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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934747/untangling-longevity-dauer-and-healthspan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-insulin-igf-1-signalling
#1
Collin Yvès Ewald, Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, T Keith Blackwell
The groundbreaking discovery that lower levels of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) can induce lifespan extension was reported 24 years ago in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this organism, mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor gene daf-2 or other genes in this pathway can double lifespan. Subsequent work has revealed that reduced IIS (rIIS) extends lifespan across diverse species, possibly including humans. In C. elegans, IIS also regulates development into the diapause state known as dauer, a quiescent larval form that enables C...
September 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934632/in-vivo-biomechanical-behavior-of-the-trapeziometacarpal-joint-in-healthy-and-osteoarthritic-subjects
#2
Priscilla D'Agostino, Benjamin Dourthe, Faes Kerkhof, G Harry Van Lenthe, Filip Stockmans, Evie E Vereecke
BACKGROUND: The contact biomechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint have been investigated in several studies. However, these led to conflicting results and were mostly performed in vitro. The purpose of this study was to provide further insight on the contact biomechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint by in vivo assessment of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects. METHODS: The hands of 16 healthy women and 6 women with trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis were scanned in positions of maximal thumb extension, flexion, abduction and adduction during three isometric tasks (lateral key pinch, power grasp and jar twist) and in thumb rest posture (relaxed neutral)...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931428/personalized-predictive-modeling-for-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-using-an-extension-of-sullivan-s-life-table-model
#3
Eric Stallard, Bruce Kinosian, Yaakov Stern
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression varies substantially among patients, hindering calculation of residual total life expectancy (TLE) and its decomposition into disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disabled life expectancy (DLE) for individual patients with AD. The objective of the present study was to assess the accuracy of a new synthesis of Sullivan's life table (SLT) and longitudinal Grade of Membership (L-GoM) models that estimates individualized TLEs, DFLEs, and DLEs for patients with AD...
September 20, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931388/progress-and-outcomes-of-health-systems-reform-in-the-united-arab-emirates-a-systematic-review
#4
Erik Koornneef, Paul Robben, Iain Blair
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government aspires to build a world class health system to improve the quality of healthcare and the health outcomes for its population. To achieve this it has implemented extensive health system reforms in the past 10 years. The nature, extent and success of these reforms has not recently been comprehensively reviewed. In this paper we review the progress and outcomes of health systems reform in the UAE. METHODS: We searched relevant databases and other sources to identify published and unpublished studies and other data available between 01 January 2002 and 31 March 2016...
September 20, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930277/biological-activities-of-three-essential-oils-of-the-lamiaceae-family
#5
REVIEW
Gema Nieto
Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation...
August 23, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927530/an-insight-into-the-genotoxicity-assessment-studies-in-dipterans
#6
REVIEW
Nidhi Mishra, Rashmi Srivastava, Uma Rani Agrawal, Raghav Ram Tewari
The dipterans have been widely utilized in genotoxicity assessment studies. Short life span, easy maintenance, production of large number of offspring in a single generation and the tissues with appropriate cell populations make these flies ideal for studies associated to developmental biology, diseases, genetics, genetic toxicology and stress biology in the group. Moreover, their cosmopolitan presence makes them suitable candidate for ecological bio-monitoring. An attempt has been made in the present review to reveal the significance of dipteran flies for assessing alterations in genetic content through various genotoxicity biomarkers and to summarize the gradual advancement in these studies...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922849/medullary-serotonin-neuron-abnormalities-in-an-australian-cohort-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#7
Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons in the medulla oblongata project extensively to key autonomic and respiratory nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord regulating critical homeostatic functions. Multiple abnormalities in markers of 5-HT function in the medulla in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have been reported, informing the hypothesis that at least a subset of SIDS cases is caused by deficits in 5-HT function resulting in impaired homeostatic responses to potentially life-threatening events during sleep...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922021/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-ezetimibe-simvastatin-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolemia
#8
Marilisa Bove, Federica Fogacci, Arrigo Cicero
-Introduction: Cholesterol lowering treatment is mainly based on statins eventually associated to adjunctive drugs of different class such as ezetimibe. In the present review, we analysed the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of ezetimibe+simvastatin drug association. -Areas covered: The bio-equivalence of ezetimibe and simvastatin when co-administrated in separate tablets or combined in a single pill is well documented. Ezetimibe is absorbed in small intestine, reaching peak plasma concentrations in 4-12 hours, with a plasma half-life of 22 hours...
September 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919976/impacts-of-prenatal-nutrition-on-animal-production-and-performance-a-focus-on-growth-and-metabolic-and-endocrine-function-in-sheep
#9
REVIEW
Prabhat Khanal, Mette Olaf Nielsen
The concept of foetal programming (FP) originated from human epidemiological studies, where foetal life nutrition was linked to health and disease status later in life. Since the proposal of this phenomenon, it has been evaluated in various animal models to gain further insights into the mechanisms underlying the foetal origins of health and disease in humans. In FP research, the sheep has been quite extensively used as a model for humans. In this paper we will review findings mainly from our Copenhagen sheep model, on the implications of late gestation malnutrition for growth, development, and metabolic and endocrine functions later in life, and discuss how these implications may depend on the diet fed to the animal in early postnatal life...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919590/a-study-of-the-discussions-on-psychiatry-of-korea-in-the-1960s-and-1970s-from-mental-hygiene-to-modern-psychiatry
#10
Ji-Yeon Im
This study is to review the emergence of new psychiatrists, scientific rationalization, and popular internalization to reorganize the formation process of modern psychological medicine system. Unlike eugenic psychiatry from the Japanese Colonial Era, the social conditions and contexts forming autonomous system of psychiatry of Korea in the 1960s and 1970s have been concentrated. The discussion approach has been tried to secure two perspectives-treatment and criticism-at the same time and to expand the time and scope of study through the extensive texts such as newspapers, magazines, books, advertisements, and others in the 1960s and 1970s...
August 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918945/hof1-and-chs4-interact-via-f-bar-domain-and-sel1-like-repeats-to-control-extracellular-matrix-deposition-during-cytokinesis
#11
Younghoon Oh, Jennifer H Schreiter, Hiroki Okada, Carsten Wloka, Satoshi Okada, Di Yan, Xudong Duan, Erfei Bi
Localized extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is thought to stabilize the cleavage furrow and maintain cell shape during cytokinesis [1-14]. This remodeling is spatiotemporally coordinated with a cytoskeletal structure pertaining to a kingdom of life, for example the FtsZ ring in bacteria [15], the phragmoplast in plants [16], and the actomyosin ring in fungi and animals [17, 18]. Although the cytoskeletal structures have been analyzed extensively, the mechanisms of ECM remodeling remain poorly understood...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918550/advance-care-planning-challenges-at-the-emergency-department-of-a-cancer-care-center
#12
Maria T Cruz-Carreras, Patrick Chaftari, Jayne Viets-Upchurch
INTRODUCTION: Code status discussions form an important part of advance care planning (ACP) as it enables physicians to respect the patient's wishes for end-of-life care. However, in some cases, code status discussions can be challenging causing the physician to go against the patient's wishes and the code of medical ethics. This is especially true in an emergency setting. In this paper, we will discuss three cases of advanced cancer patients, where code status discussions posed challenges to healthcare providers...
September 16, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917618/gap-balancing-sacrifices-joint-line-maintenance-to-improve-gap-symmetry-5-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Sina Babazadeh, Michelle M Dowsey, Michael G Vasimalla, James D Stoney, Peter F M Choong
BACKGROUND: Gap balancing (GB) has been noted to sacrifice joint-line maintenance to improve gap symmetry. This study aims to determine whether this change affects function or quality of life in the midterm. METHODS: A prospective blinded randomized controlled trial was completed with 103 patients randomized to measured resection (n = 52) or GB (n = 51). Primary outcome measured was femoral component rotation. Secondary outcomes measured were joint-line change, gap symmetry, and function and quality-of-life outcomes...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917175/currently-and-recently-used-pesticides-in-central-european-arable-soils
#14
Martina Hvězdová, Petra Kosubová, Monika Košíková, Kerstin E Scherr, Zdeněk Šimek, Lukáš Brodský, Marek Šudoma, Lucia Škulcová, Milan Sáňka, Markéta Svobodová, Lucia Krkošková, Jana Vašíčková, Natália Neuwirthová, Lucie Bielská, Jakub Hofman
Although large amounts of pesticides are used annually and a majority enters the soil to form short- or long-term residues, extensive soil surveys for currently used pesticides (CUPs) are scarce. To determine the status of CUPs' occurrence in arable land in Central Europe, 51 CUPs and 9 transformation products (TPs) were analysed in 75 arable soils in the Czech Republic (CR) several months after the last pesticide application. Moreover, two banned triazines (simazine and atrazine) and their TPs were analysed because of their frequent detection in CR waters...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916907/pharmacokinetic-study-of-piracetam-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#15
Pankaj Paliwal, Debabrata Dash, Sairam Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916161/stable-association-of-a-drosophila-derived-microbiota-with-its-animal-partner-and-the-nutritional-environment-throughout-a-fly-population-s-life-cycle
#16
REVIEW
Mélisandre A Téfit, Benjamin Gillet, Pauline Joncour, Sandrine Hughes, François Leulier
In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915045/identification-and-validation-of-reaction-coordinates-describing-protein-functional-motion-hierarchical-dynamics-of-t4-lysozyme
#17
Matthias Ernst, Steffen Wolf, Gerhard Stock
While adequately chosen reaction coordinates are expected to reveal the mechanism of a dynamical process, it proves to be notoriously difficult to model the complex structural rearrangement of a macromolecule by a low-dimensional collective coordinate. Adopting the hinge-bending motion of T4 lysozyme (T4L) as a prominent example and performing a 50 microsecond long unbiased molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of T4L, a general strategy to identify reaction coordinates of protein functional dynamics is developed...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914396/the-expected-benefit-of-preventive-mastectomy-on-breast-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-brca-mutation-carriers-by-age-at-mastectomy
#18
Vasily Giannakeas, Steven A Narod
PURPOSE: Preventive breast surgery is offered to unaffected BRCA mutation carriers to prevent breast cancer incidence and mortality. The clinical benefit of preventive mastectomy can be measured in several ways, including extension of life expectancy (mean years of life gained) and by estimating the probability of surviving until age 80. We sought to estimate the expected benefit of a preventive mastectomy at various ages, using these indices of mortality, by simulating hypothetical cohorts of women...
September 15, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913720/emergency-neurological-life-support-acute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Hartmut Gross, Noah Grose
Acute ischemic stroke is a neurological emergency that can be treated with time-sensitive interventions, including both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular approaches to thrombus removal. Extensive study has demonstrated that rapid, protocolized, assessment and treatment is essential to improving neurological outcome. For this reason, acute ischemic stroke was chosen as an emergency neurological life support protocol. The protocol focuses on the first hour of medical care following the acute onset of a neurological deficit...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913686/pretreatment-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-is-associated-with-intrusive-thoughts-and-sense-of-coherence
#20
Dan Asplund, Thue Bisgaard, David Bock, Jakob Burcharth, Elisabeth González, Eva Haglind, Yanislav Kolev, Peter Matthiessen, Carina Rosander, Jacob Rosenberg, Kenneth Smedh, Marina Åkerblom Sörensson, Eva Angenete
PURPOSE: Quality of life may predict survival. In addition to clinical variables, it may be influenced by psychological factors, some of which may be accessible for intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association of intrusive thoughts and the patients' sense of coherence with pretreatment quality of life in patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients were prospectively included in 16 hospitals in Sweden and Denmark...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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