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Chiung-Ying Huang, Szu-Ying Lee, Chung-Wei Yang, Szu-Chun Hung, Chih-Kang Chiang, Jenq-Wen Huang, Kuan-Yu Hung
BACKGROUND: Low lean body mass (LBM) is an indicator of malnutrition inflammation syndrome, which is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The creatinine index (CI) has been validated as a reliable method to estimate LBM and evaluate the protein-energy status of HD patients. However, the traditional creatinine index formula was complex. We sought to investigate the impact of CI derived from a new simple formula on Chinese HD patient outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 1269 patients who initiated HD between February 1981 and February 2012 and followed them until the end of February 2013...
2016: PloS One
D G Chang, R M Healey, A J Snyder, J V Sayson, B R Macias, D G Coughlin, J F Bailey, S E Parazynski, J C Lotz, A R Hargens
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate lumbar paraspinal muscle (PSM) cross-sectional area and intervertebral disc (IVD) height changes induced by a 6-month space mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The long-term objective of this project is to promote spine health and prevent spinal injury during space missions as well as here on Earth. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND: NASA crewmembers have a 4.3 times higher risk of herniated IVDs, compared to the general and military aviator populations...
October 25, 2016: Spine
L Balazova, K Krskova, M Suski, V Sisovsky, N Hlavacova, R Olszanecki, D Jezova, S Zorad
Increasing evidence indicates a role of oxytocin in controlling energy metabolism. The aim of his study was to investigate oxytocin effects on obese phenotype in leptin-resistant Zucker fatty rats, focusing on glucose and lipid metabolism. Zucker fatty rats and their lean controls were treated with oxytocin (3.6 μg/100g body weight/day) by osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously for 2 weeks. Two-hours intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in fasting rats. Oxytocin decreased food intake in both phenotypes while body weight gain reduced only in obese animals...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Wensi Tao, Robert Moore, Yue Meng, Toni M Yeasky, Elizabeth R Smith, Xiang-Xi Xu
Disabled-2 (Dab2) is a widely expressed clathrin binding endocytic adaptor protein and known for the endocytosis of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family receptors. Dab2 also modulates endosomal Ras/MAPK (Erk1/2) activity by regulating the disassembly of Grb2/Sos1 complexes associated with clathrin-coated vesicles. We found that the most prominent phenotype of Dab2 knockout mice was their striking lean body composition under a high fat and high caloric diet, although the weight of the mutant mice was indistinguishable from wild-type littermates on a regular chow...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Richard S Legro, Allen R Kunselman, Christy M Stetter, Carol L Gnatuk, Stephanie J Estes, Eleanor Brindle, Hubert W Vesper, Julianne C Botelho, Peter A Lee, William C Dodson
CONTEXT: Daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are thought to be at increased risk for developing stigmata of the syndrome, but the ontogeny during puberty is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To phenotype daughters (N = 76) of mothers with PCOS and daughters (N = 80) from control mothers for reproductive and metabolic parameters characteristic of PCOS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Matched Case/Control Study, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Non-Hispanic, Caucasian girls age 4-17 INTERVENTION: Obtain birth history, biometric, ovarian ultrasounds, whole body DXA scan for body composition, 2 hour glucose challenged salivary insulin levels and two timed urinary collections (12 hours overnight and 3 hours AM) for gonadotropins and sex steroids...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Abdoulaye Diane, W David Pierce, Sandra E Kelly, Sharon Sokolik, Faye Borthwick, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Rabban Mangat, Jesus Miguel Pradillo, Stuart McRae Allan, Megan R Ruth, Catherine J Field, Rebecca Hutcheson, Petra Rocic, James C Russell, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent (cp) trait resulting from a premature stop codon in the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor. Rats that are heterozygous for the cp trait are lean-prone, while those that are homozygous (cp/cp) spontaneously display the pathophysiology of obesity as well as a metabolic syndrome (MetS)-like phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Kendra Johnson, Lukasz Mazur, Janet Chadwick, Pegah Pooya, Alison Amos, John McCreery
PURPOSE: To explore how Lean can add value during the schematic phase of design through providing additional resources and support to project leadership and the architectural design team. BACKGROUND: This case study-based research took place at one large academic hospital during design efforts of surgical tower to house 19 operating rooms (ORs) and support spaces including pre- and post-op, central processing and distribution, and materials management. Surgical services project leadership asked for Lean practitioners' support during the design process...
October 24, 2016: HERD
Y Y Hyun, K B Lee, E J Rhee, C Y Park, Y Chang, S Ryu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Body composition contributes to the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerular hyperfiltration. In adults with normal body mass index (BMI), the relationships of body composition with CKD and high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 10,734 adults from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), whose body mass index (BMI) was within the normal range (18...
September 17, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
T H Mina, M Lahti, A J Drake, K Räikkönen, H Minnis, F C Denison, J E Norman, R M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Linqing Liu, Kun Qian, Chonglong Wang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the fat traits that has economic importance in the pork industry. Longissimus dorsi muscle contains IMF and is suitable for studying adipogenesis. To discover further potential regulatory miRNAs that may influence adipogenesis, we analyzed miRNA in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Yorkshire (YY, lean-type) and Chinese Wannanhua (WH, fatty) pigs using miRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq). From this dataset, we identified 598 unique miRNAs comprising 325 pre-miRNAs and 273 novel pre-miRNAs through comparison with known miRNAs in miRBase version 21...
October 24, 2016: Animal Genetics
Anne M L Würtz, Mette D Hansen, Anne Tjønneland, Eric B Rimm, Erik B Schmidt, Kim Overvad, Marianne U Jakobsen
Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), whereas vegetable consumption has been found to be protective. The aim of this study was to investigate substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish with vegetables or potatoes for MI prevention. We followed up 29 142 women and 26 029 men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for MI associated with specified food substitutions of 150 g/week...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Rimante Ronto, Lauren Ball, Donna Pendergast, Neil Harris
The high school setting has been identified as an ideal setting to teach adolescents about healthy dietary behaviours. This study explored home economics teachers' (HETs) views on the role of high schools in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and promoting healthy dietary behaviours. Semi-structured interviews with 22 HETs were conducted. The interview questions focused on the perceived strengths/opportunities and the limitations/barriers in enhancing adolescents' food literacy and healthy dietary behaviours in Australian high schools...
October 19, 2016: Appetite
Camilo A F Salvador, Mariana R Dal Bó, Fernando H Costa, Marcia O Taipina, Eder S N Lopes, Rubens Caram
In this study, we explored the Ti-Nb-Fe system to find an optimal cost-effective composition with the lowest elastic modulus and the lowest added Nb content. Six Ti-(31-4x)Nb-(1+0.5x)Fe ingots were prepared and Nb was substituted with Fe, starting at Ti-31Nb-1.0Fe and going up to Ti-11Nb-3.5Fe (wt%). The ingots were subjected to cold rolling, recrystallization and solution treatment, followed by water-quenching (WQ), furnace cooling (FC) or step-quenching to 350°C, which caused massive formation of isothermal ω phase...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Sijie Tan, Cheng Chen, Mingyang Sui, Lunan Xue, Jianxiong Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of exercise training on body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in 5-year-old obese and lean children. METHODS: 42 obese and 62 lean children were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups separately. Body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness were measured at baseline and the end of the intervention. The exercise groups participated in 10 weeks of supervised moderate intensity exercise training (at 50% of heart rate reserve), 50 training sessions in total...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Scott C Forbes, Nathan Sletten, Cody Durrer, Étienne Myette-Cote, Darren Candow, Jonathan P Little
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. Creatine (Cr) supplementation may augment responses to HIIT, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four weeks of HIIT (three sessions/week) combined with Cr supplementation in recreationally active females. Seventeen females (age = 23 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 23.4 ± 2.4) were randomly assigned to either Cr (Cr; 0...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Marlies Bekaert, D Margriet Ouwens, Tina Hörbelt, Frederique Van de Velde, Pia Fahlbusch, Daniella Herzfeld de Wiza, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Patrick Calders, Marleen Praet, Anne Hoorens, Anja Geerts, Xavier Verhelst, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Bruno Lapauw
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether circulating levels and/or visceral adipose tissue (VAT) expression of recently described adipokines associate with histopathological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), independent of obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: Serum levels of adiponectin, omentin, chemerin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 81 patients with obesity and NAFLD and 18 lean control subjects...
October 21, 2016: Obesity
Ryan J Anderson, Bryan Corbett, Binh T Ly
A 37-year-old male presented with sharp, severe chest pain following seven days of intravenous injection of crushed morphine tablets. The chest pain was positional and pleuritic in nature and resolved with leaning forward. Work-up was notable for an ECG with inferior and anterolateral PR depressions as well as a CT chest with diffuse centrilobular nodules. Per radiology, the CT findings along with the patient's history were concerning for pulmonary granulomatosis from deposition of talc or some other foreign body...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Rita Payan-Carreira, Luis Martins, Sónia Miranda, Pedro Olivério, Severiano R Silva
BACKGROUND: Systems for estimating body condition score (BCS) are currently used in canine practice to monitor fatness levels. These tools are cheap and easy to use but lack the necessary precision to monitor small changes in body fat, particularly during weight control treatments or in research. The present work aims to study the application of real-time ultrasonography (RTU) together with image analysis in the assessment of subcutaneous fat depots in dogs. Ultrasound images were collected from five anatomical locations (chest, flank, abdomen, thigh and lumbar) from 28 healthy dogs of different breeds and with a body weight (BW) ranging from 5...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Tomohiro Kaneta, Matsuyoshi Ogawa, Hiromitsu Daisaki, Shintaro Nawata, Keisuke Yoshida, Tomio Inoue
The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Justin D La Favor, Gabriel S Dubis, Huimin Yan, Joseph D White, Margaret A M Nelson, Ethan J Anderson, Robert C Hickner
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) on microvascular endothelial function in obese human subjects and the efficacy of an aerobic exercise intervention on alleviating obesity-associated dysfunctionality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Young, sedentary men and women were divided into lean (body mass index 18-25; n=14), intermediate (body mass index 28-32.5; n=13), and obese (body mass index 33-40; n=15) groups...
October 20, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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