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stem cell carcinogenic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100039/low-dose-radiation-causes-skin-cancer-in-mice-and-has-a-differential-effect-on-distinct-epidermal-stem-cells
#1
Tatiana Revenco, Gaelle Lapouge, Virginie Moers, Sylvain Brohée, Panagiota A Sotiropoulou
The carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation has been evaluated based on limited populations accidently exposed to high dose radiation. In contrast, insufficient data are available on the effect of low dose radiation, such as radiation deriving from medical investigations and interventions, as well as occupational exposure that concern a large fraction of western populations. Using mouse skin epidermis as a model, we showed that low dose radiation results in DNA damage in sebaceous gland and bulge epidermal stem cells (SCs)...
January 18, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049045/in-vitro-models-reveal-differences-in-the-developmental-neurotoxicity-of-an-environmental-polycylic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-mixture-compared-to-benzo-a-pyrene-neuronotypic-pc12-cells-and-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#2
Theodore A Slotkin, Samantha Skavicus, Jennifer Card, Richard T Di Giulio, Frederic J Seidler
In addition to their carcinogenic activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be developmental neurotoxicants. We evaluated the effects of PAHs with two in vitro models that assess distinct "decision nodes" in neurodifferentiation: neuronotypic PC12 cells, which characterize the transition from cell replication to neurodifferentiation, neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter specification; and embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), which evaluate the origination of neurons and glia from precursors...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996035/induction-of-cancer-associated-fibroblast-like-cells-by-carbon-nanotubes-dictates-its-tumorigenicity
#3
Sudjit Luanpitpong, Liying Wang, Vincent Castranova, Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Surapol Issaragrisil, Yi Charlie Chen, Yon Rojanasakul
Tumor microenvironment has been recognized as a key determinant of tumor formation and metastasis, but how tumor microenvironment is affected by nanomaterials is essentially unknown. Here, we investigated whether carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a widely used nanomaterial with known carcinogenic potential, can affect cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are a key component of tumor microenvironment that provides necessary support for tumor growth. We show for the first time that single-walled CNT and to a lesser extent multi-walled and its COOH-functionalized form induced CAF-like cells, which are non-tumorigenic in animals, but promote tumor growth of human lung carcinoma and CNT-transformed lung epithelial cells...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991910/establishment-and-characterization-of-bhd-f59rsvt-an-immortalized-cell-line-derived-from-a-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-patient-with-birt-hogg-dub%C3%A3-syndrome
#4
Mitsuko Furuya, Hisashi Hasumi, Masaya Baba, Reiko Tanaka, Yasuhiro Iribe, Takahiro Onishi, Yoji Nagashima, Yukio Nakatani, Yasuhiro Isono, Masahiro Yao
Hereditary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are life-threatening disorders not only for the patients but also for their relatives. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in the folliculin gene (FLCN). The protein product, FLCN, functions as a tumor suppressor, and the affected patients have high risks of developing multiple RCCs. The carcinogenic mechanisms stemming from FLCN dysfunction have been investigated using rodent models and human RCC tissues. However, very limited information has been available about in vitro signaling of human renal cells with genetically mutant FLCN...
December 19, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981389/pro-differentiating-effects-of-a-synthetic-flavagline-on-human-teratocarcinomal-cancer-stem-like-cells
#5
Fathi Emhemmed, Sarah Ali Azouaou, Qian Zhao, Aline Appert-Collin, Amar Bennasroune, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Christian D Muller, Laurent Désaubry, Guy Fuhrmann
As initiators of the carcinogenic process, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as new targets for anti-cancer therapies. However, these cells are hidden in the cancer bulk and remain relatively insensitive to chemotherapy, which targets their proliferative capacities. Alternatively, growing evidences have pointed out that a differentiation therapy could adversely affect these cells, which consequently should lose their self-renewal properties and become less aggressive. In order to evaluate the differentiation potential of an emerging class of anti-cancer drugs, we used the poorly differentiated teratocarcinomal cell as a model of Oct4-expressing CSC and determined the molecular mechanisms induced by the highly active flavagline FL3...
December 15, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980293/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-a-multifunctional-chemical-sensor-for-host-defense-and-homeostatic-maintenance
#6
Kaname Kawajiri, Yoshiaki Fujii-Kuriyama
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a pivotal chemical sensor that transduces extrinsic and intrinsic signals into cellular responses. AHR was originally thought to be involved in not only drug metabolism but also carcinogenic and toxicological responses against environmental contaminants, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, recent studies demonstrate that the AHR plays multiple intrinsic roles in host defense and homeostasis as well, including immunity, stem cell maintenance, and cell differentiation, upon binding with an increasing number of newly defined dietary, cellular, and microbe-derived ligands...
December 15, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974706/tm4sf1-promotes-the-self-renewal-of-esophageal-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-is-regulated-by-mir-141
#7
Lei Xue, Xiying Yu, Xingran Jiang, Xin Deng, Linlin Mao, Liping Guo, Jinhu Fan, Qinqxia Fan, Liuxing Wang, Shih-Hsin Lu
Cancer stem-like cells have been identified in primary human tumors and cancer cell lines. Previously we found TM4SF1 gene was highly expressed in side population (SP) cells from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines, but the role and underlying mechanism of TM4SF1 in ESCC remain unclear. In this study, we observed TM4SF1 was up-regulated but miR-141 was down-regulated in SP cells isolated from ESCC cell lines. TM4SF1 could stimulate the self-renewal ability and carcinogenicity of esophageal cancer stem-like cells, and promote cell invasion and migration...
December 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926490/positive-regulation-of-taz-expression-by-ebv-lmp1-contributes-to-cell-proliferation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#8
Jiang He, Feiyu Tang, Liyu Liu, Lin Chen, Jiang Li, Danming Ou, Lu Zhang, Zhi Li, Deyun Feng, Wenzheng Li, Lun-Quan Sun
The Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an integral membrane protein. LMP1 has been reported to activate the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. However, these effects alone are unable to account for the profound oncogenic properties of LMP1. TAZ is one of the nuclear effectors of Hippo-related pathways and highly expressed in many human tumors. Here, we reported that TAZ was frequently expressed in LMP1-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In NPC cell lines, we showed that LMP1 promoted TAZ expression...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904043/role-of-the-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-cyp-during-mouse-liver-development
#9
Wataru Ochiai, Akiyo Hirose, Taisuke Kawamura, Kyoko Komachi, Yuka Yamamoto, Satoshi Kitaoka, Jo Hatogai, Yoshiki Kusunoki, Risako Kon, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Kiyoshi Sugiyama
The drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP is mainly involved in the metabolism of various substances in the liver, such as drugs, endogenous substances, and carcinogens. Recent reports have also revealed that CYP1B1 plays a major role in the developmental process. Because the level of CYP expression is markedly high in the liver, we hypothesize that CYP plays a role in the developmental process of the liver. To verify this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression patterns of various CYP molecular species and their functions during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) into hepatocytes and the developmental process in mice...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901106/the-role-of-pim1-pim2-kinases-in-tumors-of-the-male-reproductive-system
#10
Manuel Pedro Jiménez-García, Antonio Lucena-Cacace, María José Robles-Frías, Maja Narlik-Grassow, Carmen Blanco-Aparicio, Amancio Carnero
The PIM family of serine/threonine kinases has three highly conserved isoforms (PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3). PIM proteins are regulated through transcription and stability by JAK/STAT pathways and are overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM kinases possess weak oncogenic abilities, but enhance other genes or chemical carcinogens to induce tumors. We generated conditional transgenic mice that overexpress PIM1 or PIM2 in male reproductive organs and analyzed their contribution to tumorigenesis...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813122/quercetin-alters-the-dna-damage-response-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-via-topoii-and-pi3k-dependent-mechanisms-synergizing-in-leukemogenic-rearrangements
#11
Shahar Biechonski, Dana Gourevich, Melanie Rall, Nasma Aqaqe, Muhammad Yassin, Adi Zipin-Roitman, Luba Trakhtenbrot, Leonid Olender, Yael Raz, Ariel J Jaffa, Dan Grisaru, Lisa Wiesmuller, David Elad, Michael Milyavsky
Quercetin (Que) is an abundant flavonoid in the human diet and high-concentration food supplement with reported pro- and anti-carcinogenic activities. Topoisomerase II (TopoII) inhibition and subsequent DNA damage induction by Que was implicated in the mixed lineage leukemia gene (MLL) rearrangements that can induce infant and adult leukemias. This notion raised concerns regarding possible genotoxicities of Que in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). However, molecular targets mediating Que effects on DNA repair relevant to MLL translocations have not been defined...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742691/exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-prostate-cancer-population-based-prospective-cohort-and-experimental-studies
#12
Imran Ali, Bettina Julin, Anders Glynn, Johan Högberg, Marika Berglund, Jan-Erik Johansson, Swen-Olof Andersson, Ove Andrén, Edward Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk, Ulla Stenius, Agneta Åkesson
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly persistent environmental pollutants and are undesirable components of our daily food. PCBs are classified as human carcinogens, but the evidence for prostate cancer is limited and available data are inconsistent. We explored the link between non-dioxin-like PCB and grade of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort as well as in cell experiments. A population-based cohort of 32496 Swedish men aged 45-79 years was followed prospectively through 1998-2011, to assess the association between validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and incidence of prostate cancer by grade (2789 cases, whereof 1276 low grade, 756 intermediate grade, 450 high grade) and prostate cancer mortality (357 fatal cases)...
December 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720397/a-local-mechanism-by-which-alcohol-consumption-causes-cancer
#13
Miguel López-Lázaro
Epidemiological data indicate that 5.8% of cancer deaths world-wide are attributable to alcohol consumption. The risk of cancer is higher in tissues in closest contact on ingestion of alcohol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mostly produced in the liver, it is not clear why alcohol use preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. It is well known that ethanol causes cell death at the concentrations present in alcoholic beverages; however, this effect may have been overlooked because dead cells cannot give rise to cancer...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716309/correlation-of-an-epigenetic-mitotic-clock-with-cancer-risk
#14
Zhen Yang, Andrew Wong, Diana Kuh, Dirk S Paul, Vardhman K Rakyan, R David Leslie, Shijie C Zheng, Martin Widschwendter, Stephan Beck, Andrew E Teschendorff
BACKGROUND: Variation in cancer risk among somatic tissues has been attributed to variations in the underlying rate of stem cell division. For a given tissue type, variable cancer risk between individuals is thought to be influenced by extrinsic factors which modulate this rate of stem cell division. To date, no molecular mitotic clock has been developed to approximate the number of stem cell divisions in a tissue of an individual and which is correlated with cancer risk. RESULTS: Here, we integrate mathematical modeling with prior biological knowledge to construct a DNA methylation-based age-correlative model which approximates a mitotic clock in both normal and cancer tissue...
October 3, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713163/premalignant-alteration-assessment-in-liver-like-tissue-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-by-aristolochic-acid-i-exposure
#15
Tong Li, Ke Jin, Dan-Yan Zhu, Lu Li, Zheng Rong Mao, Bo Wen Wu, Yi Fan Wang, Zong Fu Pan, Lan Juan Li, Chun Sheng Xiang, Kun Kai Su, Yi Jia Lou
The in vitro predictive evaluation of chemical carcinogenicity based on hepatic premalignance has so far not been established. Here, we report a novel approach to investigate the premalignant events triggered by human carcinogen aristolochic acid I (AAI) in the liver-like tissue derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. By AAI exposure, the liver-like tissue exhibited the paracrine interleukin-6 phenotypic characteristics. Hepatocytes expressed STAT3/p-STAT3, c-Myc and Lin28B in parallel. Some of them displayed the dedifferentiation characteristics, such as full of α-fetoprotein granules, increase in size, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttle of Oct4...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677953/epstein-barr-virus-associated-gastric-cancer-and-potential-mechanisms-of-oncogenesis
#16
Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá, Abigail Morales-Sánchez
EBV-associated Gastric Cancer (EBVaGC) comprises about 9% of all cases of GC and constitutes a distinct clinicopathological and molecular entity. The pattern of viral expression in EBVaGC cannot be set to any of the previously EBV-associated malignancies. Several lines of evidence support that viral expression in EBVaGC is characterized by high transcription of the BamH1-A rightward transcript (BART), low-levels of EBNA-1 and lack of LMP1. The high transcription activity of the BamH1-A region is importantly directed to express BART miRNAs, supporting a critical role for these miRNAs during epithelial cell infection and carcinogenesis...
September 26, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664423/from-the-cover-phip-dss-induced-colon-carcinogenesis-in-cyp1a-humanized-mice-and-the-possible-role-of-lgr5-stem-cells
#17
Jayson X Chen, Hong Wang, Anna Liu, Lanjing Zhang, Kenneth Reuhl, Chung S Yang
In the past decades, experimental rodent models developed to study the pathogenesis of human colorectal cancer (CRC) generally employed synthetic chemical carcinogens or genetic manipulation. Our lab, in order to establish a more physiologically relevant CRC model, recently developed a colon carcinogenesis model induced by the meat-derived dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in the cytochrome P450 1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice...
January 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572126/insight-into-the-role-of-long-noncoding-rna-in-cancer-development-and-progression
#18
C H Li, Y Chen
Long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) is a large class of RNA molecules with size larger than 200 nucleotides. They exhibit cellular functions although having no protein-coding capability. Accumulating evidence suggests that long noncoding RNA play crucial roles in cancer biology. Studies showed that deregulation of lncRNA was frequently observed in various types of cancers which contributed heavily to malignant phenotypical changes. Aberration of lncRNA can be induced by a number of factors such as dysregulated signaling pathway, response to catastrophic effect, viral infection, and contact with carcinogens...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539458/organoid-culture-of-lingual-epithelial-cells-in-a-three-dimensional-matrix
#19
Hiroko Hisha, Hiroo Ueno
A novel lingual epithelial organoid culture system using a three-dimensional (3D) matrix and growth factors has recently been established. In the culture system, organoids with multilayered squamous keratinized epithelium and typical morphological features of filiform papillae are generated from single lingual epithelial cells at a high efficiency. The culture system is created in order to observe the differentiation and maturation process of each lingual epithelial stem cell and to observe abnormal organoid formation from malignant cells obtained from carcinogen-treated mice...
August 19, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538837/mtor-inhibition-prevents-rapid-onset-of-carcinogen-induced-malignancies-in-a-novel-inducible-hpv-16-e6-e7-mouse-model
#20
Juan Luis Callejas-Valera, Ramiro Iglesias-Bartolome, Panomwat Amornphimoltham, Julia Palacios-Garcia, Daniel Martin, Joseph A Califano, Alfredo A Molinolo, J Silvio Gutkind
The rising incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancies, especially for oropharyngeal cancers, has highlighted the urgent need to understand how the interplay between high-risk HPV oncogenes and carcinogenic exposure results in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development. Here, we describe an inducible mouse model expressing high risk HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins in adults, bypassing the impact of these viral genes during development. HPV-16 E6/E7 genes were targeted to the basal squamous epithelia in transgenic mice using a doxycycline inducible cytokeratin 5 promoter (cK5-rtTA) system...
October 2016: Carcinogenesis
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