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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593859/european-association-for-neuro-oncology-eano-guidelines-for-palliative-care-in-adults-with-glioma
#1
REVIEW
Andrea Pace, Linda Dirven, Johan A F Koekkoek, Heidrun Golla, Jane Fleming, Roberta Rudà, Christine Marosi, E Le Rhun, Robin Grant, Kathy Oliver, Ingela Oberg, Helen J Bulbeck, Alasdair G Rooney, Roger Henriksson, H Roeline W Pasman, Stefan Oberndorfer, Michael Weller, Martin J B Taphoorn
Patients with glioma present with complex palliative care needs throughout their disease trajectory. The life-limiting nature of gliomas and the presence of specific symptoms related to neurological deterioration necessitate an appropriate and early palliative care approach. The multidisciplinary palliative care task force of the European Association of Neuro-Oncology did a systematic review of the available scientific literature to formulate the best possible evidence-based recommendations for the palliative care of adult patients with glioma, with the aim to reduce symptom burden and improve the quality of life of patients and their caregivers, particularly in the end-of-life phase...
June 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592855/statistical-analysis-of-zebrafish-locomotor-behaviour-by-generalized-linear-mixed-models
#2
Yiwen Liu, Ping Ma, Paige A Cassidy, Robert Carmer, Gaonan Zhang, Prahatha Venkatraman, Skye A Brown, Chi Pui Pang, Wenxuan Zhong, Mingzhi Zhang, Yuk Fai Leung
Upon a drastic change in environmental illumination, zebrafish larvae display a rapid locomotor response. This response can be simultaneously tracked from larvae arranged in multi-well plates. The resulting data have provided new insights into neuro-behaviour. The features of these data, however, present a challenge to traditional statistical tests. For example, many larvae display little or no movement. Thus, the larval responses have many zero values and are imbalanced. These responses are also measured repeatedly from the same well, which results in correlated observations...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536270/different-signal-enhancement-pathways-of-attention-and-consciousness-underlie-perception-in-humans
#3
Jeroen J A van Boxtel
It is not yet known whether attention and consciousness operate through similar or largely different mechanisms. Visual processing mechanisms are routinely characterized by measuring contrast response functions (CRFs). In this report, behavioral CRFs were obtained in humans (both males and females) by measuring afterimage durations over the entire range of inducer stimulus contrasts to reveal visual mechanisms behind attention and consciousness. Deviations relative to the standard CRF, i.e., gain functions, describe the strength of signal enhancement, which were assessed for both changes due to attentional task and conscious perception...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511484/efficacy-of-structured-yoga-intervention-for-sleep-gastrointestinal-and-behaviour-problems-of-asd-children-an-exploratory-study
#4
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
INTRODUCTION: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder which appears at early childhood age between 18 and 36 months. Apart from behaviour problems ASD children also suffer from sleep and Gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Major behaviour problems of ASD children are lack of social communication and interaction, less attention span, repetitive and restrictive behaviour, lack of eye to eye contact, aggressive and self-injurious behaviours, sensory integration problems, motor problems, deficiency in academic activities, anxiety and depression etc...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506000/therapeutic-effects-of-oral-dimethyl-fumarate-on-stroke-induced-by-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-an-animal-experimental-study
#5
Anahid Safari, Mehdi Fazeli, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Nader Tanideh, Peyman Jafari, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immune-modulatory and neuro-protective characteristics that can be used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of DMF on histological and functional recovery of rats after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. METHODS: 22 Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 275-300 g were randomized into three groups by block randomization. In the sham group (n = 7), the neck was opened, but neither MCA was occluded, nor any drug was administered...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465217/antidepressants-induce-autophagy-dependent-nlrp3-inflammasome-inhibition-in-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez, Nieves Casas-Barquero, Matthew R Williams, Samuel L Romero-Guillena, Diego Cañadas-Lozano, Pedro Bullón, José Antonio Sánchez-Alcazar, José M Navarro-Pando, Mario D Cordero
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, ICD-10: F-33) is a prevalent illness in which the pathogenic mechanism remains elusive. Recently an important role has been attributed to neuro-inflammation, and specifically the NLRP3-inflammasome complex, in the pathogenesis of MDD. This suggests a key role for immunomodulation as a key pathway in the treatment of this disorder. This study evaluates the involvement of nine common antidepressants in the NLRP3-inflammasome complex (fluoxetine, paroxetine, mianserin, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, amitriptyline, imipramine and agomelatine), both in in vitro THP-1 cells stimulated by ATP, and in a stress-induced depressive animal or MDD patients...
May 2, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447086/ultrasound-neuro-modulation-chip-activation-of-sensory-neurons-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-surface-acoustic-waves
#7
Wei Zhou, Jingjing Wang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Huang, Lili Niu, Fei Li, Feiyan Cai, Yan Chen, Xin Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hankui Cheng, Lijun Kang, Long Meng, Hairong Zheng
Ultrasound neuro-modulation has gained increasing attention as a non-invasive method. In this paper, we present an ultrasound neuro-modulation chip, capable of initiating reversal behaviour and activating neurons of C. elegans under the stimulation of a single-shot, short-pulsed ultrasound. About 85.29% ± 6.17% of worms respond to the ultrasound stimulation exhibiting reversal behaviour. Furthermore, the worms can adapt to the ultrasound stimulation with a lower acoustic pulse duration of stimulation. In vivo calcium imaging shows that the activity of ASH, a polymodal sensory neuron in C...
April 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440058/atypical-inter-hemispheric-communication-correlates-with-altered-motor-inhibition-during-learning-of-a-new-bimanual-coordination-pattern-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#8
Mélody Blais, David Amarantini, Jean-Michel Albaret, Yves Chaix, Jessica Tallet
Impairment of motor learning skills in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been reported in several studies. Some hypotheses on neural mechanisms of motor learning deficits in DCD have emerged but, to date, brain-imaging investigations are scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess possible changes in communication between brain areas during practice of a new bimanual coordination task in teenagers with DCD (n = 10) compared to matched controls (n = 10). Accuracy, stability and number of mirror movements were computed as behavioural variables...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431905/dynamic-interhemispheric-competition-and-vestibulo-cortical-control-in-humans-a-theoretical-proposition
#9
REVIEW
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localization using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organization of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that have demonstrated (i) the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419104/further-characterisation-of-differences-between-tl-and-ab-zebrafish-danio-rerio-gene-expression-physiology-and-behaviour-at-day-5-of-the-larval-stage
#10
Ruud van den Bos, Wouter Mes, Pietro Galligani, Anthony Heil, Jan Zethof, Gert Flik, Marnix Gorissen
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become popular as model organism in research. Many strains are readily available, which not only differ morphologically, but also genetically, physiologically and behaviourally. Here, we focus on the AB and Tupfel long-fin (TL) strain for which we have previously shown that adults differ in baseline hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI)-axis activity (AB higher than TL) affecting inhibitory avoidance behaviour (absent in AB). To assess whether strain differences are already present in early life stages, we compared baseline HPI-axis related gene expression as well as cortisol levels, (neuro)development related as well as (innate) immune system related gene expression, and light-dark as well as startle behaviour in larvae 5 days post fertilisation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369799/effect-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-in-mptp-induced-old-aged-mice-model
#11
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Christopher Simon, Quan Fu Gan, Vui King Vincent-Chong, Vasudevan Mani, Kesavanarayanan Krishnan Selvarajan, Vellayan Subramaniam, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and represented as a huge threat to the geriatric population. Cell replacement therapies (CRTs) have been proposed as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Among the widely available cell sources, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) portray as an attractive source primarily due to their neural crest origin, ease of tissue procurement and less ethical hurdles...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351736/musculoskeletal-modelling-of-human-ankle-complex-estimation-of-ankle-joint-moments
#12
Prashant K Jamwal, Shahid Hussain, Yun Ho Tsoi, Mergen H Ghayesh, Sheng Quan Xie
BACKGROUND: A musculoskeletal model for the ankle complex is vital in order to enhance the understanding of neuro-mechanical control of ankle motions, diagnose ankle disorders and assess subsequent treatments. Motions at the human ankle and foot, however, are complex due to simultaneous movements at the two joints namely, the ankle joint and the subtalar joint. The musculoskeletal elements at the ankle complex, such as ligaments, muscles and tendons, have intricate arrangements and exhibit transient and nonlinear behaviour...
May 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336920/xiaoyaosan-exerts-anxiolytic-like-effects-by-down-regulating-the-tnf-%C3%AE-jak2-stat3-pathway-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#13
Xiao-Juan Li, Qing-Yu Ma, You-Ming Jiang, Xiao-Hui Bai, Zhi-Yi Yan, Qun Liu, Qiu-Xia Pan, Yue-Yun Liu, Jia-Xu Chen
Although the anxiolytic-like effects of Xiaoyaosan, a Chinese herbal formula, have been described in many previous studies, its underlying mechanism remains undefined. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and its closely associated janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signalling pathway regulate the neuro-inflammatory response in the brain, thus participating in the development of anxiety. Our purpose was to investigate whether the anxiolytic-like effects of Xiaoyaosan are related to the TNF-α/JAK2-STAT3 pathway in the hippocampus...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262852/repeated-acute-oral-exposure-to-cannabis-sativa-impaired-neurocognitive-behaviours-and-cortico-hippocampal-architectonics-in-wistar-rats
#14
A Imam, M S Ajao, O B Akinola, M I Ajibola, A Ibrahim, A Amin, W I Abdulmajeed, Z A Lawal, A Ali-Oluwafuyi
The most abused illicit drug in both the developing and the developed world is Cannabis disposing users to varying forms of personality disorders. However, the effects of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal architecture and cognitive behaviours still remain elusive.  The present study investigated the neuro-cognitive implications of oral cannabis use in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped to three. Saline was administered to the control rats, cannabis (20 mg/kg) to the experimental group I, while Scopolamine (1 mg/kg...
March 6, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167808/how-do-individuals-cope-with-stress-behavioural-physiological-and-neuronal-differences-between-proactive-and-reactive-coping-styles-in-fish
#15
Marco A Vindas, Marnix Gorissen, Erik Höglund, Gert Flik, Valentina Tronci, Børge Damsgård, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Tom O Nilsen, Svante Winberg, Øyvind Øverli, Lars O E Ebbesson
Despite the use of fish models to study human mental disorders and dysfunctions, knowledge of regional telencephalic responses in non-mammalian vertebrates expressing alternative stress coping styles is poor. As perception of salient stimuli associated with stress coping in mammals is mainly under forebrain limbic control, we tested region-specific forebrain neural (i.e. mRNA abundance and monoamine neurochemistry) and endocrine responses under basal and acute stress conditions for previously characterised proactive and reactive Atlantic salmon...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164735/ameliorating-effect-of-celastrus-paniculatus-standardized-extract-and-its-fractions-on-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-neuronal-damage-in-rats-possible-antioxidant-mechanism
#16
Jai Malik, Maninder Karan, Rachna Dogra
CONTEXT: Celastrus paniculatus Wild. (Celasteraceae) (CP) is a well-known Ayurvedic 'Medhya Rasayana' (nervine tonic), used extensively as a neuro-protective and memory enhancer, and in different central nervous system disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of CP against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced Huntington's disease (HD) like symptoms in Wistar male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol extract of CP seeds (CPEE), prepared by maceration, was standardized on the basis of linoleic acid content (6...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118492/melatonin-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-promotes-neuroprotection-by-inducing-autophagy-during-oxaliplatin-evoked-peripheral-neuropathy
#17
Aparna Areti, Prashanth Komirishetty, Manasaveena Akuthota, Rayaz A Malik, Ashutosh Kumar
Oxaliplatin, an organoplatinum compound, is used in the treatment of colorectal cancer, but its clinical use can be limited due to the development of peripheral neuropathy. Whilst mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a major pathomechanism for oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, the prevention of autophagy may also aggravate neuronal cell death. Melatonin, a well-known mitoprotectant and autophagy inducer, was used to examine its neuroprotective role in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108415/how-does-mindfulness-modulate-self-regulation-in-pre-adolescent-children-an-integrative-neurocognitive-review
#18
REVIEW
Rebekah Jane Kaunhoven, Dusana Dorjee
Pre-adolescence is a key developmental period in which complex intrinsic volitional methods of self-regulation are acquired as a result of rapid maturation within the brain networks underlying the self-regulatory processes of attention control and emotion regulation. Fostering adaptive self-regulation skills during this stage of development has strong implications for physical health, emotional and socio-economic outcomes during adulthood. There is a growing interest in mindfulness-based programmes for pre-adolescents with initial findings suggesting self-regulation improvements, however, neurodevelopmental studies on mindfulness with pre-adolescents are scarce...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077286/assessment-of-neuroanatomical-and-behavioural-effects-of-in-ovo-methylmercury-exposure-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#19
Maria S Yu, Margaret L Eng, Tony D Williams, Mélanie F Guigueno, John E Elliott
Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses the blood brain barrier and is a known neuro-toxicant. MeHg accumulation in the brain causes histopathological alterations, neurobehavioral changes, and impairments to cognitive motor functions in mammalian models. However, in birds the neurotoxic effects of MeHg on the developing pre-hatching brain and consequent behavioral alterations in adult birds have not received much attention. Moreover, passerine birds are poorly represented in MeHg neurotoxicology studies in comparison to other avian orders...
January 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057531/resting-state-brain-connectivity-patterns-before-eventual-relapse-into-cocaine-abuse
#20
M Berlingeri, D Losasso, A Girolo, E Cozzolino, T Masullo, M Scotto, M Sberna, G Bottini, E Paulesu
According to recent theories, drug addicted patients suffer of an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (I-RISA) together with a perturbed connectivity between the nuclei accumbens (NAcs) and the orbito-prefrontal (oPFC) and dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) cortices, brain regions associated with motivation and cognitive control. To empirically test these assumptions, we evaluated the (neuro)psychological trait and the functional organization of the resting state brain networks associated with the NAcs in 18 former cocaine abusers (FCAs), while being in drug abstinence since 5 months...
June 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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