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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208729/persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-pppd-a-common-characteristic-and-treatable-cause-of-chronic-dizziness
#1
REVIEW
Stoyan Popkirov, Jeffrey P Staab, Jon Stone
Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a newly defined diagnostic syndrome that unifies key features of chronic subjective dizziness, phobic postural vertigo and related disorders. It describes a common chronic dysfunction of the vestibular system and brain that produces persistent dizziness, non-spinning vertigo and/or unsteadiness. The disorder constitutes a long-term maladaptation to a neuro-otological, medical or psychological event that triggered vestibular symptoms, and is usefully considered within the spectrum of other functional neurological disorders...
December 5, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196183/nmda-receptor-antagonist-rodent-models-for-cognition-in-schizophrenia-and-identification-of-novel-drug-treatments-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Daniela Cadinu, Ben Grayson, Giovanni Podda, Michael K Harte, Nazanin Doostdar, Joanna C Neill
Negative and cognitive deficit symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Improved understanding of the neuro- and psychopathology of cognitive dysfunction in the illness is urgently required to enhance the development of new improved therapeutic strategies. Careful validation of animal models that mimic the behaviour and pathology of complex psychiatric disorders is an essential step towards this goal. Non-competitive NMDAR (N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor) antagonists e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and dizocilpine (MK-801) can effectively replicate certain aspects of negative and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia in animals...
November 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194534/why-not-try-harder-computational-approach-to-motivation-deficits-in-neuro-psychiatric-diseases
#3
Mathias Pessiglione, Fabien Vinckier, Sébastien Bouret, Jean Daunizeau, Raphaël Le Bouc
Motivation deficits, such as apathy, are pervasive in both neurological and psychiatric diseases. Even when they are not the core symptom, they reduce quality of life, compromise functional outcome and increase the burden for caregivers. They are currently assessed with clinical scales that do not give any mechanistic insight susceptible to guide therapeutic intervention. Here, we present another approach that consists of phenotyping the behaviour of patients in motivation tests, using computational models...
November 29, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151273/post-treatment-with-methylene-blue-is-effective-against-delayed-encephalopathy-after-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#4
Ningjun Zhao, Pengchong Liang, Xiaoying Zhuo, Chenglei Su, Xuemei Zong, Bingnan Guo, Han Dong, Xianliang Yan, Shuqun Hu, Quanguang Zhang, Xu Tie
Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) is the most severe and clinically intractable complication that occurs following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Unfortunately, the mechanism of DEACMP is still vague. Growing evidence indicates that delayed cerebral damage following CO poisoning is related to oxidative stress, abnormal neuro-inflammation, apoptosis and immune-mediated injury. Our recent report indicated that methylene blue (MB) may be a promising therapeutic agent in the prevention of neuronal cell death and cognitive deficits following transient global cerebral ischaemia (GCI)...
November 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148114/on-the-character-and-production-of-active-participation-in-neuro-rehabilitation-an-actor-network-perspective
#5
Simon Horton, Kathryn Mares, Neil Coull, Fiona Poland
The importance of patients' active involvement in neuro-rehabilitation after acquired brain injury has been consistently emphasised in recent years. However, most approaches fail to show how 'active participation' is practically enacted, focusing on individualised explanations of patient choice and behaviours, or notions of inherent patient traits. Using actor-network theory (ANT) as a sensitising concept, we investigated neuro-rehabilitation practices, asking how participation is shaped through biological and socio-material specificities, how rights to knowledge and expertise are constructed, and how a body acclimatises and adjusts within an order of participation and transformation...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146293/andrographolide-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-negatively-regulates-glial-cell-derived-neurodegeneration-of-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampus-and-working-memory-impairment
#6
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116017/regenerative-potential-of-primary-adult-human-neural-stem-cells-on-micropatterned-bio-implants-boosts-motor-recovery
#7
Carole Davoust, Benjamin Plas, Amélie Béduer, Boris Demain, Anne-Sophie Salabert, Jean Christophe Sol, Christophe Vieu, Laurence Vaysse, Isabelle Loubinoux
BACKGROUND: The adult brain is unable to regenerate itself sufficiently after large injuries. Therefore, hopes rely on therapies using neural stem cell or biomaterial transplantation to sustain brain reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement in sensorimotor recovery brought about by human primary adult neural stem cells (hNSCs) in combination with bio-implants. METHODS: hNSCs were pre-seeded on implants micropatterned for neurite guidance and inserted intracerebrally 2 weeks after a primary motor cortex lesion in rats...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088984/strengthening-the-role-and-functions-of-nursing-staff-in-inpatient-stroke-rehabilitation-developing-a-complex-intervention-using-the-behaviour-change-wheel
#8
Mia Ingerslev Loft, Bente Martinsen, Bente Appel Esbensen, Lone L Mathiesen, Helle K Iversen, Ingrid Poulsen
PURPOSE: Over the past two decades, attempts have been made to describe the nurse's role and functions in the inpatient stroke rehabilitation; however, the nursing contribution is neither clear nor well-defined. Previous studies have highlighted the need for research aimed at developing interventions in the neuro-nursing area. The objective of this paper was to describe the development of a nursing intervention aimed at optimising the inpatient rehabilitation of stroke patients by strengthening the role and functions of nursing staff...
2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074315/basal-cell-carcinoma-of-the-scalp-with-destruction-and-invasion-into-the-calvarium-and-dura-mater-report-of-7-cases-and-review-of-literature
#9
Churl-Su Kwon, Omar Al Awar, Valeria Ripa, Ghassan Said, Saulius Rocka
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin malignancy in humans. Giant BCC is a rarer entity that is characterised by aggressive biological behaviour. Intracranial invasion by a BCC on the scalp is extremely rare. The gold standard treatment of BCCs is represented by surgical excision with a wide variety of reconstructive techniques. In this paper, we describe the largest series to date of recurrent BCCs with intracranial extension involving the dura mater. We report recurrent giant BCC of the scalp with dura mater invasion in 7 patients...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070628/functional-roles-of-three-cues-that-pervade-the-brain-electro-magnetic-field-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide
#10
Luigi F Agnati, Diego Guidolin, Guido Maura, Manuela Marcoli
The brain integrative actions depend on the exchange of information among its computational elements. Hence, such a phenomenon plays the key role in driving the complex dynamics of central nervous system (CNS), in which true computations interact with non-computational dynamical processes to generate brain representations of the body in the external world, hence the finalistic behaviour of the organism. In this context, it should be pointed out that beside the intercellular interactions mediated by classical electro-chemical signals also other types of interactions, namely 'cue' and 'coercion' appear to be exploited by the system to achieve its function...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055394/is-damage-to-the-pre-frontal-cortex-dormant-until-adolescence-or-difficult-to-detect-looking-for-keys-that-unlock-executive-functions-in-children-in-the-wrong-place
#11
James Tonks, W Huw Williams, Alan Slater, Ian Frampton
A range of functions can be negatively affected by pre-frontal cortex (PFC) injury, but observed behavioural and social changes are commonly linked to post-injury changes in executive function. Executive functioning is a complex neuropsychological construct which is further complicated by neuro-developmental processes when applied to children. There is a substantial and continuing evidence base that supports the view that early childhood pre-frontal cortex (PFC) injury results in hidden, dormant, or sleeping effects...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049934/molecular-changes-associated-with-escitalopram-response-in-a-stress-based-model-of-depression
#12
Cristina Benatti, Silvia Alboni, Joan M C Blom, Julien Mendlewicz, Fabio Tascedda, Nicoletta Brunello
Converging evidence points at hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and neuroinflammation as important factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this study, we examined the molecular effects associated with a response to a week-long treatment with escitalopram in the chronic escape deficit (CED) model, a validated model of depression based on the induction of an escape deficit after exposure of rats to an unavoidable stress...
January 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#13
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034840/non-anaesthetic-effects-of-volatile-anaesthetics-a-short-trip-on-the-sea-of-translational-medicine
#14
Lukasz J Krzych, Anna J Szczepanska
BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetics (VA) are commonly used worldwide for induction and/or maintenance of general anaesthesia. They act in the central nervous system to reduce sensation and motor response during surgical and invasive diagnostic procedures. VAs also have some non-anaesthetic properties in the brain when administrated to patients at the extremes of age. Their biological impact on other organs should be taken into account during administration of anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: In this review we summarize the recent knowledge on the non-anaesthetic effects of inhaled halogenic ethers on cells and tissues...
October 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921125/exogenous-cannabinoid-efficacy-merely-a-pharmacokinetic-interaction
#15
Jennifer H Martin, Jennifer Schneider, Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis
Endocannabinoid pharmacology is now relatively well understood with a number of endocannabinoids and endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters identified and the pharmacokinetics relatively well ascertained. Further, the cannabinoid receptors are now molecularly and pharmacologically characterised and the cell processes involved in endocannabinoid transcription, synthesis, post-translational modification and protein expression are reported. Endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to have key roles in immune and pain pathways and neuro-behavioural signalling including appetite regulation...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911974/molecular-genetics-of-the-transcription-factor-glis3-identifies-its-dual-function-in-beta-cells-and-neurons
#16
Sophie Calderari, Massimiliano Ria, Christelle Gérard, Tatiane C Nogueira, Olatz Villate, Stephan C Collins, Helen Neil, Nicolas Gervasi, Christophe Hue, Nicolas Suarez-Zamorano, Cécilia Prado, Miriam Cnop, Marie-Thérèse Bihoreau, Pamela J Kaisaki, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Cécile Julier, Mark Lathrop, Michel Werner, Decio L Eizirik, Dominique Gauguier
The GLIS family zinc finger 3 isoform (GLIS3) is a risk gene for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease endophenotype. We identified GLIS3 binding sites in insulin secreting cells (INS1) (FDR q<0.05; enrichment range 1.40-9.11 fold) sharing the motif wrGTTCCCArTAGs, which were enriched in genes involved in neuronal function and autophagy and in risk genes for metabolic and neuro-behavioural diseases. We confirmed experimentally Glis3-mediated regulation of the expression of genes involved in autophagy and neuron function in INS1 and neuronal PC12 cells...
September 11, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910547/diurnal-opposite-variation-between-angiotensinase-activities-in-photo-neuro-endocrine-tissues-of-rats
#17
Germán Domínguez-Vías, Garbiñe Aretxaga-Maza, Isabel Prieto, Juan de Dios Luna, Marc De Gasparo, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
Central and peripheral renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) act in a coordinated manner for the physiologic functions regulated by neuroendocrine events. However, whereas the diurnal rhythm of peripheral circulatory and tissue RASs is well known, the circadian behaviour of their components in central photo-neuro-endocrine structures, key elements for the control of circadian rhythms, has been barely studied. In the present study, we analysed the aspartyl- (AspAP) and glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GluAP) (aminopeptidase A) activities, the angiotensinases responsible for the metabolism of Ang I to Ang 2-10 and Ang II to Ang III, respectively, in the retina, anterior hypothalamus and pituitary at different light and dark time-points of a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (7-19 h light), using arylamide derivatives as substrates...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880359/-a-young-boy-with-periodic-strange-behavior-and-hypersomnia-kleine-levin-syndrome
#18
F Dauwe, L Imeraj, K Dhondt
Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare neuro-psychiatric disease. Most of the young patients are males who present with hypersomnia, cognitive dysfunction, altered perception, eating disorder (e.g. hyperphagia) or disinhibited behaviour (e.g. hypersexuality). Psychiatric symptoms such as apathy, delusions and hallucinations, depressed mood and compulsive behaviours also appear often and result frequently in a psychiatric referral. These symptoms, however, should be distinguished from those of psychiatric diseases as early as possible in order to ensure that patients do not receive the wrong treatment...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877755/uric-acid-an-important-screening-tool-to-detect-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-a-case-series
#19
Eresha Jasinge, Grace Angeline Malarnangai Kularatnam, Hewa Warawitage Dilanthi, Dinesha Maduri Vidanapathirana, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike Jayasena, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika Chandrasiri, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan Indika, Pyara Dilani Ratnayake, Vindya Nandani Gunasekara, Lynette Dianne Fairbanks, Blanka Stiburkova
BACKGROUND: Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment...
September 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856542/imaging-behavioural-complications-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Mikaeel Valli, Alexander Mihaescu, Antonio P Strafella
In addition to motor symptoms, behavioural complications are commonly found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Behavioural complications, including depression, anxiety, apathy, impulse control disorder and psychosis, together have a large impact on PD patient's quality of life. Many neuroimaging studies using PET, SPECT and MRI techniques have been conducted to study the underlying neural mechanisms of PD pathogenesis and pathophysiology in relation to its behavioural complications. This review will survey these PET, SPECT and MRI studies to describe the current understanding of the neuro-chemical, functional and structural changes associated with behavioural complications in PD patients...
August 30, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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