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Ventricular structure-function relation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758301/lipid-roles-in-herg-function-and-interactions-with-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Meruyert Kudaibergenova, Laura L Perissinotti, Sergei Y Noskov
Human-ether-a-go-go-related channel (hERG) is a voltage gated potassium channel (Kv 11.1) abundantly expressed in heart and brain tissues. In addition to playing an important role in mediation of repolarizing K+ currents (IKr ) in Action Potential (AP), hERG is notorious for its propensity to interact with various medications. The drug-induced block of K+ currents across hERG channel are strongly associated with dysrhythmic conditions collectively known as drug-induced long-QT-syndrome. The recent availability of the high-resolution Cryo-EM structures for the hERG channel has provided unique opportunity to resolve structural mechanisms involved into the process of voltage-gating of hERG channels, map various roles played by components of ventricular and neuronal membranes and then to connect it to cellular pathways through which diverse chemical compounds might be affecting function of the channel...
May 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751952/relation-of-velocity-time-integral-of-the-left-ventricular-outflow-tract-to-that-of-the-descending-thoracic-aorta-and-usefulness-of-a-fixed-ratio-for-internal-validation
#2
Rupesh Ranjan, Erik M Valez, Anshul Haldipur, Nelson B Schiller
Measurement of left ventricular outflow tract velocity-time integral (LVOT VTI) is technician-, instrument-, and reader-dependent; variability is more common for pulsed-wave Doppler than continuous-wave Doppler. We hypothesize that in a population with normal cardiac structure and function, LVOT VTI is higher than VTI of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) and this relation may be used clinically to validate the former. Furthermore, the DTA VTI could also be used to estimate LVOT. We retrospectively compared the LVOT VTI against VTI measured from DTA, abdominal aorta, and pulmonary artery among 108 healthy subjects...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744643/correction-to-reference-ranges-of-left-ventricular-structure-and-function-assessed-by-contrast-enhanced-cardiac-mr-and-changes-related-to-ageing-and-hypertension-in-a-population-based-study
#3
Robin Bülow, Till Ittermann, Marcus Dörr, Axel Poesch, Sönke Langner, Henry Völzke, Norbert Hosten, Marc Dewey
The original version of this article, published on 14 March 2018, unfortunately contained a mistake.
April 19, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731506/future-perspectives-for-management-of-stage-a-heart-failure
#4
Hidekazu Tanaka
Patients with Stage A heart failure (HF) show no HF symptoms but have related comorbid diseases with a high risk of progressing to HF. Screening for comorbid diseases warrants closer attention because of the growing interest in addressing Stage A HF as the best means of preventing eventual progression to overt HF such as Stages C and D. The identification of individuals of Stage A HF is potentially useful for the implementation of HF-prevention strategies; however, not all Stage A HF patients develop left ventricular (LV) structural heart disease or symptomatic HF, which lead to advanced HF stages...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720500/xanthine-oxidase-inhibitor-allopurinol-prevents-oxidative-stress-mediated-atrial-remodeling-in-alloxan-induced-diabetes-mellitus-rabbits
#5
Yajuan Yang, Jianping Zhao, Jiuchun Qiu, Jian Li, Xue Liang, Zhiwei Zhang, Xiaowei Zhang, Huaying Fu, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Konstantinos P Letsas, Gary Tse, Guangping Li, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND: There are several mechanisms, including inflammation, oxidative stress and abnormal calcium homeostasis, involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. In diabetes mellitus (DM), increased oxidative stress may be attributable to higher xanthine oxidase activity. In this study, we examined the relationship between oxidative stress and atrial electrical and structural remodeling, and calcium handling abnormalities, and the potential beneficial effects of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol upon these pathological changes...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716942/mechanosensitive-gene-regulation-by-myocardin-related-transcription-factors-is-required-for-cardiomyocyte-integrity-in-load-induced-ventricular-hypertrophy
#6
Michael A Trembley, Pearl Quijada, Esperanza Agullo-Pascual, Kevin M Tylock, Mert Colpan, Ronald A Dirkx, Jason R Myers, Deanne M Mickelsen, Karen de Mesy Bentley, Eli Rothenberg, Christine S Moravec, Jeffrey D Alexis, Carol C Gregorio, Robert T Dirksen, Mario Delmar, Eric M Small
Background -Hypertrophic cardiomyocyte (CM) growth and dysfunction accompanies various forms of heart disease. The mechanisms responsible for transcriptional changes that impact cardiac physiology and the transition to heart failure (HF) are not well understood. The intercalated disc (ID) is a specialized intercellular junction coupling CM electrical activity and force transmission, and is gaining attention as a mechanosensitive signaling hub and hotspot for causative mutations in cardiomyopathy. Methods -Transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) were used to examine changes in ID structure and protein localization in the murine and human heart...
May 1, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716898/load-dependent-changes-in-left-ventricular-structure-and-function-in-a-pathophysiologically-relevant-murine-model-of-reversible-heart-failure
#7
Carla J Weinheimer, Attila Kovacs, Sarah Evans, Scot J Matkovich, Philip M Barger, Douglas L Mann
BACKGROUND: To better understand reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, we developed a murine model wherein mice develop LV remodeling after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and a small apical myocardial infarct (MI) and undergo reverse LV remodeling after removal of the aortic band. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice studied were subjected to sham (n=6) surgery or TAC+MI (n=12). Two weeks post-TAC+MI, 1 group underwent debanding (referred to as heart failure debanding [HF-DB] mice; n=6), whereas the aortic band remained in a second group (heart failure [HF] group; n=6)...
May 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695446/functional-mri-in-the-nile-crocodile-a-new-avenue-for-evolutionary-neurobiology
#8
Mehdi Behroozi, Brendon K Billings, Xavier Helluy, Paul R Manger, Onur Güntürkün, Felix Ströckens
Crocodilians are important for understanding the evolutionary history of amniote neural systems as they are the nearest extant relatives of modern birds and share a stem amniote ancestor with mammals. Although the crocodilian brain has been investigated anatomically, functional studies are rare. Here, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), never tested in poikilotherms, to investigate crocodilian telencephalic sensory processing. Juvenile Crocodylus niloticus were placed in a 7 T MRI scanner to record blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during the presentation of visual and auditory stimuli...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695144/speckle-tracking-analysis-of-myocardial-deformation-in-correlation-to-age-in-healthy-horses
#9
Heidrun Gehlen, Lisa-Marie Bildheim
An effect of aging on cardiac morphology and function has been shown in humans. In horses, cardiac wall-motion analysis has not been performed using two-dimensional speckle tracking (2D-ST) so far. Our study included 57 horses of different warmblood breeds between 3 and 30 years of age. Age had a significant influence on left ventricular (LVFW) systolic strain rate (P ≤ 0.05) and early diastolic relaxation (P ≤ 0.01). In the interventricular septum (IVS), systolic (P ≤ 0.01) and late diastolic (P ≤ 0...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694847/cardio-protection-of-ultrafine-granular-powder-for-salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-against-myocardial-infarction
#10
Linlin Wang, Yuanmin Li, Wen Deng, Zhihui Dong, Xue Li, Dan Liu, Lijie Zhao, Weiguo Fu, Kenka Cho, Huaying Niu, Dean Guo, Jinle Cheng, Baohong Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Myocardial infarction (MI) is considered as the major inducer to the morbidity and mortality related to coronary occlusion. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is widely applied in the clinic for the prevention and treatment of heart diseases. The preparation of traditional herb decoction (THD) is not only time consuming but also difficult to keep uniform for every time. New usage form of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge with characteristics of convenience, uniform and efficiency is needed...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680771/exercise-induced-left-bundle-branch-block-in-isotopic-exercise-test-findings-and-prognostic-value
#11
M V Gomez, B C Lorente Castro, P Jané, L García-Zoghby, A Martínez-Lorca, J A Pérez
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced left bundle branch block (EI-LBBB) is a rare circumstance of unknown significance. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scintigraphic features and the prognostic value of this finding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the features of 1,885 patients who had visited our department to undergo GATED-SPECT ergometry to diagnose ischaemic heart disease. Seven patients showed EI-LBBB throughout the exercise testing. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 of them...
April 18, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677464/improving-the-quality-of-preclinical-research-echocardiography-observations-training-and-guidelines-for-measurement
#12
Daniel G Donner, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Jun Du, Thomas H Marwick, Julie R McMullen
Informal training in preclinical research may be a contributor to the poor reproducibility of preclinical cardiology research and low rates of translation into clinical research and practice. Mouse echocardiography is a widely used technique to assess cardiac structure and function in drug intervention studies using disease models. The inter-observer variability (IOV) of clinical echocardiographic measurements has been shown to improve with formalized training, but preclinical echocardiography lacks similarly critical standardization of training...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667349/asb1-differential-methylation-in-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy-relationship-with-left-ventricular-performance-in-end-stage-heart-failure-patients
#13
Ana Ortega, Estefanía Tarazón, Carolina Gil-Cayuela, Luis Martínez-Dolz, Francisca Lago, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Juan Sandoval, Manuel Portolés, Esther Roselló-Lletí, Miguel Rivera
AIMS: Ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) leads to impaired contraction and ventricular dysfunction, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality. Epigenomics allows the identification of epigenetic signatures in human diseases. We analyse the differential epigenetic patterns of the ASB gene family in ICM patients and relate these alterations to their haemodynamic and functional status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Epigenomic analysis was carried out using 16 left ventricular (LV) tissue samples, eight from ICM patients undergoing heart transplantation and eight from control (CNT) subjects without cardiac disease...
April 17, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661902/brain-structure-and-cognition-3-years-after-the-end-of-an-early-menopausal-hormone-therapy-trial
#14
Kejal Kantarci, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Timothy G Lesnick, Samantha M Zuk, Val J Lowe, Julie A Fields, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Megan L Settell, Carey E Gleason, Lynne T Shuster, Kent R Bailey, N Maritza Dowling, Sanjay Asthana, Clifford R Jack, Walter A Rocca, Virginia M Miller
OBJECTIVE: The effects of 2 frequently used formulations of menopausal hormone therapy (mHT) on brain structure and cognition were investigated 3 years after the end of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in recently menopausal women with good cardiovascular health. METHODS: Participants (aged 42-56 years; 5-36 months past menopause) were randomized to one of the following: 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE); 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol (tE2); or placebo pills and patch for 4 years...
April 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659777/number-of-pregnancies-and-subsequent-phenotype-in-a-cross-sectional-cohort-of-women-with-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#15
Anna I Castrini, Øyvind H Lie, Ida S Leren, Mette E Estensen, Mathis K Stokke, Lars G Klæboe, Thor Edvardsen, Kristina H Haugaa
Aims: We aimed to assess the relation between number of pregnancies and cardiac structure, function, and arrhythmic events in women with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC). Methods and results: We included female AC patients in a cross-sectional study. Number of pregnancies and pregnancy related symptoms were recorded. Ventricular arrhythmias were defined as aborted cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy...
April 6, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652902/relations-between-right-ventricular-morphology-and-clinical-electrical-and-genetic-parameters-in-brugada-syndrome
#16
Belinda Gray, Ganesh Kumar Gnanappa, Richard D Bagnall, Giuseppe Femia, Laura Yeates, Jodie Ingles, Charlotte Burns, Rajesh Puranik, Stuart M Grieve, Christopher Semsarian, Raymond W Sy
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests the presence of structural changes affecting the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in patients with Brugada Syndrome (BrS). The aim of this study was to characterise the RV morphology in BrS and explore associations between morphologic, clinical, electrical, and genetic parameters using non-invasive multimodality testing. METHODS: Consecutive BrS patients (recruited 2013-2015) underwent clinical assessment, dedicated RV imaging using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging (unless contra-indicated), electrical assessment (electrocardiogram, Holter monitoring, signal-averaged ECG[SAECG]) and genotyping...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615435/association-of-biomarker-clusters-with-cardiac-phenotypes-and-mortality-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#17
Rebecca Scherzer, Sanjiv J Shah, Eric Secemsky, Javed Butler, Carl Grunfeld, Michael G Shlipak, Priscilla Y Hsue
BACKGROUND: Although individual cardiac biomarkers are associated with heart failure risk and all-cause mortality in HIV-infected individuals, their combined use for prediction has not been well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unsupervised k-means cluster analysis was performed blinded to the study outcomes in 332 HIV-infected participants on 8 biomarkers: ST2, NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15), cystatin C, IL-6 (interleukin-6), D-dimer, and troponin...
April 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602764/association-of-left-atrial-function-index-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-cardiovascular-disease-the-framingham-offspring-study
#18
Mayank Sardana, Darleen Lessard, Connie W Tsao, Nisha I Parikh, Bruce A Barton, Gregory Nah, Randell C Thomas, Susan Cheng, Nelson B Schiller, Jayashri R Aragam, Gary F Mitchell, Aditya Vaze, Emelia J Benjamin, Ramachandran S Vasan, David D McManus
BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) size, a marker of atrial structural remodeling, is associated with increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). LA function may also relate to AF and CVD, irrespective of LA structure. We tested the hypothesis that LA function index (LAFI), an echocardiographic index of LA structure and function, may better characterize adverse LA remodeling and predict incident AF and CVD than existing measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1786 Framingham Offspring Study eighth examination participants (mean age, 66±9 years; 53% women), we related LA diameter and LAFI (derived from the LA emptying fraction, left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral, and indexed maximal LA volume) to incidence of AF and CVD on follow-up...
March 30, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590384/atrial-remodelling-and-function-implications-for-atrial-fibrillation-surgery
#19
Stefano Benussi, Gijs E de Maat
The exact mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF) is still incompletely understood. A number of alterations that impact focal electrical discharge, the atrial substrate and modulating factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Atrial remodelling (resulting in atrial cardiomyopathy) sets the stage for AF development. Once present, AF results in the loss of synchronized atrial contraction, which affects ventricular filling and atrial reservoir and conduit functions. Passive atrial function is particularly important in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590340/exercise-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-to-differentiate-athlete-s-heart-from-structural-heart-disease
#20
Guido Claessen, Frédéric Schnell, Jan Bogaert, Mathias Claeys, Nele Pattyn, Frederik De Buck, Steven Dymarkowski, Piet Claus, Francois Carré, Johan Van Cleemput, Andre La Gerche, Hein Heidbuchel
Aims: The distinction between left ventricular (LV) dilation with mildly reduced LV ejection fraction (EF) in response to regular endurance exercise training and an early cardiomyopathy is a frequently encountered and difficult clinical conundrum. We hypothesized that exercise rather than resting measures would provide better discrimination between physiological and pathological LV remodelling and that preserved exercise capacity does not exclude significant LV damage. Methods and results: We prospectively included 19 subjects with LVEF between 40 and 52%, comprising 10 ostensibly healthy endurance athletes (EA-healthy) and nine patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)...
March 26, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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