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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650878/leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-bridging-the-translational-gap
#1
Neringa Jurkute, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic disorder in the population. We address the clinical evolution of the disease, the secondary etiological factors that could contribute to visual loss, and the challenging task of developing effective treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: LHON is characterized by a preclinical phase that reflects retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction before rapid visual deterioration ensues...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650045/targeted-delivery-of-geranylgeranylacetone-to-mitochondria-by-triphenylphosphonium-modified-nanoparticles-a-promising-strategy-to-prevent-aminoglycoside-induced-hearing-loss
#2
Zhenjie Wang, Xiao Kuang, Jia Shi, Weiling Guo, Hongzhuo Liu
Prevention of hair cell death is an important target for the prevention of hearing loss. Here, we report the engineering of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) decorated with triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations as a robust mitochondrial delivery platform, with the aim of preserving mitochondrial integrity and shutting off the initiation of cell death. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) inducer, was used as a therapeutic molecule to attenuate gentamicin (Gen) induced hearing loss...
June 26, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648749/transcriptome-profiling-of-3d-co-cultured-cardiomyocytes-and-endothelial-cells-under-oxidative-stress-using-a-photocrosslinkable-hydrogel-system
#3
Xiaoshan Yue, Aylin Acun, Pinar Zorlutuna
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most common among cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial cells (ECs) are considered to have protective effects on cardiomyocytes (CMs) under stress conditions such as MI; however, the paracrine CM-EC crosstalk and the resulting endogenous cellular responses that could contribute to this protective effect are not thoroughly investigated. Here we created biomimetic synthetic tissues containing CMs and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived ECs (iECs), which showed improved cell survival compared to single cultures under conditions mimicking the aftermath of MI, and performed high-throughput RNA-sequencing to identify target pathways that could govern CM-iEC crosstalk and the resulting improvement in cell viability...
June 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635165/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-engine-prevents-portal-hypertension-and-hepatic-fibrogenesis
#4
EDITORIAL
Ralf Weiskirchen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624657/adiponectin-improves-the-osteointegration-of-titanium-implant-under-diabetic-conditions-by-reversing-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-the-ampk-pathway-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#5
Xiao-Fan Hu, Lin Wang, Yi-Zhao Lu, Geng Xiang, Zi-Xiang Wu, Ya-Bo Yan, Yang Zhang, Xiong Zhao, Yuan Zang, Lei Shi, Wei Lei, Ya-Fei Feng
Diabetes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction would result in compromised osteointegration of titanium implant (TI) and high rate of implant failure, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Adiponectin (APN) is a fat-derived adipocytokine with strong antioxidant, mitochondrial-protective and anti-diabetic efficacies. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction under diabetes may account for the oxidative stress in osteoblasts and titanium-bone interface (TBI) instability, which could be ameliorated by APN...
June 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622510/microbial-genetic-composition-tunes-host-longevity
#6
Bing Han, Priya Sivaramakrishnan, Chih-Chun J Lin, Isaiah A A Neve, Jingquan He, Li Wei Rachel Tay, Jessica N Sowa, Antons Sizovs, Guangwei Du, Jin Wang, Christophe Herman, Meng C Wang
Homeostasis of the gut microbiota critically influences host health and aging. Developing genetically engineered probiotics holds great promise as a new therapeutic paradigm to promote healthy aging. Here, through screening 3,983 Escherichia coli mutants, we discovered that 29 bacterial genes, when deleted, increase longevity in the host Caenorhabditis elegans. A dozen of these bacterial mutants also protect the host from age-related progression of tumor growth and amyloid-beta accumulation. Mechanistically, we discovered that five bacterial mutants promote longevity through increased secretion of the polysaccharide colanic acid (CA), which regulates mitochondrial dynamics and unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) in the host...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596620/respiratory-oxygen-consumption-in-the-seagrass-zostera-marina-varies-on-a-diel-basis-and-is-partly-affected-by-light
#7
Lina M Rasmusson, Chiara Lauritano, Gabriele Procaccini, Martin Gullström, Pimchanok Buapet, Mats Björk
The seagrass Zostera marina is an important marine ecosystem engineer, greatly influencing oxygen and carbon fluctuations in temperate coastal areas. Although photosynthetically driven gas fluxes are well studied, the impact of the plant's mitochondrial respiration on overall CO2 and O2 fluxes in marine vegetated areas is not yet understood. Likewise, the gene expression in relation to the respiratory pathway has not been well analyzed in seagrasses. This study uses a combined approach, studying respiratory oxygen consumption rates in darkness simultaneously with changes in gene expression, with the aim of examining how respiratory oxygen consumption fluctuates on a diel basis...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593105/photobiomodulation-with-near-infrared-light-helmet-in-a-pilot-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-in-dementia-patients-testing-memory-and-cognition
#8
Marvin H Berman, James P Halper, Trent W Nichols, H Jarrett, Alan Lundy, Jason H Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common, chronic expensive debilitating neurodegenerative disease with no current treatments to prevent the physical deterioration of the brain and the consequent cognitive deficits. The current pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques. Antibody therapy of Tau and Amyloid beta, vaccines and other methods to decrease Tau and or Amyloid have not been successful after considerable pharmaceutical and biotech efforts...
2017: Journal of neurology and neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587495/allele-specific-interaction-between-glutathione-peroxidase-1-and-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-affects-the-levels-of-bcl-2-sirt3-and-e-cadherin
#9
Dede N Ekoue, Soumen Bera, Emmanuel Ansong, Peter C Hart, Sofia Zaichick, Frederick E Domann, Marcelo G Bonini, Alan M Diamond
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial resident enzyme that reduces superoxide to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can be further reduced to water by glutathione peroxidase (GPX1). Data from human studies has indicated that common polymorphisms in both of these proteins are associated with the risk of several cancers, including breast cancer. Moreover, polymorphisms in MnSOD and GPX1 were shown to interact to increase the risk of breast cancer. To gain an understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind these observations, we engineered human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to exclusively express GPX1 and/or MnSOD alleles and investigated the consequences on the expression of several proteins associated with cancer etiology...
June 6, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585211/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Atilla Engin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is in parallel with the obesity epidemic and it is the most common cause of liver diseases. The development of hepatic steatosis in majority of patients is linked to dietary fat ingestion. NAFLD is characterized by excess accumulation of triglyceride in the hepatocyte due to both increased inflow of free fatty acids and de novo hepatic lipogenesis. Insulin resistance with the deficiency of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity causes an increase in intracellular fatty acid-derived metabolites such as diacylglycerol, fatty acyl CoA or ceramides...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585205/adipose-tissue-hypoxia-in-obesity-and-its-impact-on-preadipocytes-and-macrophages-hypoxia-hypothesis
#11
Atilla Engin
Obese subjects exhibit lower adipose tissue oxygen consumption in accordance with the lower adipose tissue blood flow. Thus, compared with lean subjects, obese subjects have 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF expression together with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) activity also requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and target of rapamycin (TOR)-mediated signaling. HIF-1alpha is an important signaling molecule for hypoxia to induce the inflammatory responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585200/what-is-lipotoxicity
#12
Ayse Basak Engin
Enlarged fat cells in obese adipose tissue diminish capacity to store fat and are resistant to the anti-lipolytic effect of insulin. Insulin resistance (IR)-associated S-nitrosylation of insulin-signaling proteins increases in obesity. In accordance with the inhibition of insulin-mediated anti-lipolytic action, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels increase. Additionally, endoplasmic reticulum stress stimuli induce lipolysis by activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK1/2) signaling in adipocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585197/human-protein-kinases-and-obesity
#13
Atilla Engin
The action of protein kinases and protein phosphatases is essential for multiple physiological responses. Each protein kinase displays its own unique substrate specificity, and a regulatory mechanism that may be modulated by association with other proteins. Protein kinases are classified by the target amino acid in their substrates. Some protein kinases can phosphorylate both serine/threonine, as well as tyrosine residues. This group of kinases has been known as dual specificity kinases. Unlike the dual specificity kinases, a heterogeneous group of protein phosphatases are known as dual-specificity phosphatases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585195/eat-and-death-chronic-over-eating
#14
Atilla Engin
Obesity-related co-morbidities decrease life quality, reduce working ability and lead to early death. The total amount of dietary fat consumption may be the most potent food-related risk factor for weight gain. In this respect, dietary intake of high-caloric, high-fat diets due to chronic over-eating and sedentary lifestyle lead to increased storage of triglycerides not only in adipose tissue but also ectopically in other tissues . Increased plasma concentrations of non-esterified free fatty acids and lipid-overloaded hypertrophic adipocytes may cause insulin resistance in an inflammation-independent manner...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531802/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-effect-of-cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-immobilized-on-the-surface-of-silica-nanoparticles-in-rat-experimental-pneumonia
#15
Z Serebrovska, R J Swanson, V Portnichenko, A Shysh, S Pavlovich, L Tumanovska, A Dorovskych, V Lysenko, V Tertykh, Y Bolbukh, V Dosenko
A massage with the potent counter-inflammatory material, cerium dioxide nanoparticles, is promising and the antioxidant properties of CeO2 are considered the main, if not the only, mechanism of this action. Nevertheless, the elimination of ceria nano-particles from the organism is very slow and there is a strong concern for toxic effect of ceria due to its accumulation. To overcome this problem, we engineered a combined material in which cerium nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of silica nanoparticles (CeO2 NP), which is shown to be easily removed from an organism and could be used as carriers for nano-ceria...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530580/offgel-electrophoresis-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry-approach-compared-with-dna-based-pcr-method-for-authentication-of-meat-species-from-raw-and-cooked-ground-meat-mixtures-containing-cattle-meat-water-buffalo-meat-and-sheep-meat
#16
Basappa M Naveena, Deepak S Jagadeesh, A Jagadeesh Babu, T Madhava Rao, Veeranna Kamuni, S Vaithiyanathan, Vinayak V Kulkarni, Srikanth Rapole
The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494257/novel-1-7-ethoxy-1-benzofuran-2-yl-substituted-chalcone-derivatives-synthesis-characterization-and-anticancer-activity
#17
Demet Coskun, Merve Erkisa, Engin Ulukaya, Mehmet Fatih Coskun, Ferda Ari
Cancer treatment still requires new compounds to be discovered. Chalcone and its derivatives exhibit anticancer potential in different cancer cells. A new series of benzofuran substituted chalcone derivatives was synthesized by the base-catalyzed Claisen-Schmidt reaction of the 1-(7-ethoxy-1-benzofuran-2-yl) ethanone with different aromatic aldehydes to yield 1-(7-ethoxy-1-benzofuran-2-yl) substituted chalcone derivatives 3a-j. The derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy techniques...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481024/rational-development-of-near-infrared-fluorophores-with-large-stokes-shifts-bright-one-photon-and-two-photon-emissions-for-bioimaging-and-biosensing-applications
#18
Liyi Zhou, Qianqian Wang, Yi Tan, Matthew J Lang, Hongyan Sun, Xiaogang Liu
Fluorophores with near-infrared emissions play a crucial role in numerous bioimaging and biosensing applications, owing to their deep penetration depths, low auto-fluorescence, and minimal tissue damages. Herein, the rational development of a new class of near-infrared fluorophores with bright one-photon and two-photon emissions at ≈740 nm, large Stokes shifts (≈80 nm), significant two-photon action absorption cross-section (≈185 GM at 820 nm), excellent water solubility, outstanding photostability, and low toxicity is reported...
May 8, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457934/enhanced-apoptosis-survivin-down-regulation-and-assisted-immunochemotherapy-by-curcumin-loaded-amphiphilic-mixed-micelles-for-subjugating-endometrial-cancer
#19
Animesh Kumar, Vijay Kumar Sirohi, Fatima Anum, Pankaj K Singh, Kanchan Gupta, Diksha Gupta, Shubhini A Saraf, Anila Dwivedi, Manish K Chourasia
Survivin is up-regulated in 83% of endometrial cancer leading to resistance development. As endometrial tumor advances, it also elicits chronic inflammation characterized by increased cytokine secretion and immune cells infiltration. The present study was designed to engineer mixed micellar curcumin loaded formulation for investigating survivin down-regulation, its anti-cancer and cytokine modulatory potential against endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χpd) was applied to predict the compatibility between curcumin and surfactant mixture...
April 27, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429326/wax-ester-fermentation-and-its-application-for-biofuel-production
#20
Hiroshi Inui, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masahiro Tamoi
In Euglena cells under anaerobic conditions, paramylon, the storage polysaccharide, is promptly degraded and converted to wax esters. The wax esters synthesized are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 10-18, and the major constituents are myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Since the anaerobic cells gain ATP through the conversion of paramylon to wax esters, the phenomenon is named "wax ester fermentation". The wax ester fermentation is quite unique in that the end products, i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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