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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923191/effects-of-endurance-exercise-training-on-inflammatory-circulating-progenitor-cell-content-in-lean-and-obese-adults
#1
Grace M Niemiro, Jacob M Allen, Lucy J Mailing, Naiman A Khan, Hannah D Holscher, Jeffrey A Woods, Michael De Lisio
KEY POINTS: Chronic inflammation underlies many of the health decrements associated with obesity. Circulating progenitor cells can sense and respond to inflammatory stimuli, increasing the local inflammatory response within tissues. Here we show that 6 weeks of endurance exercise training significantly decreases inflammatory circulating progenitor cells in obese adults. These findings provide novel cellular mechanisms for the beneficial effects of exercise in obese adults. ABSTRACT: Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and subpopulations are normally found in the bone marrow, but can migrate to peripheral tissues to participate in local inflammation and/or remodelling...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922964/innate-immune-cells-in-the-adipose-tissue
#2
REVIEW
Kyoung-Jin Chung, Marina Nati, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou
Immune cells are present in the adipose tissue (AT) and regulate its function. Under lean conditions, immune cells predominantly of type 2 immunity, including eosinophils, M2-like anti-inflammatory macrophages and innate lymphoid cells 2, contribute to the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis within the AT. In the course of obesity, pro-inflammatory immune cells, such as M1-like macrophages, prevail in the AT. Inflammation in the obese AT is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
June 19, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922389/seasonal-body-composition-variation-amongst-elite-european-professional-soccer-players-an-approach-of-talent-identification
#3
Adam Lee Owen, Carlos Lago-Peñas, Gordon Dunlop, Rouissi Mehdi, Moktar Chtara, Alexandre Dellal
The primary aim of the investigation was to study the seasonal changes in body composition in elite European soccer players and identify key playing positional differences. Twenty-two players (age = 24 ± 3.7 years, body height = 180.45 ± 5.12 cm, body mass = 76.66 ± 5.34 kg) were tested. Players' mass (kg), lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), muscle girths (MG) and sum of 8 skinfolds (mm) were measured across 5 time points (T0 = Start of pre-season training; T1 = End of pre-season training; T2 = Mid-season; T3 = End of mid-season break; T4 = End of season)...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922168/co-expression-analysis-of-sirtuins-and-related-metabolic-biomarkers-in-juveniles-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-with-differences-in-growth-performance
#4
Paula Simó-Mirabet, Erick Perera, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Juan M Afonso, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Sirtuins (SIRTs) represent a conserved protein family of deacetylases that act as master regulators of metabolism, but little is known about their roles in fish and livestock animals in general. The present study aimed to assess the value of SIRTs for the metabolic phenotyping of fish by assessing their co-expression with a wide-representation of markers of energy and lipid metabolism and intestinal function and health in two genetically different gilthead sea bream strains with differences in growth performance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921962/differences-in-the-prevalence-of-sarcopenia-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-using-hand-grip-strength-and-appendicular-lean-mass-depends-upon-guideline-definitions
#5
Asmat Abro, Lara-Anne Delicata, Surachet Vongsanim, Andrew Davenport
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with sarcopenia have increased risk of mortality. There is consensus that sarcopenia should combine assessments of muscle function and mass. We wished to determine the effect of using different operational definitions in PD patients. METHODS: Hand grip strength (HGS) and segmental bioimpedance derived appendicular lean mass (ALM) were measured and the prevalence of sarcopenia determined using the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project (FNIH), European Working Group on Sarcopenia Older Persons (EWGSOP), and Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS) definitions...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921800/interaction-between-an-adcy3-genetic-variant-and-two-weight-lowering-diets-affecting-body-fatness-and-body-composition-outcomes-depending-on-macronutrient-distribution-a-randomized-trial
#6
Leticia Goni, Jose Ignacio Riezu-Boj, Fermín I Milagro, Fernando J Corrales, Lourdes Ortiz, Marta Cuervo, J Alfredo Martínez
The adenylate cyclase 3 ( ADCY3 ) gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921567/diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-type-2-diabetes-in-women-with-pcos-a-role-of-ogtt
#7
Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common in premenopausal women. The majority of women with PCOS have insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is higher in women with PCOS compared to controls. In non-pregnant women with PCOS, glycemic status may be assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), or HbA1c. OGTT has been reckoned gold standard test for diagnosing T2D, but OGTT is rarely used for diagnostic purpose in other non-pregnant individuals at risk of T2D, apart from PCOS...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917036/weight-stigma-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis-reactivity-in-individuals-who-are-overweight
#8
Asia T McCleary-Gaddy, Carol T Miller, Kristie W Grover, James J Hodge, Brenda Major
Background: Stigmatized people exhibit blunted cortisol responses to many stressors. Purpose: To examine the cortisol responses of individuals who are overweight to a stigma-related stressor involving interviewing for a weight-discriminatory company. Methods: We recruited 170 men and women (mean age = 35.01) from towns located within about a 30-min drive of the study center. Weight was assessed using body mass index (BMI) and self-perceptions about being overweight...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916952/bioimpedance-spectroscopy-imprecisely-assesses-lean-body-mass-in-pediatric-dialysis-patients
#9
Gregorio P Milani, Jaap W Groothoff, Federica A Vianello, Emilio F Fossali, Fabio Paglialonga, Sivia Consolo, Alberto Edefonti, Dario Consonni, Dewi van Harskamp, Johannes B van Goudoever, Henk Schierbeek, Carlo Agostoni, Michiel J S Oosterveld
OBJECTIVES: Alterations in body compositions are strongly associated with poor outcomes in end-stage renal disease patients. Hence, assessment of lean body mass is crucial for clinically monitoring these patients. The use of multi-frequency bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements have also been advocated, but their usefulness in children is questioned. We investigated whether their application is appropriate for lean body mass measurement in pediatric patients receiving chronic dialysis...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915252/the-impact-of-dxa-derived-fat-free-adipose-tissue-on-the-prevalence-of-low-muscle-mass-in-older-adults
#10
Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke, Robert S Thiebaud, Eiji Fujita, Takuya Akamine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of eliminating fat-free adipose tissue (aFFAT) on the prevalence of low muscle mass in older adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Three hundred and forty-three (153 men and 190 women) well-functioning Japanese older adults (aged 65-79) had their appendicular lean mass (aLM) and appendicular fat mass (aFM) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). aFFAT was then estimated from DXA-derived aFM (aFM = (FM/0.15)*0...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914938/amino-acid-and-lipid-associated-plasma-metabolomic-patterns-are-related-to-healthspan-indicators-with-aging-in-humans
#11
Lawrence C Johnson, Christopher R Martens, Jessica R Santos-Parker, Candace J Bassett, Talia R Strahler, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Nichole Reisdorph, Matthew B McQueen, Douglas R Seals
Advancing age is associated with impairments in numerous physiological systems, leading to an increased risk of chronic disease and disability, and reduced healthspan (the period of high functioning healthy life). The plasma metabolome is thought to reflect changes in the activity of physiological systems that influence healthspan. Accordingly, we utilized an LC-MS metabolomics analysis of plasma collected from healthy young and older individuals to characterize global changes in small molecule abundances with age...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914626/a-positive-association-between-dietary-sodium-intake-and-obesity-and-central-obesity-results-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-1999-2006
#12
Xi Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Jibin Li, Yongfu Yu, Yiqing Song
The link between sodium and obesity has been accumulated over years. However, there has been few data reported on such sodium-obesity association from the general US population. This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is independently and positively associated with obesity, central obesity, and measures of body composition among generally healthy US adults. We analyzed data on 9162 healthy participants aged 24 to 48 years (4813 men and 4349 women) with at least one valid diet recall from the 8-year National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006)...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913450/lower-cognitive-function-in-older-patients-with-lower-muscle-strength-and-muscle-mass
#13
Romee van Dam, Jeanine M Van Ancum, Sjors Verlaan, Kira Scheerman, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with adverse outcomes in older hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cognitive functioning and muscle strength and muscle mass in hospitalized older patients. METHODS: This prospective inception cohort included 378 patients aged 70 years or older. At admission patients were assessed for cognitive functioning by use of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT)...
June 18, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912353/nutritional-impact-on-mammary-development-in-pigs-a-review
#14
Chantal Farmer
Milk yield is a crucial component of a sow operation because it is a limiting factor for piglet growth rate. Stimulating mammary development is one avenue that could be used to improve sow milk production. A number of studies have shown that nutrition of gilts or sows during the periods of rapid mammary accretion occurring during prepuberty, gestation, and lactation can affect mammary development. The present review provides an overview of all the information currently published on the subject and Table 1 summarizes the dietary treatments that enhance mammary development in pigs...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912025/using-lean-to-enhance-heart-failure-patient-identification-processes-and-increase-core-measure-scores
#15
Jennifer R Hunt, Kelli Jo Ouellette, Michelle Reece
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization among older adults in the United States. Health systems target readmission rates for quality improvement and cost reduction. LOCAL PROBLEM: Heart failure core measure (CM) scores at our medical center were lower than the national average, and methods for capturing the appropriate documentation on HF patients to ensure CM compliance were not clear. METHODS: An interdisciplinary team determined barriers to increasing CM scores, gathered baseline data, and identified gaps in the existing process...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911463/body-composition-of-lean-outdoor-intact-cats-vs-lean-indoor-neutered-cats-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#16
Martha G Cline, Angela L Witzel, Tamberlyn D Moyers, Claudia A Kirk
Objectives The objectives for this study were to compare the body composition of adult indoor neutered domestic cats with outdoor intact cats with an ideal body condition score using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to report the body composition findings of free-roaming cats, as this has not been previously reported. Most domestic house cats differ from free-roaming cats as they are confined indoors and neutered. Indoor neutered cats have reduced activity and hormonal alterations that may result in lower muscle mass and higher body fat percentages vs outdoor intact cats, despite similar body condition scores...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911407/when-the-party-decides-the-effects-of-facial-competence-and-dominance-on-internal-nominations-of-political-candidates
#17
Lasse Laustsen, Michael Bang Petersen
The facial traits and appearance of political candidates have been found to predict election outcomes across countries with different electoral systems and institutions. Research over the last decade has provided two different versions of this overall conclusion. First and most thoroughly studied, candidates who from their mere faces are evaluated as more competent get more votes on Election Day. Second, recent research finds that the ideological leanings of candidates and the voters they cater to also matter: Right-wing and conservative candidates receive more votes if they look more dominant, while liberal candidates lose votes when looking dominant and masculine...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911405/presidential-but-not-prime-minister-candidates-with-lower-pitched-voices-stand-a-better-chance-of-winning-the-election-in-conservative-countries
#18
Benjamin Banai, Lasse Laustsen, Irena Pavela Banai, Kosta Bovan
Previous studies have shown that voters rely on sexually dimorphic traits that signal masculinity and dominance when they choose political leaders. For example, voters exert strong preferences for candidates with lower pitched voices because these candidates are perceived as stronger and more competent. Moreover, experimental studies demonstrate that conservative voters, more than liberals, prefer political candidates with traits that signal dominance, probably because conservatives are more likely to perceive the world as a threatening place and to be more attentive to dangerous and threatening contexts...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911038/lean-mass-and-disease-activity-are-the-best-predictors-of-bone-mineral-loss-in-the-premenopausal-women-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Meha Sharma, Urmila Dhakad, Anupam Wakhlu, Danveer Bhadu, Deep Dutta, Siddharth K Das
Background and Objectives: Factors determining bone mineral (BM) loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not well known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of BM loss in the young premenopausal women with RA. Methods: Ninety-six females with RA and 90 matched controls underwent clinical, biochemical, BM density (BMD), and body composition assessments. RA disease activity was assessed using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28) and hand X-ray...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910808/c-reactive-protein-crp-and-leptin-receptor-in-obesity-binding-of-monomeric-crp-to-leptin-receptor
#20
Manu Sudhakar, Santhi Silambanan, Abhinand S Chandran, Athira A Prabhakaran, Ramya Ramakrishnan
While leptin deficiency or dysfunction leads to morbid obesity, obese subjects are characterized paradoxically by hyperleptinemia indicating lack of response to leptin. C-reactive protein (CRP) has been suggested to be a key plasma protein that could bind to leptin. To examine whether CRP interferes with leptin action, mediated through its cell surface receptor, docking studies of CRP with the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor were done employing bioinformatics tools. Monomeric CRP docked with better Z -rank score and more non-bond interactions than pentameric CRP at the CRH2-FNIII domain proximal to the cell membrane, distinct from the leptin-docking site...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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