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Ventricular structure-function relation

Milad C El Hajj, Van K Ninh, Elia C El Hajj, Jessica M Bradley, Jason D Gardner
We have previously demonstrated the cardioprotective effects of ovarian hormones against adverse ventricular remodeling imposed by chronic volume overload. Here, we assess the estrogen receptor dependence of this cardioprotection. Four groups of female rats were studied: sham-operated (SHAM), volume overloaded (ACF), SHAM treated with estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 (SHAM+ICI), and ACF treated with ICI. Cardiac function was assessed temporally using echocardiogram and tissue samples were collected at 5 days and 6 weeks post-surgery...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Nasser Razmaraii, Hossein Babaei, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Gholamreza Assadnassab, Javad Ashrafi Helan, Yadollah Azarmi
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE) as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on heart function. Methods: Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days) and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days) plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV) function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Che Wei Liao, Chi Sheng Hung, Chia Hung Chou, Yen Tin Lin, Xue Ming Wu, Yi Yao Chang, Ying Hsien Chen, Vin Cent Wu, Yi Lwun Ho, Kwan Dun Wu, Yen Hung Lin
OBJECTIVE: Aldosterone induces myocardial fibrosis. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is a key factor of myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, but the effect of aldosterone on TIMP-1 expression remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that aldosterone induces TIMP-1 expression and contributes to the fibrotic process. DESIGN AND METHOD: In the human study, we prospectively enrolled 54 patients with primary aldosteronism. Plasma TIMP-1 and echocardiographic parameters were measured...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Julie Demeulemeester, Jean-Luc Bigras, Mariane Bertagnolli, Li Feng Xie, Katryn Paquette, Rong Wu, Anik Cloutier, Thuy Mai Luu, Anne-Monique Nuyt
OBJECTIVE: Studies support a direct causal association between preterm birth and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Increased left and right ventricular mass, and impaired systolic and diastolic function were observed in young adults born preterm. Deleterious neonatal conditions, as in preterm birth, could significantly impact on myocardial tissue. We investigated how left ventricle (LV) echocardiographic parameters in young adults born preterm correlated with neonatal health parameters and interventions data...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alberto Avolio
Blood vessels function as conduits for distribution of blood throughout the circulatory system. Large arteries, in addition to the essential conduit function, also serve to dampen the effect of pulsatile ventricular ejection that generates pulsatile pressure with each cardiac cycle; that is, they exhibit a 'cushion' function. The conduit function can be compromised by intimal effects that cause obstruction to flow, generally attributed to plaque formation due to intimal changes affected by atherosclerotic processes...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chen-Huan Chen
Aging causes progressive changes in the structure and function of the large arteries that adversely impact the heart and vital organs. Vascular aging is a major independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases and events. Arterial stiffening is the dominant hemodynamic manifestation of vascular aging and a major independent predictor for incident hypertension. Arterial stiffening is therefore responsible for the very high residual lifetime risk for hypertension for middle-aged and elderly individuals...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Massimiliano Faustino, Tullio Agricola, Borejda Xyheri, Enrico Di Girolamo, Luigi Leonzio, Carmine Pizzi
We report a patient with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and low left ventricular systolic function (28%) presenting with an electrical storm originated in epicardial scar and ablated by radiofrequency. This case report suggests that a strategy of epicardial catheter ablation is reasonable for the patient presenting with electrical storm related to structural disease with a low left ventricular ejection fraction.
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Ruth L F Leong, June C Lo, Sam K Y Sim, Hui Zheng, Jesisca Tandi, Juan Zhou, Michael W L Chee
Although East Asia harbors the largest number of aging adults in the world, there is currently little data clarifying the longitudinal brain-cognition relationships in this group. Here, we report structural MRI and neuropsychological findings from relatively healthy Chinese older adults of the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study cohort over 8 years of follow up (n = 111, mean age = 67.1 years, range = 56.1-83.1 years at baseline). Aging-related change in structural volume was observed, with total cerebral atrophy at -0...
October 11, 2016: NeuroImage
Venkatesh L Murthy, Siddique A Abbasi, Juned Siddique, Laura A Colangelo, Jared Reis, Bharath A Venkatesh, J Jeffrey Carr, James G Terry, Sarah M Camhi, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Sarah de Ferranti, Saumya Das, Jane Freedman, Mercedes R Carnethon, Cora E Lewis, Joao A C Lima, Ravi V Shah
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence suggesting that early metabolic dysfunction impacts cardiovascular disease risk, current guidelines focus on risk assessments later in life, missing early transitions in metabolic risk that may represent opportunities for averting the development of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 4420 young adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we defined a "metabolic" risk score based on components of the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel's definition of metabolic syndrome...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Yan Yang, Li-Min Zhu, Jian-Zhong Xu, Xiao-Feng Tang, Ping-Jin Gao
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common secondary cause of hypertension. The present study investigated differences in left ventricular structure and function between hypertensive patients with PA and sucjects with essential hypertension (EH). One hundred patients with PA and 100 controls with EH were matched for age, gender, and 24-h ambulatory monitoring blood pressure (BP). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left atrial volume index (LAVI) and ejection fraction were calculated. LV diastolic function was estimated as the ratio of the early diastolic velocities (E) from transmitral inflow to the early diastolic velocities (e') of tissue Doppler at mitral annulus...
October 13, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Ryan T Demmer, Matthew A Allison, Jianwen Cai, Robert C Kaplan, Ankit A Desai, Barry E Hurwitz, Jill C Newman, Sanjiv J Shah, Katrina Swett, Gregory A Talavera, Ashley Thai, Marston E Youngblood, Carlos J Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: We examined the relationship between glucose homeostasis and comprehensive measures of cardiac structure and function among a representative sample of US Hispanics. METHODS AND RESULTS: ECHO-SOL (Echocardiographic Study of Latinos), an echocardiographic ancillary study of the HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos), enrolled 1818 Hispanic/Latino men (43%) and women (57%) aged ≥45 years (mean=56). Glucose intolerance was defined as follows: (1) prediabetes: hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥5...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Constantin von Deuster, Eva Sammut, Liya Asner, David Nordsletten, Pablo Lamata, Christian T Stoeck, Sebastian Kozerke, Reza Razavi
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to assess the dynamic alterations of myocardial microstructure and strain between diastole and systole in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to healthy controls using the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, myocardial tagging, and biomechanical modeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dual heart-phase diffusion tensor imaging was successfully performed in 9 patients and 9 controls. Tagging data were acquired for the diffusion tensor strain correction and cardiac motion analysis...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Hao Wang, Xuming Sun, Jeff Chou, Marina Lin, Carlos M Ferrario, Gisele Zapata-Sudo, Leanne Groban
Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) by its agonist, G1, protects the heart from stressors such as pressure-overload, ischemia, a high-salt diet, estrogen loss, and aging, in various male and female animal models. Due to nonspecific effects of G1, the exact functions of cardiac GPER cannot be concluded from studies using systemic G1 administration. Moreover, global knockdown of GPER affects glucose homeostasis, blood pressure, and many other cardiovascular-related systems, thereby confounding interpretation of its direct cardiac actions...
October 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yuji Shiba, Toshihito Gomibuchi, Tatsuichiro Seto, Yuko Wada, Hajime Ichimura, Yuki Tanaka, Tatsuki Ogasawara, Kenji Okada, Naoko Shiba, Kengo Sakamoto, Daisuke Ido, Takashi Shiina, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Narumi Uno, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Mitsuo Oshimura, Itsunari Minami, Uichi Ikeda
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) constitute a potential source of autologous patient-specific cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair, providing a major benefit over other sources of cells in terms of immune rejection. However, autologous transplantation has substantial challenges related to manufacturing and regulation. Although major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched allogeneic transplantation is a promising alternative strategy, few immunological studies have been carried out with iPSCs. Here we describe an allogeneic transplantation model established using the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), the MHC structure of which is identical to that of humans...
October 10, 2016: Nature
Rui-Tao Wang, Xue-Song Li, Ji-Rong Zhang, Yuxiang Sun, Kai-Jiang Yu, Tiemin Liu
BACKGROUND: Low bone mineral density (BMD) and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function are associated with heart failure. However, little is known about the association between BMD and LV diastolic function. HYPOTHESIS: BMD is independently related to LV diastolic function in women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 432 women. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and BMD measurements were performed. LV diastolic function and structure were assessed by echocardiographic examination...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Nihal Ozturk, Yusuf Olgar, Hakan Er, Murathan Kucuk, Semir Ozdemir
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of swimming exercise on aging-related Ca2+ handling alterations and structural abnormalities of female rat heart. METHODS: For this purpose, 4-month and 24-month old female rats were used and divided into three following groups: sedentary young (SY), sedentary old (SO), and exercised old (Ex-O). Swimming exercise was performed for 8 weeks (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Myocyte shortening, L-type Ca2+ currents and associated Ca2+ transients were measured from ventricular myocytes at 36 ± 1°C...
September 26, 2016: Cardiology Journal
Keyur Parekh, Michael Markl, Jie Deng, Roger A de Freitas, Cynthia K Rigsby
To assess the global and segmental left ventricular (LV) native T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in children and young adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) compared to a control cohort. The study population included 21 HCM patients (mean 14.1 ± 4.6 years) and 21 controls (mean 15.7 ± 1.5 years). Native modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence was performed before and after contrast injection in 3 short axis planes. Global and segmental LV native T1 and ECV were quantified and compared between HCM patients and controls...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Thomas M Roston, Wenting Guo, Andrew D Krahn, Ruiwu Wang, Filip Van Petegem, Shubhayan Sanatani, S R Wayne Chen, Anna Lehman
BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an ion channelopathy usually caused by gain-of-function mutations ryanodine receptor type-2 (RyR2). Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is an often genetic cardiomyopathy. A rare LVNC-CPVT overlap syndrome may be caused by exon 3 deletion in RyR2. We sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum and molecular basis of a novel RyR2 mutation identified in a family with both conditions. METHODS: Several members of an affected family underwent clinical and genetic assessments...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Julie Demeulemeester, Jean-Luc Bigras, Mariane Bertagnolli, Li Feng Xie, Katryn Paquette, Rong Wu, Anik Cloutier, Thuy Mai Luu, Anne-Monique Nuyt
OBJECTIVE: Studies support a direct causal association between preterm birth and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Increased left and right ventricular mass, and impaired systolic and diastolic function were observed in young adults born preterm. Deleterious neonatal conditions, as in preterm birth, could significantly impact on myocardial tissue. We investigated how left ventricle (LV) echocardiographic parameters in young adults born preterm correlated with neonatal health parameters and interventions data...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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