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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338413/human-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-myobundles-to-measure-oxygen-uptake-and-assess-mitochondrial-toxicity
#1
Brittany N J Davis, Jeffrey W Santoso, Michaela J Walker, Cindy S Cheng, Timothy R Koves, William E Kraus, George A Truskey
Mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for the toxicity of a number of drugs. Current isolated mitochondria or cellular monoculture mitochondrial respiration measurement systems lack physiological relevance. Using a tissue engineering rather than cell- or mitochondria-based approach enables a more physiologically relevant detection of drug-induced mitochondrial impairment. To probe oxygen consumption and mitochondrial health, we assayed the bioenergetic profile of engineered three-dimensional human skeletal muscle myobundles derived from primary myoblasts...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335232/the-influence-of-modified-silica-nanomaterials-on-adult-stem-cell-culture
#2
Luigi Tarpani, Francesco Morena, Marta Gambucci, Giulia Zampini, Giuseppina Massaro, Chiara Argentati, Carla Emiliani, Sabata Martino, Loredana Latterini
The preparation of tailored nanomaterials able to support cell growth and viability is mandatory for tissue engineering applications. In the present work, silica nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel procedure and were then functionalized by condensation of amino groups and by adsorption of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging was used to establish the morphology and the average dimensions of about 130 nm, which were not affected by the functionalization. The three silica samples were deposited (1 mg/mL) on cover glasses, which were used as a substrate to culture adult human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs)...
June 4, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301735/glutaminolysis-a-hallmark-of-cancer-metabolism
#3
Lifeng Yang, Sriram Venneti, Deepak Nagrath
Glutamine is the most abundant circulating amino acid in blood and muscle and is critical for many fundamental cell functions in cancer cells, including synthesis of metabolites that maintain mitochondrial metabolism; generation of antioxidants to remove reactive oxygen species; synthesis of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), purines and pyrimidines, and fatty acids for cellular replication; and activation of cell signaling. In light of the pleiotropic role of glutamine in cancer cells, a comprehensive understanding of glutamine metabolism is essential for the development of metabolic therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer cells...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298220/enzymatic-improvement-of-mitochondrial-thiol-oxidase-erv1-for-oxidized-glutathione-fermentation-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Jyumpei Kobayashi, Daisuke Sasaki, Kiyotaka Y Hara, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
BACKGROUND: Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is the preferred form for industrial mass production of glutathione due to its high stability compared with reduced glutathione (GSH). In our previous study, over-expression of the mitochondrial thiol oxidase ERV1 gene was the most effective for high GSSG production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells among three types of different thiol oxidase genes. RESULTS: We improved Erv1 enzyme activity for oxidation of GSH and revealed that S32 and N34 residues are critical for the oxidation...
March 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296041/mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-and-dysfunction-induced-by-single-and-multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes-a-comparative-study
#5
Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Fatemeh Ghanbary, Enayatollah Seydi, Alireza Ghasemi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Khadijeh Ashtari, Mohsen Akbari
With the ever-increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in health-related and engineering applications, the hazardous risks of this material have become a major concern. It is well-known that CNTs accumulate with cytotoxic and genotoxic levels within vital organs. It has also been shown that treating cell cultures with CNTs resulted in cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis/necrosis. The goal of this pilot study is to perform a comprehensive comparative study on the toxicity of single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) carbon nanotubes in rat skin cells...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289821/single-dose-local-anesthetics-exhibit-a-type-dose-and-time-dependent-chondrotoxic-effect-on-chondrocytes-and-cartilage-a-systematic-review-of-the-current-literature
#6
REVIEW
Peter Cornelius Kreuz, Matthias Steinwachs, Peter Angele
PURPOSE: Many studies have shown that local anesthetics may impede chondrocyte metabolism. However, the influence of a single-dose local anesthetics is controversial. The aim of this metaanalysis was to review the literature for studies investigating the cytotoxic effects of single-dose local anesthetics on chondrocytes and cartilage. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed using established search engines (Medline, Embase) to identify studies, investigating the influence of single-dose local anesthetics on cartilage...
March 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283523/requirement-of-a-functional-fmn-prenyltransferase-for-the-activity-of-a-bacterial-decarboxylase-in-a-heterologous-muconic-acid-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Heike E Weber, Manuela Gottardi, Christine Brückner, Mislav Oreb, Eckhard Boles, Joanna Tripp
Biotechnological production of cis, cis-muconic acid from renewable feedstocks is an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional, petroleum-based methods. Even though a heterologous production pathway for cis, cis-muconic acid has already been established in the host organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the generation of industrially relevant amounts of cis, cis-muconic acid is hampered by the low activity of the bacterial protocatechuic acid (PCA) decarboxylase AroY subunit C(iso) (AroY-C(iso)), leading to secretion of high amounts of the intermediate PCA to the medium...
March 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277982/mapping-differential-cellular-protein-response-of-mouse-alveolar-epithelial-cells-to-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-as-a-function-of-atomic-layer-deposition-coating
#8
Gina M Hilton, Alexia J Taylor, Salik Hussain, Erinn C Dandley, Emily H Griffith, Stavros Garantziotis, Gregory N Parsons, James C Bonner, Michael S Bereman
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a prototypical engineered nanomaterial, have been increasingly manufactured for a variety of novel applications over the past two decades. However, since CNTs possess fiber-like shape and cause pulmonary fibrosis in rodents, there is concern that mass production of CNTs will lead to occupational exposure and associated pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to use contemporary proteomics to investigate the mechanisms of cellular response in E10 mouse alveolar epithelial cells in vitro after exposure to multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) that were functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD)...
March 13, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274797/polyplex-evolution-understanding-biology-optimizing-performance
#9
REVIEW
Arnaldur Hall, Ulrich Lächelt, Jiri Bartek, Ernst Wagner, Seyed Moein Moghimi
Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a gold standard polycationic transfectant. However, the highly efficient transfecting activity of PEI and many of its derivatives is accompanied by serious cytotoxic complications and safety concerns at innate immune levels, which impedes the development of therapeutic polycationic nucleic acid carriers in general and their clinical applications. In recent years, the dilemma between transfection efficacy and adverse PEI activities has been addressed from in-depth investigations of cellular processes during transfection and elucidation of molecular mechanisms of PEI-mediated toxicity and translation of these integrated events to chemical engineering of novel PEI derivatives with an improved benefit-to-risk ratio...
March 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271489/the-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-and-related-assemblies-in-health-and-disease
#10
Olwyn Byron, John Gordon Lindsay
The family of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes (2-OADC), typified by the pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex (PDC) as its most prominent member, are massive molecular machines (Mr, 4-10 million) controlling key steps in glucose homeostasis (PDC), citric acid cycle flux (OGDC, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine (BCOADC, branched-chain 2-OADC). These highly organised mitochondrial arrays, composed of multiple copies of three separate enzymes, have been widely studied as paradigms for the analysis of enzyme cooperativity, substrate channelling, protein-protein interactions and the regulation of activity by phosphorylation ...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271444/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-osteogenic-adipogenic-and-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Qianqian Li, Zewen Gao, Ye Chen, Min-Xin Guan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitors of connective tissues, which have emerged as important tools for tissue engineering due to their differentiation potential along various cell types. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that the regulation of mitochondria dynamics and function is essential for successful differentiation of MSCs. In this paper, we review and provide an integrated view on the role of mitochondria in MSC differentiation. The mitochondria are maintained at a relatively low activity level in MSCs, and upon induction, mtDNA copy number, protein levels of respiratory enzymes, the oxygen consumption rate, mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-associated genes, and intracellular ATP content are increased...
March 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252411/bond-graph-modelling-of-chemiosmotic-biomolecular-energy-transduction
#12
Peter Gawthrop
Engineering systems modelling and analysis based on the bond graph approach has been applied to biomolecular systems. In this context, the notion of a Faraday-equivalent chemical potential is introduced which allows chemical potential to be expressed in an analogous manner to electrical volts thus allowing engineering intuition to be applied to biomolecular systems. Redox reactions, and their representation by half-reactions, are key components of biological systems which involve both electrical and chemical domains...
February 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242621/a-farnesylated-coxiella-burnetii-effector-forms-a-multimeric-complex-at-the-mitochondrial-outer-membrane-during-infection
#13
Laura F Fielden, Jennifer H Moffatt, Yilin Kang, Michael James Baker, Chen Ai Khoo, Craig R Roy, Diana Stojanovski, Hayley J Newton
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, establishes a unique lysosome-derived intracellular niche termed the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV). The Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system is essential for biogenesis of the CCV and intracellular replication of Coxiella. Effector proteins, translocated into the host cell through this apparatus, act to modulate host trafficking and signaling processes to facilitate CCV development. Here we investigated the role of CBU0077, a conserved Coxiella effector that had previously been observed to localize to lysosomal membranes...
February 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231445/principles-of-systems-biology-no-14
#14
(no author information available yet)
This month: sage advice from phage to their offspring; systematic analyses of protein quality control, mitochondrial respiration, and woody biomass; a continental-scale experiment; and engineered protein tools galore.
February 22, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193863/modular-electron-transport-chains-from-eukaryotic-organelles-function-to-support-nitrogenase-activity
#15
Jianguo Yang, Xiaqing Xie, Mingxuan Yang, Ray Dixon, Yi-Ping Wang
A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for energy and reducing power, are thought to be major obstacles to engineering BNF into cereal crops. Genes required for nitrogen fixation can be considered as three functional modules encoding electron-transport components (ETCs), proteins required for metal cluster biosynthesis, and the "core" nitrogenase apoenzyme, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188893/ultra-deep-next-generation-mitochondrial-genome-sequencing-reveals-widespread-heteroplasmy-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#16
Paul S Kelly, Colin Clarke, Alan Costello, Craig Monger, Justine Meiller, Heena Dhiman, Nicole Borth, Michael J Betenbaugh, Martin Clynes, Niall Barron
Recent sequencing of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Chinese hamster genomes has dramatically advanced our ability to understand the biology of these mammalian cell factories. In this study, we focus on the powerhouse of the CHO cell, the mitochondrion. Utilizing a high-resolution next generation sequencing approach we sequenced the Chinese hamster mitochondrial genome for the first time and surveyed the mutational landscape of CHO cell mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Depths of coverage ranging from ~3,319X to 8,056X enabled accurate identification of low frequency mutations (>1%), revealing that mtDNA heteroplasmy is widespread in CHO cells...
February 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187683/proteomics-profiling-of-chimeric-truncated-tissue-plasminogen-activator-producing-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells-cultivated-in-a-chemically-defined-medium-supplemented-with-protein-hydrolysates
#17
Bahareh Azarian, Seyedeh Matin Sajedin, Amin Azimi, Mozhgan Raigani, Behrouz Vaziri, Fatemeh Davami
Background: Culture media enrichment through the addition of protein hydrolysates is beneficial for achieving higher protein expression. Methods: In this study, designing the optimum mixture of four soy and casein-derived hydrolysates was successfully performed by design of experiment and specific productivity increased in all predicted combinations. Protein profile of recombinant CHO (rCHO) cells producing tissue plasminogen activator in a serum-free medium (SFM) supplemented with designed hydrolysate additives was compared to that of rCHO cells cultivated in SFM...
February 11, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187082/harnessing-the-power-of-genetic-engineering-for-patients-with-mitochondrial-eye-diseases
#18
Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186127/optogenetic-control-of-cellular-forces-and-mechanotransduction
#19
Léo Valon, Ariadna Marín-Llauradó, Thomas Wyatt, Guillaume Charras, Xavier Trepat
Contractile forces are the end effectors of cell migration, division, morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion. Here we report optogenetic tools to upregulate and downregulate such forces with high spatiotemporal accuracy. The technology relies on controlling the subcellular activation of RhoA using the CRY2/CIBN light-gated dimerizer system. We fused the catalytic domain (DHPH domain) of the RhoA activator ARHGEF11 to CRY2-mCherry (optoGEF-RhoA) and engineered its binding partner CIBN to bind either to the plasma membrane or to the mitochondrial membrane...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183602/a-biological-method-for-in-situ-synthesis-of-hydroxyapatite-coated-magnetite-nanoparticles-using-enterobacter-aerogenes-characterization-and-acute-toxicity-assessments
#20
Elham Ahmadzadeh, Farid Talebnia Rowshan, Morteza Hosseini
Hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are being widely investigated for various applications in medical engineering and wastewater treatment. In this work, the MNPs were thoroughly coated by bacterial synthesized HA nanoparticles during biomineralization process using Enterobacter aerogenes. The resulting bacterial-induced precipitate was then calcined at 600°C and investigated with respect to structural characteristics, particle size and magnetic strength by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDS, TEM and VSM analyses...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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