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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921268/audiovisual-sentence-recognition-not-predicted-by-susceptibility-to-the-mcgurk-effect
#1
Kristin J Van Engen, Zilong Xie, Bharath Chandrasekaran
In noisy situations, visual information plays a critical role in the success of speech communication: listeners are better able to understand speech when they can see the speaker. Visual influence on auditory speech perception is also observed in the McGurk effect, in which discrepant visual information alters listeners' auditory perception of a spoken syllable. When hearing /ba/ while seeing a person saying /ga/, for example, listeners may report hearing /da/. Because these two phenomena have been assumed to arise from a common integration mechanism, the McGurk effect has often been used as a measure of audiovisual integration in speech perception...
December 5, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919676/about-the-individuality-of-vision
#2
Lukasz Grzeczkowski, Aaron M Clarke, Gregory Francis, Fred W Mast, Michael H Herzog
In cognition, audition, and somatosensation, performance correlates strongly between different paradigms, which suggests the existence of common factors. In contrast, visual performance in seemingly very similar tasks, such as visual and bisection acuity, are hardly related. Here we show similar results for visual illusions. Consistent with previous findings, we found significant correlations between the illusion magnitude of the Ebbinghaus and Ponzo illusions, but this relationship was the only significant correlation out of 15 further comparisons...
December 2, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909072/the-mirror-illusion-increases-motor-cortex-excitability-in-children-with-and-without-hemiparesis
#3
Sebastian Grunt, Christopher J Newman, Stefanie Saxer, Maja Steinlin, Christian Weisstanner, Alain Kaelin-Lang
Background Mirror therapy provides a visual illusion of a normal moving limb by using the mirror reflection of the unaffected arm instead of viewing the paretic limb and is used in rehabilitation to improve hand function. Little is known about the mechanism underlying its effect in children with hemiparesis. Objective To investigate the effect of the mirror illusion (MI) on the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) in children and adolescents. Methods Twelve patients with hemiparesis (10-20 years) and 8 typically developing subjects (8-17 years) participated...
November 30, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900674/serotonergic-hallucinogen-induced-visual-perceptual-alterations
#4
Michael Kometer, Franz X Vollenweider
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference")...
November 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894595/do-visual-illusions-affect-grasping-considerable-progress-in-a-scientific-debate-a-reply-to-whitwell-goodale-2016
#5
Karl K Kopiske, Nicola Bruno, Constanze Hesse, Thomas Schenk, Volker H Franz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894025/fixating-on-the-size-speed-illusion-of-approaching-railway-trains-what-we-can-learn-from-our-eye-movements
#6
Helen E Clark, John A Perrone, Robert B Isler, Samuel G Charlton
Railway level crossing collisions have recently been linked to a size-speed illusion where larger objects such as trains appear to move slower than smaller objects such as cars. An explanation for this illusion has centred on observer eye movements - particularly in relation to the larger, longer train. A previous study (Clark et al., 2016) found participants tend to make initial fixations to locations around the visual centroid of a moving vehicle; however individual eye movement patterns tended to be either fixation-saccade-fixation type, or smooth pursuit...
November 25, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869190/embodied-neurofeedback-with-an-anthropomorphic-robotic-hand
#7
Niclas Braun, Reiner Emkes, Jeremy D Thorne, Stefan Debener
Neurofeedback-guided motor imagery training (NF-MIT) has been suggested as a promising therapy for stroke-induced motor impairment. Whereas much NF-MIT research has aimed at signal processing optimization, the type of sensory feedback given to the participant has received less attention. Often the feedback signal is highly abstract and not inherently coupled to the mental act performed. In this study, we asked whether an embodied feedback signal is more efficient for neurofeedback operation than a non-embodiable feedback signal...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847822/multisensory-integration-in-the-virtual-hand-illusion-with-active-movement
#8
Woong Choi, Liang Li, Satoru Satoh, Kozaburo Hachimura
Improving the sense of immersion is one of the core issues in virtual reality. Perceptual illusions of ownership can be perceived over a virtual body in a multisensory virtual reality environment. Rubber Hand and Virtual Hand Illusions showed that body ownership can be manipulated by applying suitable visual and tactile stimulation. In this study, we investigate the effects of multisensory integration in the Virtual Hand Illusion with active movement. A virtual xylophone playing system which can interactively provide synchronous visual, tactile, and auditory stimulation was constructed...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847346/scene-segmentation-in-early-visual-cortex-during-suppression-of-ventral-stream-regions
#9
Pablo R Grassi, Natalia Zaretskaya, Andreas Bartels
A growing body of literature suggests that feedback modulation of early visual processing is ubiquitous and central to cortical computation. In particular stimuli with high-level content that invariably activate ventral object responsive regions have been shown to suppress early visual cortex. This suppression was typically interpreted in the framework of predictive coding and feedback from ventral regions. Here we examined early visual modulation during perception of a bistable Gestalt illusion that has previously been shown to be mediated by dorsal parietal cortex rather than by ventral regions that were not activated...
November 12, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846340/contributions-of-gaze-centered-and-object-centered-coding-in-a-double-step-saccade-task
#10
Anouk J de Brouwer, W Pieter Medendorp, Jeroen B J Smeets
The position of a saccade target can be encoded in gaze-centered coordinates, that is, relative to the current gaze position, or in object-centered coordinates, that is, relative to an object in the environment. We tested the role of gaze-centered and object-centered coding in a double-step saccade task involving the Brentano version of the Müller-Lyer illusion. The two visual targets were presented either sequentially, requiring gaze-centered coding of the second saccade target, or simultaneously, thereby providing additional object-centered information about the location of the second target relative to the first...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835786/causal-capture-effects-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#11
Toyomi Matsuno, Masaki Tomonaga
Extracting a cause-and-effect structure from the physical world is an important demand for animals living in dynamically changing environments. Human perceptual and cognitive mechanisms are known to be sensitive and tuned to detect and interpret such causal structures. In contrast to rigorous investigations of human causal perception, the phylogenetic roots of this perception are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the susceptibility of nonhuman animals to mechanical causality by testing whether chimpanzees perceived an illusion called causal capture (Scholl & Nakayama, 2002)...
November 8, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832703/hiv-and-sti-knowledge-testing-and-risk-among-adult-crack-users-in-mexico-city-baseline-findings-from-a-feasibility-study
#12
Alice Cepeda, Jessica Frankeberger, Jennifer L Bailey, Kathryn M Nowotny, Guillermina Natera-Rey, Avelardo Valdez
Recent research has documented crack cocaine's increasing spread in Mexico, which is likely to contribute to the rapid transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Mexico, crack use is increasing most rapidly in vulnerable, hard-to-reach populations, where little is known about risk behaviors. This report aims to present baseline data regarding HIV and STI knowledge and testing prevalence from an innovative projection mapping HIV intervention, in which 3-D illusions, animation, and visual text graphics and sound are projected onto buildings with health messages that were designed to disrupt everyday life and connect with the target population...
November 10, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826275/non-hierarchical-influence-of-visual-form-touch-and-position-cues-on-embodiment-agency-and-presence-in-virtual-reality
#13
Stephen C Pritchard, Regine Zopf, Vince Polito, David M Kaplan, Mark A Williams
The concept of self-representation is commonly decomposed into three component constructs (sense of embodiment, sense of agency, and sense of presence), and each is typically investigated separately across different experimental contexts. For example, embodiment has been explored in bodily illusions; agency has been investigated in hypnosis research; and presence has been primarily studied in the context of Virtual Reality (VR) technology. Given that each component involves the integration of multiple cues within and across sensory modalities, they may rely on similar underlying mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821580/self-grounded-vision-hand-ownership-modulates-visual-location-through-cortical-beta-and-gamma-oscillations
#14
Nathan Faivre, Jonathan Doenz, Michele Scandola, Herberto Dhanis, Javier Bello Ruiz, Fosco Bernasconi, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke
: Vision is known to be shaped by context, defined by environmental and bodily signals. In the Taylor illusion, the size of an afterimage projected on one's hand changes according to proprioceptive signals conveying hand position. Here, we assessed whether the Taylor illusion does not just depend on the physical hand position, but also on bodily self-consciousness as quantified through illusory hand ownership. Relying on the somatic rubber hand illusion, we manipulated hand ownership, such that participants embodied a rubber hand placed next to their own hand...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816764/valence-and-arousal-value-of-visual-stimuli-and-their-role-in-the-mitigation-of-chronic-pain-what-is-the-power-of-pictures
#15
Maryam Shaygan, Andreas Böger, Birgit Kröner-Herwig
: The present study investigated the pain-reducing effects of various pictures in a sample of 88 patients receiving inpatient treatment for chronic pain. We investigated whether the pain attenuating effects of the pictures were mediated by picture valence, arousal or change in subjective social support. The study was carried out over four consecutive days. Patients were presented with photographs of loved ones, strangers, landscapes or optical illusions via digital albums and were asked to rate their pain intensity and their sensory and affective experience of pain immediately before and after viewing the pictures...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810350/a-depth-illusion-supports-the-model-of-general-object-constancy-size-and-depth-constancies-related-by-a-same-distance-scaling-factor
#16
Jiehui Qian, Yury Petrov
Perceptual constancy refers to the ability to stabilize the representation of an object even though the retinal image of the object undergoes variations. In previous studies, we proposed a General Object Constancy (GOC) hypothesis to demonstrate a common stabilization mechanism for perception of an object's features, such as size, contrast and depth, as the perceived distance varies. In the present study, we report another depth illusion supporting the GOC model. The stimuli comprised pairs of disks moving in a pattern of radial optic flow...
December 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802510/time-dilation-in-a-perceptually-jittering-dot-pattern
#17
Shunsuke Aoki, Akitoshi Kawano, Masahiko Terao, Ikuya Murakami
Although it is known that a moving stimulus appears to dilate in duration compared to a stationary stimulus, whether subjective motion devoid of stimulus motion is sufficient remains unknown. To elucidate this, we used a motion illusion in which an actually static stimulus clearly appears to move, a useful dissociation between actual and subjective motions. We used the jitter aftereffect resulting from adaptation to dynamic noise as such a tool and measured subjective durations of a static random-dot pattern in which illusory jitter was seen, an actually oscillating pattern mimicking the illusory jitter, and a static pattern without illusory jitter...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776360/motion-induced-position-shift-in-stereoscopic-and-dichoptic-viewing
#18
Rumi Hisakata, Daisuke Hayashi, Ikuya Murakami
The static envelope of a Gabor patch with a moving sinusoidal carrier appears shifted in the direction of the carrier motion (De Valois & De Valois, 1991). This phenomenon is called motion-induced position shift. Although several motion-processing stages, ranging from low- to high-level processes, may contribute to position estimation, it is unknown whether a binocular matching stage or an even earlier stage exerts an influence. To elucidate this matter, we investigated the disparity tuning of this illusion by manipulating the binocular disparities of the carrier and the envelope...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768043/investigating-the-uncatchable-smile-in-leonardo-da-vinci-s-la-bella-principessa-a-comparison-with-the-mona-lisa-and-pollaiuolo-s-portrait-of-a-girl
#19
Alessandro Soranzo, Michelle Newberry
This paper discusses how the 'Uncatchable Smile' illusion in Leonardo da Vinci's La Bella Principessa portrait was discovered. Kemp and Cotte(1) described the expression of the Princess as ambiguous and "subtle to an inexpressible degree". A combination of three methods was used (inter-observation, structured interviews, and psychophysical experiments) to identify what may underlie this 'ambiguity'. The inter-observation and the structured interview methods were firstly applied to generate experimental hypotheses that were successively tested by a series of psychophysical experiments...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761399/disruptions-in-neural-connectivity-associated-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-a-depth-inversion-illusion-in-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#20
Tina Gupta, Steven M Silverstein, Jessica A Bernard, Brian P Keane, Thomas V Papathomas, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Derek J Dean, Raeana E Newberry, Ivanka Ristanovic, Vijay A Mittal
Patients with psychosis exhibit a reduced susceptibility to depth inversion illusions (DII) in which a physically concave surface is perceived as convex (e.g., the hollow mask illusion). Here, we examined the extent to which lessened susceptibility to DII characterized youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. In this study, 44 UHR participants and 29 healthy controls judged the apparent convexity of face-like human masks, two of which were concave and the other convex. One of the concave masks was painted with realistic texture to enhance the illusion; the other was shown without such texture...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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