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neuro behaviour

Giulia Umbrello, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal tract have been associated with both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many studies have described bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the gut, the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Considering the ability of probiotics (i.e., live non-pathogenic microorganisms) to restore the normal microbial population and produce benefits for the host, their potential effects have been investigated in the context of neurologic diseases...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
R S G M Perez
Pain is a complex neuro-physiological phenomenon affecting mind and behaviour, and is in turn also affected by psyche and behaviour. Differences among individuals in modulation, interpretation and expression complicate the comparison of pain between patients. Pain is a subjective experience and can be expressed by the patient in many different ways. In addition, influential factors from a bio-psycho-social perspective have to be taken into consideration: the interaction among somatic, psychological and social factors determines the ultimate pain experience and pain behaviour...
October 2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Guillermo Perales Ortiz, Ángel T Tello-López, Sergio Encarnación, Renaud Conde, Ángel G Martínez-Batallar, Ken Moran-Francia, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: The behaviour of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes, vectors for Plasmodium parasites, plays a crucial role in the propagation of malaria to humans. Consequently, it is important to understand how the behaviour of these mosquitoes is influenced by the interaction between the brain and immunological status. The nervous system is intimately linked to the immune and endocrine systems. There is evidence that the malaria parasite alters the function of these systems upon infecting the mosquito...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Sonia Rey, Visila Moiche, Sebastian Boltaña, Mariana Teles, Simon MacKenzie
Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (TR at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (TCH: 28-32 °C)...
September 23, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Victor Alfred, Thomas Vaccari
Originally discovered as regulators of cargo sorting during endosomal trafficking, ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins are emerging as flexible machines that shape the behaviour of membranes throughout the cell. Deregulation of ESCRT activity is observed in neuro-degenerative diseases, virus infection and cancer. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis involving ESCRTs have not yet fully come into focus. Here, we review the current knowledge of ESCRT function in health and disease and provide educated guesses for future research and focused therapeutic intervention...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Peter Taggart, Hugo Critchley, Stefan van Duijvendoden, Pier D Lambiase
Advances in investigative techniques have led to an increasing awareness and understanding of the role of central neural control in the autonomic nervous system regulation of the heart. Substantial evidence exists for a role of the higher centres in neuro-cardiac control including the effect of focal brain stimulation and acute brain lesions on cardiac electrophysiology, blood pressure, contractile function and the development of arrhythmias. Mental stress and strong emotions have long been associated with sudden cardiac death...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Mashudat Bello-Mojeed, Cornelius Ani, Ike Lagunju, Olayinka Omigbodun
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a disabling and lifelong neuro-developmental disorder. Challenging behaviours such as aggression and self injury are common maladaptive behaviours in ASD which adversely affect the mental health of both the affected children and their caregivers. Although there is evidence-base for parent-delivered behavioural intervention for children with ASD and challenging behaviours, there is no published research on the feasibility of such an intervention in sub-Saharan Africa...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Adriano R Lameira, Madeleine E Hardus, Alexander Mielke, Serge A Wich, Robert W Shumaker
Vocal fold control was critical to the evolution of spoken language, much as it today allows us to learn vowel systems. It has, however, never been demonstrated directly in a non-human primate, leading to the suggestion that it evolved in the human lineage after divergence from great apes. Here, we provide the first evidence for real-time, dynamic and interactive vocal fold control in a great ape during an imitation "do-as-I-do" game with a human demonstrator. Notably, the orang-utan subject skilfully produced "wookies" - an idiosyncratic vocalization exhibiting a unique spectral profile among the orang-utan vocal repertoire...
2016: Scientific Reports
H Jacob, M Metian, R M Brooker, E Duran, N Nakamura, N Roux, P Masanet, O Soulat, D Lecchini
The present study described the neuro-anatomy of a larval coral reef fish Amphiprion ocellaris and hypothesized that morphological changes during the transition from the oceanic environment to a reef environment (i.e. recruitment) have the potential to be driven by changes to environmental conditions and associated changes to cognitive requirements. Quantitative comparisons were made of the relative development of three specific brain areas (telencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum) between 6 days post-hatch (dph) larvae (oceanic phase) and 11 dph (at reef recruitment)...
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Cathryn L Haigh, Carolin Tumpach, Steven J Collins, Simon C Drew
Eight-hydroxyquinolines (8HQs) are a class of compounds that have been identified as potential therapeutics for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the influence of structural modifications to the 8HQ scaffold on cellular behaviour will aid the identification of compounds that might be effective in treating dementias. In this study, we describe the action of 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline (DMAMQ) on adult murine neural stem cells (NSCs) cultured in vitro. Treatment of NSCs with DMAMQ resulted in enhanced self-renewal and increased neurite outgrowth...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Carlijn A Vernooij, Guillaume Rao, Dionysios Perdikis, Raoul Huys, Viktor K Jirsa, Jean-Jacques Temprado
The dynamical systems approach addresses Bernstein's degrees of freedom problem by assuming that the neuro-musculo-skeletal system transiently assembles and dismantles its components into functional units (or synergies) to meet task demands. Strikingly, little is known from a dynamical point of view about the functioning of the muscular sub-system in this process. To investigate the interaction between the dynamical organisation at muscular and behavioural levels, we searched for specific signatures of a phase transition in muscular coordination when a transition is displayed at the behavioural level...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mohit Kothari, Rubens Spin-Neto, Jørgen Feldbæk Nielsen
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To perform a detailed clinical oral health assessment and oral-health-related social and behavioural aspect assessment in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirteen individuals with ABI were recruited. Individual's social and behavioural history, bed-side oral examination score (BOE), tooth condition and periodontal status (bleeding, plaque and clinical attachment loss) were thoroughly examined...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
L Pruimboom, D Reheis
Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol...
July 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Katerina Placha, Dominika Luptakova, Ladislav Baciak, Eduard Ujhazy, Ivo Juranek
Neonatal brain hypoxic-ischemic injury represents a serious health care and socio-economical problem since it is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity of newborns. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is often associated with signs of perinatal asphyxia, with an incidence of about 2-4 per 1,000 live births and mortality rate up to 20%. In about one half of survivors, cerebral hypoxic-ischemic insult may result in more or less pronounced neuro-psychological sequelae of immediate or delayed nature, such as seizures, cerebral palsy or behavioural and learning disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder...
2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Serena Vanzan, David Wilkinson, Heather Ferguson, Patrick Pullicino, Mohamed Sakel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether caloric vestibular stimulation, a non-invasive form of neuro-modulation, alters the level of awareness in people residing in a minimally conscious state. DESIGN: Single-case (n = 2), prospective, controlled (ABAB) efficacy study. SETTING: Tertiary, neuro-rehabilitation inpatient ward within a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two individuals in a minimally conscious state. INTERVENTION: Left ear caloric vestibular stimulation was performed in two four/five-week blocks interleaved with two four/five-week blocks of sham stimulation...
April 27, 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Nathan T Fiore, Paul J Austin
Neuro-immune interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury. A large body of preclinical evidence supports the idea that the immune system acts to modulate the sensory symptoms of neuropathy at both peripheral and central nervous system sites. The potential involvement of neuro-immune interactions in the highly debilitating affective disturbances of neuropathic pain, such as depression, anhedonia, impaired cognition and reduced motivation has received little attention...
August 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
P Tamboer, H C M Vorst, S Ghebreab, H S Scholte
Meta-analytic studies suggest that dyslexia is characterized by subtle and spatially distributed variations in brain anatomy, although many variations failed to be significant after corrections of multiple comparisons. To circumvent issues of significance which are characteristic for conventional analysis techniques, and to provide predictive value, we applied a machine learning technique--support vector machine--to differentiate between subjects with and without dyslexia. In a sample of 22 students with dyslexia (20 women) and 27 students without dyslexia (25 women) (18-21 years), a classification performance of 80% (p < 0...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Michel Lacour, Christoph Helmchen, Pierre-Paul Vidal
Why vestibular compensation (VC) after an acute unilateral vestibular loss is the neuro-otologist's best friend is the question at the heart of this paper. The different plasticity mechanisms underlying VC are first reviewed, and the authors present thereafter the dual concept of vestibulo-centric versus distributed learning processes to explain the compensation of deficits resulting from the static versus dynamic vestibular imbalance. The main challenges for the plastic events occurring in the vestibular nuclei (VN) during a post-lesion critical period are neural protection, structural reorganization and rebalance of VN activity on both sides...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
Satya Narayan Deep, Iswar Baitharu, Apurva Sharma, Anoop Kishor Singh Gurjar, Dipti Prasad, Shashi Bala Singh
Improper neuroimmune responses following chronic stress exposure have been reported to cause neuronal dysfunctions leading to memory impairment, anxiety and depression like behaviours. Though several factors affecting microglial activation and consequent alteration in neuro-inflammatory responses have been well studied, role of NO and its association with microglia in stress induced depression model is yet to be explored. In the present study, we validated combination of chronic hypobaric hypoxia and crowding (CHC) as a stress model for depression and investigated the role of chronic stress induced elevated nitric oxide (NO) level in microglia activation and its effect on neuro-inflammatory responses in brain...
2016: PloS One
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