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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684027/chronic-calcitriol-supplementation-improves-the-inflammatory-profiles-of-circulating-monocytes-and-the-associated-intestinal-adipose-tissue-alteration-in-a-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#1
Yen-Bo Su, Tzu-Hao Li, Chia-Chang Huang, Hung-Cheng Tsai, Shiang-Fen Huang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Vitamin D deficiency and up-regulated TNFα-related signals are reported to be involved in abnormalities including intestinal hyper-permeability, bacterial translocation, systemic/portal endotoxemia, intestinal/adipose tissue/hepatic inflammation, and hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms and effects of chronic calcitriol [1,25-(OH)2D3, hormonal form of vitamin D] on gut-adipose tissue-liver axis abnormalities using a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat model of NASH...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682594/the-role-of-leptin-in-maintaining-plasma-glucose-during-starvation
#2
Rachel J Perry, Gerald I Shulman
For 20 years it has been known that concentrations of leptin, a hormone produced by the white adipose tissue (WAT) largely in proportion to body fat, drops precipitously with starvation, particularly in lean humans and animals. The role of leptin to suppress the thyroid and reproductive axes during a prolonged fast has been well defined; however, the impact of leptin on metabolic regulation has been incompletely understood. However emerging evidence suggests that, in starvation, hypoleptinemia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting WAT lipolysis, increasing hepatic acetyl-CoA concentrations, and maintaining euglycemia...
March 2018: Postdoc Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682291/metformin-in-gestational-diabetes-the-offspring-follow-up-mig-tofu-body-composition-and-metabolic-outcomes-at-7-9-years-of-age
#3
Janet A Rowan, Elaine C Rush, Lindsay D Plank, Jun Lu, Victor Obolonkin, Suzette Coat, William M Hague
Objective: To compare body composition and metabolic outcomes at 7-9 years in offspring of women with gestational diabetes (GDM) randomized to metformin (±insulin) or insulin treatment during pregnancy. Research design and methods: Children were assessed at 7 years in Adelaide (n=109/181) and 9 years in Auckland (n=99/396) by anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=92/99) and fasting bloods (n=82/99)...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682045/cerebrospinal-fluid-egress-from-the-quadripolar-deep-brain-stimulation-electrode-for-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-for-refractory-epilepsy
#4
Byung-Chul Son, Jin-Gyu Choi, Sang-Woo Ha
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is an effective treatment for refractory epilepsy. Due to the unique location of ANT in the thalamus facing the lateral and third ventricles, transventricular DBS lead placement is an essential part of ANT DBS. However, there is no report regarding hardware problems including impedance variability in transventricular ANT DBS due to limited experience. A 45-year-old male patient with previously effective, bilateral ANT DBS presented with increasing seizure frequency and a shortened battery longevity within 2 years...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681710/possible-link-between-stress-related-factors-and-altered-body-composition-in-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#5
Barnali Ray Basu, Olivia Chowdhury, Sudip Kumar Saha
Background: Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered...
January 2018: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681438/usefulness-of-reflection-scanning-in-determining-whole-body-composition-in-broadly-built-individuals-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#6
Andreia V Moço, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Paulo M Rocha, Cláudia S Minderico, Edilson S Cyrino, Luís B Sardinha, Analiza M Silva
Whole-body composition analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires subjects to fit within the width limits of the DXA bed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to validate a partial scanning technique at which the upper left limb is deliberately left unscanned and measurements are "reflected" from the right-side upper limb. A Hologic Explorer-W densitometer was used in a sample of 189 participants, including athletes and nonathletes, ranging from underweight to obese (body mass index: 17...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681169/system-wide-lean-implementation-in-health-care-a-multiple-case-study
#7
Federica Centauri, Pamela Mazzocato, Stefano Villa, Marta Marsilio
Background Lean practices have been widely used by health care organizations to meet efficiency, performance and quality improvement needs. The lean health care literature shows that the effective implementation of lean requires a holistic system-wide approach. However, there is still limited evidence on what drives effective system-wide lean implementation in health care. The existing literature suggests that a deeper understanding of how lean interventions interact with the organizational context is necessary to identify the critical variables to successfully sustain system-wide lean strategies...
January 1, 2018: Health Services Management Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680707/mice-selectively-bred-for-high-voluntary-wheel-running-behavior-conserve-more-fat-despite-increased-exercise
#8
Layla Hiramatsu, Theodore Garland
Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes...
April 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679919/the-effect-of-growth-hormone-on-bioactive-igf-in-overweight-obese-women
#9
Laura E Dichtel, Mette Bjerre, Melanie Schorr, Miriam A Bredella, Anu V Gerweck, Brian M Russell, Jan Frystyk, Karen K Miller
OBJECTIVE: Overweight/obesity is characterized by decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion whereas circulating IGF-I levels are less severely reduced. Yet, the activity of the circulating IGF-system appears to be normal in overweight/obese subjects, as estimated by the ability of serum to activate the IGF-I receptor in vitro (bioactive IGF). We hypothesized that preservation of bioactive IGF in overweight/obese women is regulated by an insulin-mediated suppression of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and IGFBP-2, and by suppression of IGFBP-3, mediated by low GH...
March 10, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679690/reduced-body-weight-or-increased-muscle-quality-which-is-more-important-for-improving-physical-function-following-exercise-and-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-older-women
#10
Chad R Straight, Alison C Berg, Rachelle A Reed, Mary Ann Johnson, Ellen M Evans
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d)...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679411/the-use-of-a-logistic-regression-model-to-develop-a-risk-assessment-of-intraoperatively-acquired-pressure-ulcer
#11
Ling Gao, Lina Yang, Xiaoqin Li, Jin Chen, Juan Du, Xiaoxia Bai, Xianjun Yang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To screen the factors of intraoperatively acquired pressure ulcer (IAPU) and establish a new risk assessment model of IAPU. DESIGN: This is a prospective study. METHODS: A total of 1963 patients who received neurosurgery, orthopaedics, pediatric surgery and cardiac surgery therapy in Sichuan Academy of Medical Science and Provincial People's Hospital in China from October 2015 to October 2016 were enrolled in the study and their clinical parameters were collected...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678696/sarcopenic-obesity-revisited-insights-from-the-mr-and-ms-os-cohort
#12
Jean Woo, Jason Leung
OBJECTIVES: Following the concept of a metabolic load-capacity model, we propose the use of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) to total body fat (TBF) ratio in predicting 4-year physical limitations, physical performance measures, 6-year incident diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and 12-year mortality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 4000 men and women aged 65 years and older living in the community...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677533/proresolving-protein-annexin-a1-the-role-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity
#13
Nathalia T Pietrani, Cláudia N Ferreira, Kathryna F Rodrigues, Luiza O Perucci, Fernanda S Carneiro, Adriana A Bosco, Marina C Oliveira, Solange S Pereira, Antônio L Teixeira, Jacqueline I Alvarez-Leite, Adaliene V Ferreira, Lirlândia P Sousa, Karina B Gomes
BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a protein involved in inflammation resolution that might be altered in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), which is a chronic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate AnxA1 serum levels in individuals with and without DM stratified according to the body mass index (BMI), and the dynamic of AnxA1 expression in adipose tissue from humans with obesity and non-obesity. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with DM (lean, overweight and obese) and 40 controls, and adipose tissue samples were obtained from 16 individuals with obesity (with or without DM), and 15 controls...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676840/behavioral-morphological-and-electrophysiological-assessment-of-the-effects-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-large-and-small-nerve-fibers-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rat-zucker-lean-and-wistar-rats
#14
E Garcia-Perez, T Schönberger, M Sumalla, B Stierstorfer, R Solà, H Doods, J Serra, N Gorodetskaya
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The most common presentation is in the form of a distal axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy that involves large and small nerve fibers in variable proportion. METHODS: Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF), Zucker Lean (ZL) and Wistar Han (WH) rats were used to asses the behavioral, morphological and electrophysiological effects that T2DM have on peripheral large and small nerve fibers of 6-40 week-old rats...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676049/moderate-weight-loss-improves-body-composition-and-metabolic-function-in-metabolically-unhealthy-lean-subjects
#15
Yu Chung Chooi, Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, Yijun Lee, S Sendhil Velan, Faidon Magkos
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who have "metabolically obese normal weight" (MONW) have an increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. Moderate weight loss has multiple benefits in people with obesity, but its effects in lean people are unknown. Thus, the effects of diet-induced 5% weight loss on body composition and metabolic function in MONW subjects were evaluated. METHODS: Total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) volumes, intrahepatic and intramyocellular lipid contents, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), glucose tolerance, and postprandial insulin secretion and clearance rates (mixed meal with minimal modeling) were measured before and after 4...
April 19, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675640/effects-of-combined-whole-body-electromyostimulation-and-protein-supplementation-on-local-and-overall-muscle-fat-distribution-in-older-men-with-sarcopenic-obesity-the-randomized-controlled-franconia-sarcopenic-obesity-franso-study
#16
Wolfgang Kemmler, Alexandra Grimm, Michael Bebenek, Matthias Kohl, Simon von Stengel
The primary aim of the project was to determine the combined effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) and protein supplements on local and overall muscle/fat distribution in older man with sarcopenic obesity (SO). Community-dwelling (cdw) men ≥ 70 years with SO were randomly allocated to a WB-EMS and protein supplementation (n = 33) or a non-intervention control group (CG: n = 34). WB-EMS was conducted 1.5 sessions of 20 min/week for 16 weeks. Whey protein supplementation aimed to ensure a daily intake of 1...
April 19, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675043/cardiovascular-risk-factors-after-childhood-cancer-treatment-are-independent-of-the-fto-gene-polymorphism
#17
Małgorzata Sawicka-Żukowska, Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak, Paweł Bernatowicz, Katarzyna Muszyńska-Rosłan, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Włodzimierz Łuczyński
The study objective was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients treated for childhood cancer ( N = 101) and to determine the involvement of clinical (cancer type and therapy) and/or genetic ( FTO gene rs9939609 polymorphism) factors. Anthropometric features, laboratory findings, and standardized osteodensitometric indices (fat and lean mass) were considered. Overweight/obesity was found in 17.82% of the patients; however, central adiposity was found in as many as 42.5%. At least one abnormality in lipid metabolism was observed in 35...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674409/associations-of-adiponectin-leptin-levels-and-the-change-of-body-composition-in-patients-on-peritoneal-dialysis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Xiao Xu, Xue Tian, Yuan Chen, Zhi-Kai Yang, Zhen Qu, Jie Dong
BACKGROUND: Although the association between adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, and body composition has been noted, whether they could predict the change of fat mass and lean body mass is unknown. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) through a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) including fat mass and lean body mass were examined at baseline and then at year 3. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured...
April 19, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674342/app-deficiency-results-in-resistance-to-obesity-but-impairs-glucose-tolerance-upon-high-fat-feeding
#19
Juliane Czeczor, Amanda Genders, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Timothy Connor, Liam Hall, Kyoko Hasebe, Megan Ellis, Kirstie De Jong, Darren Henstridge, Peter Meikle, Mark Febbraio, Ken Walder, Sean L McGee
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates a number of peptides when processed through different cleavage mechanisms, including the Aβ peptide that is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease. It is well established that APP via its cleaved peptides regulates aspects of neuronal metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that amyloidogenic processing of APP can lead to altered systemic metabolism, similar to that observed in metabolic disease states. In the present study, we investigated the effect of APP deficiency on obesity-induced alterations in systemic metabolism...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673888/quantifying-the-burden-of-out-of-pocket-health-expenditure-in-india
#20
R Thakur, S Sangar, B Ram, M Faizan
OBJECTIVES: This study aims at analyzing the dimensions of the burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure in rural and urban India between 1999-2000 and 2011-2012. STUDY DESIGN: Consumer Expenditure Survey data of the National Sample Survey for the period of 1999-2000 (55th round), 2004-2005 (61st round), and 2011-2012 (68th round) have been used in this study. METHODS: To analyze the dimension of OOP healthcare expenditure, this study has used headcount measure, which includes change in the percentage of population paying OOP health expenditure, concentration index of headcount, rank-weighted headcount, and gap measures, which includes average per capita gap (health expenditure), mean positive gap, concentration index, and rank-weighted gap for rural, urban, and all India level between 1999-2000 and 2011-2012...
April 16, 2018: Public Health
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