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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748541/rxr%C3%AE-provokes-tumor-suppression-through-p53-p21-p16-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways-during-stem-cell-differentiation-and-in-cancer-cells
#1
Rui Zhang, Hui Li, Shuangshuang Zhang, Yujie Zhang, Nan Wang, Hao Zhou, Hongpeng He, Guang Hu, Tong-Cun Zhang, Wenjian Ma
The retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) is an important therapeutic target impacting diverse biological processes. Activation of RXRα is known to suppress cancer cell growth. However, the cellular mechanism has been elusive. In the present study, we addressed its role during stem cell differentiation and the underlying connections with carcinogenesis. RXRα was significantly upregulated following the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) toward the formation of endothelial cell (EC). However, overexpression of RXRα in hMSC provoked a senescence-like phenotype accompanied by the elevation of tumor suppressor p53, p21, and p16...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714146/prdm14-a-potential-target-for-cancer-therapy
#2
Mengting Ou, Shun Li, Liling Tang
PRDM14 belongs to PR domain-containing (PRDM) family. Although a precise understanding is focused on the function of PRDM14 maintains stemness and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells via epigenetic mechanisms, there are growing experimental evidences have been linked PRDM14 to human cancers. In adults, PRDM14 is low expression in human tissues. Aberrant PRDM14 expression is connected with various malignant histological types and solid cancers, where PRDM14 can act as a driver of oncogenic processes. Overexpression of RPDM14 enhanced cancer cells growth and reduced cancer cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents...
April 30, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691438/the-hippo-signaling-transducer-taz-regulates-mammary-gland-morphogenesis-and-carcinogen-induced-mammary-tumorigenesis
#3
Kayla E Denson, Ashley L Mussell, He Shen, Alexander Truskinovsky, Nuo Yang, Natesh Parashurama, Yanmin Chen, Costa Frangou, Fajun Yang, Jianmin Zhang
Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and stem cell self-renewal. TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with the PDZ-binding motif) is a key downstream effector of the mammalian Hippo pathway. Here, using a transgenic mouse model with mammary-gland-specific expression of constitutively active TAZ, we found that TAZ induction in mammary epithelial cells was associated with an increase in mammary glandular size, which probably resulted from adipocyte hypertrophy...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679803/development-of-the-plant-derived-peptide-lunasin-as-an-anticancer-agent
#4
REVIEW
Saleha B Vuyyuri, Chris Shidal, Keith R Davis
The health benefits of soy consumption have long been recognized. An important potential benefit is the linkage of soy consumption with reduced cancer risk. One emerging factor that may confer the anticancer effects of soy is the peptide lunasin. Lunasin has both chemopreventive and therapeutic activities against a variety of carcinogens and cancer types. A novel feature of lunasin is that it contains multiple functional domains that can modulate gene expression through effects on histone acetylation and integrin signaling...
April 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601620/multi-center-double-blind-vehicle-controlled-clinical-trial-of-an-alpha-and-beta-defensin-containing-anti-aging-skin-care-regimen-with-clinical-histopathologic-immunohistochemical-photographic-and-ultrasound-evaluation
#5
Amy Taub, Vivian Bucay, Gregory Keller, Jay Williams, Darius Mehregan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anti-aging strategies utilizing stem cells are in the forefront. Alpha and beta defensins are natural immune peptides that have been shown to activate an LGR6-positive stem cell locus in the hair follicle, identified as the source of most new epidermal cells during acute wound healing. We investigated the ability of biomimetic alpha and beta defensin molecules, supplemented with supportive cosmetic ingredients, formulated into three skin care products, at improving the structure and function of aging skin...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582375/identification-of-human-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cancer-stem-cells
#6
Carlotta Olivero, Huw Morgan, Girish K Patel
Epithelia are under constant threat from environmental carcinogens and none more so than squamous epithelia, which form the outermost linings of our bodies. Hence malignancies of squamous epithelia are collectively the most common cancer type and with the highest mortality, despite a constant cell turnover and only relatively rare long-lived adult tissue stem cells. Genetic analysis from SCC whole genome sequencing reveals commonality in mutated genes, despite various etiological factors. Most SCC types have been shown to exhibit hierarchical growth, in which a high frequency of cancer stem cells is associated with poor prognosis...
March 27, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566310/dc-cik-cells-derived-from-ovarian-cancer-patient-menstrual-blood-activate-the-tnfr1-ask1-aip1-pathway-to-kill-autologous-ovarian-cancer-stem-cells
#7
Wenxing Qin, Ying Xiong, Juan Chen, Yongyi Huang, Te Liu
Ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) are highly carcinogenic and have very strong resistance to traditional chemotherapeutic drugs; therefore, they are an important factor in ovarian cancer metastasis and recurrence. It has been reported that dendritic cell (DC)-cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells have significant killing effects on all cancer cells across many systems including the blood, digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems. However, whether DC-CIK cells can selectively kill OCSCs is currently unclear...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549414/adipose-tissue-stem-cell-derived-hepatic-progenies-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-genotoxicity-testing
#8
Jana Tomc, Katja Kološa, Bojana Žegura, Urška Kamenšek, Barbara Breznik, Tamara Lah Turnšek, Metka Filipič
The problem of the currently used routine genotoxicity tests is relatively low predictivity of in vitro tests for in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. An important reason is considered to be inadequate expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in indicator cell lines. The aim of our study was to generate metabolically active differentiated hepatic progenies (hDHP) from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) for genotoxicity testing. hDHP, generated using a three-step hepatic differentiation procedure, expressed hepatic properties such as glycogen storage and albumin secretion...
May 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539880/alternative-carcinogenicity-screening-assay-using-colon-cancer-stem-cells-a-quantitative-pcr-qpcr-based-prediction-system-for-colon-carcinogenesis
#9
Yesol Bak, Hui-Joo Jang, Jong-Woon Shin, Soo-Jin Kim, Hyun Woo Chun, Ji-Hye Seo, Su-Hyun No, Jung-Il Chae, Dong Hee Son, Seung Yeoun Lee, Jintae Hong, Do-Young Yoon
The carcinogenicity of chemicals in the environment is a major concern. Recently, numerous studies have attempted to develop methods for predicting carcinogenicity, including rodent and cell-based approaches. However, rodent carcinogenicity tests for evaluating the carcinogenic potential of a chemical to humans are time-consuming and costly. This study focused on the development of an alternative method for predicting carcinogenicity using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and colon cancer stem cells. A toxicogenomic method, mRNA profiling, is useful for predicting carcinogenicity...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511342/genotoxicity-of-tetrahydrofolic-acid-to-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#10
Clara B García-Calderón, José Antonio Bejarano-García, Isabel Tinoco-Gago, María José Castro, Paula Moreno-Gordillo, José I Piruat, Teresa Caballero-Velázquez, José A Pérez-Simón, Iván V Rosado
Metabolically reactive formaldehyde is a genotoxin and a carcinogen. Mice lacking the main formaldehyde-detoxifying gene Adh5 combined with the loss of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway rapidly succumbed to bone marrow failure (BMF) primarily due to the extensive ablation of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool. However, the mechanism by which formaldehyde mediates these toxic effects is still unknown. We uncover a detrimental role of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) in cells lacking Adh5 or the FA repair pathway...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469819/the-long-noncoding-rna-hotair-in-breast-cancer-does-autophagy-play-a-role
#11
Elżbieta Pawłowska, Joanna Szczepanska, Janusz Blasiak
HOTAIR (HOX transcript antisense RNA) plays a critical role in chromatin dynamics through the interaction with histone modifiers resulting in transcriptional gene silencing. The promoter of the HOTAIR gene contains multiple estrogen response elements (EREs) and is transcriptionally activated by estradiol in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells. HOTAIR competes with BRCA1, a critical protein in breast cancer and is a critical regulator of genes involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. It mediates an oncogenic action of c-Myc, essential for breast carcinogenesis...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463873/induction-of-micronuclei-by-four-cytostatic-compounds-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-human-lymphoblastoid-tk6-cells
#12
Henning Hintzsche, Gracia Montag, Helga Stopper
For mutagenicity testing, primary lymphocytes or mammalian cell lines are employed. However, the true target for carcinogenic action of mutagenic chemicals may be stem cells. Since hematopoietic cancers induced by chemical agents originate at the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) stage and since one of the side effects of chemotherapeutic cancer treatment is the induction of secondary tumors, often leukemias, HSC may be a suitable cell system. We compared the sensitivity of HSC with the genotoxicity testing cell line TK6 for chromosomal mutations...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459852/%C3%AE-hpv-infection-correlates-with-early-stages-of-carcinogenesis-in-skin-tumors-and-patient-derived-xenografts-from-a-kidney-transplant-recipient-cohort
#13
Cinzia Borgogna, Carlotta Olivero, Simone Lanfredini, Federica Calati, Marco De Andrea, Elisa Zavattaro, Paola Savoia, Elena Trisolini, Renzo Boldorini, Girish K Patel, Marisa Gariglio
Many malignancies that occur in high excess in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are due to viruses that thrive in the setting of immunosuppression. Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), the most frequently occurring cancer type in KTR, has been associated with skin infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) from the beta genus. In this report, we extend our previous investigation aimed at identifying the presence of active β-HPV infection in skin tumors from KTRs through detection of viral protein expression. Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize infection in five tumors [one keratoacanthoma (KA), three actinic keratoses (AKs), and one seborrheic keratoses (SKs)] that were all removed from two patients who had been both transplanted twice, had developed multiple KCs, and presented with a long history of immunosuppression (>30 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436792/wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-isolation-and-characterization
#14
Hossein Ranjbaran, Saeid Abediankenari, Masoud Mohammadi, Narjes Jafari, Alireza Khalilian, Zahra Rahmani, Marzei Momeninezhad Amiri, Pirooz Ebrahimi
Wharton`s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs), have a high proliferation valency and they do not produce teratogen or carcinogen after subsequent transplantation. They are known as regenerative medicine. Thus more research is needed on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. In this experimental study, we obtained Wharton's jelly tissues from mothers during normal vaginal delivery, after obtaining their informed consent. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from cultured Wharton`s jelly, cultured, and were then examined for their proliferation, immunophenotypes, and differentiation capacities...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435053/rkip-and-peroxiredoxin-2-expression-predicts-the-proliferative-potential-of-gastric-cancer-stem-cells
#15
Shao-Feng Yang, Ran Ma, Li-Li Pan, Jing Cao, Nan Sheng
Gastric cancer is associated with a high mortality rate, with the development of gastric cancer stem cells underlying this. Gastric cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor initiation, progression and recurrence. However, the link between gastric cancer and gastric cancer stem cells remains to be fully understood. Murine models mimic a human microenvironment more accurately than in vitro studies and are useful models for understanding the behavior of different markers. The present study compared the expression of cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), a stem cell marker, with the expression of other cancer-associated markers, including Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) and peroxiredoxin 2, in different pathological conditions of gastric cancer development using histological, immunohistological and western blot analyses...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423095/decrease-in-psca-expression-caused-by-helicobacter-pylori-infection-may-promote-progression-to-severe-gastritis
#16
Osamu Toyoshima, Chizu Tanikawa, Ryuta Yamamoto, Hidenobu Watanabe, Hiroharu Yamashita, Kosuke Sakitani, Shuntaro Yoshida, Michiaki Kubo, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Kazuhiko Koike, Yasuyuki Seto, Koichi Matsuda
SNP rs2294008 in Prostate Stem Cell Antigen ( PSCA ) and decreased PSCA expression are associated with gastric cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of rs2294008 and PSCA expression in the gastritis-gastric cancer carcinogenic pathway. We conducted a case-control association study of H. pylori -infected gastritis and gastric cancer. rs2294008 was associated with the progression to chronic active gastritis ( P = 9.4 × 10-5 ; odds ratio = 3.88, TT + TC vs CC genotype), but not with H...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391238/upregulation-of-histone-lysine-methyltransferases-plays-a-causal-role-in-hexavalent-chromium-induced-cancer-stem-cell-like-property-and-cell-transformation
#17
Zhishan Wang, Jianjun Wu, Brock Humphries, Kazuya Kondo, Yiguo Jiang, Xianglin Shi, Chengfeng Yang
While hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is generally considered as a genotoxic environmental carcinogen, studies showed that Cr(VI) exposure also causes epigenetic changes. However, whether Cr(VI)-caused epigenetic dysregulations plays an important role in Cr(VI) carcinogenicity remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if chronic low dose Cr(VI) exposure causes epigenetic changes, the underlying mechanism and whether chronic low dose Cr(VI) exposure-caused epigenetic dysregulation contributes causally to Cr(VI)-induced cancer stem cell (CSC)-like property and cell transformation...
March 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383641/assessment-of-sulforaphane-induced-protective-mechanisms-against-cadmium-toxicity-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Nouf Abdulkareem Omer Alkharashi, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A Alshatwi
Cd is a hazardous substance and carcinogen that is present in the environment; it is known to cause toxic effects in living organisms. Sulforaphane is a naturally available phytochemical with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, the effects of sulforaphane on Cd toxicity in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of the effects of sulforaphane on Cd toxicity in hMSCs by using MTT assays, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst staining, LysoRed staining, assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential, and gene expression analysis...
April 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349655/total-body-irradiation-tremendously-impair-the-proliferation-differentiation-and-chromosomal-integrity-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells
#19
Wen-Jyi Lo, Chiao-Lin Lin, Yu-Chien Chang, Li-Yuan Bai, Chen-Yuan Lin, Ji-An Liang, Long-Yuan Li, Ling-Min Chao, Chang-Fang Chiu, Chuan-Mu Chen, Su-Peng Yeh
Total body irradiation (TBI) is frequently used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with many complications due to radiation injury to the normal cells, including normal stem cells. Nevertheless, the effects of TBI on the mesenchymal stromal stem cell (MSC) are not fully understood. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) isolated from normal adults were irradiated with 200 cGy twice daily for consecutive 3 days, a regimen identical to that used in TBI-conditioning HSCT. The characteristics, differentiation potential, cytogenetics, hematopoiesis-supporting function, and carcinogenicity of the irradiated BM-MSCs were then compared to the non-irradiated control...
April 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336272/let-7-mirna-precursors-co-express-with-lin28b-in-cervical-cells
#20
Aida Margarita Zamora-Contreras, Luis Marat Alvarez-Salas
BACKGROUND: The let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in carcinogenic processes, including cervical cancer. LIN28 proteins regulate let-7 biogenesis by binding to conserved sequences within the pre-miRNA structure. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that some let-7 miRNAs may escape LIN28 regulation. OBJECTIVE: Correlate pre-let-7 miRNAs and LIN28B levels in cervical cell lines with different malignancy and HPV content. METHODS: Pre-let-7 levels were determined by RTqPCR...
2018: MicroRNA
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