food intake, and chronic food hoarding behaviors in Siberian hamsters. We previously demonstrated that 3rd ventricular AgRP injection robustly stimulates acute and chronic food hoarding, largely independent of food foraging and intake...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030644/how-to-prevent-the-detrimental-effects-of-two-months-of-bed-rest-on-muscle-bone-and-cardiovascular-system-an-rct
#16
Andreas Kramer, Albert Gollhofer, Gabriele Armbrecht, Dieter Felsenberg, Markus Gruber
Physical inactivity leads to a deconditioning of the skeletal, neuromuscular and cardiovascular system. It can lead to impaired quality of life, loss of autonomy, falls and fractures. Regular exercise would be a logical remedy, but the generally recommended high-volume endurance and strength training programs require a lot of time and equipment. In this randomized controlled study with 23 healthy participants, we established that a short, intensive jump training program can prevent the large musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning effects caused by two months of physical inactivity during bed rest, particularly the loss of bone mineral mass and density, lean muscle mass, maximal leg strength and peak oxygen uptake...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030560/risk-of-sarcopenia-and-osteoporosis-in-male-tuberculosis-survivors-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#17
Chang-Jin Choi, Whan-Seok Choi, Churl-Min Kim, Sook-Young Lee, Kyung-Soo Kim
Short-term prospective studies have suggested that pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) preludes permanent loss of lean tissue and fat mass even when TB treatment is effective. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of sarcopenia and osteoporosis among Korean male TB survivors. Data of the population-based, Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011) were analyzed, including 3,228 males aged 50 years or older who underwent chest X-ray (CXR) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030250/fructo-oligosaccharides-reduce-energy-intake-but-do-not-affect-adiposity-in-rats-fed-a-low-fat-diet-but-increase-energy-intake-and-reduce-fat-mass-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Zouheyr Hadri, Rojo Rasoamanana, Gilles Fromentin, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Patrick C Even, Claire Gaudichon, Nicolas Darcel, Abdelkader Dilmi Bouras, Daniel Tomé, Catherine Chaumontet
The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS...
October 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029690/identifying-and-eliminating-inefficiencies-in-information-system-usage-a-lean-perspective
#19
Vincent Blijleven, Kitty Koelemeijer, Monique Jaspers
OBJECTIVES: Mismatches frequently occur between information system (IS) dictated workflows and actual workflows of IS users. The resulting impeded workflows negatively influence the efficiency with which goods or services are produced and delivered to customers. Within a healthcare context, impeded workflows can additionally have a negative impact on the safety and effectiveness of care delivered to patients. METHODS: This study evaluates the impact of an electronic health record system of a large university hospital on workflows of healthcare professionals from a lean management waste perspective...
November 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029131/plasma-amino-acids-stimulate-uncoupled-respiration-of-muscle-subsarcolemmal-mitochondria-in-lean-but-not-obese-humans
#20
Katon A Kras, Nyssa Hoffman, Lori R Roust, Shivam H Patel, Chad C Carroll, Christos S Katsanos
Context: Obesity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Increasing the plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations stimulates mitochondrial ATP production in lean individuals. Objective: To determine whether acute elevation in plasma AAs enhances muscle mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in obese adults. Design: Assessment of SS and IMF mitochondria function during saline (i...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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