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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243136/recalibration-of-hand-position-sense-during-unconscious-active-and-passive-movement
#1
Zakaryah Abdulkarim, H Henrik Ehrsson
Precise knowledge of one's limbs' position in space is fundamental for goal-directed action. The brain's representation of the body in space is thought to be generated through a process of multisensory integration of visual, tactile and proprioceptive signals. In this study, we devised a setup that allowed us to displace participants' right hand without their subjective awareness. We accomplished this task by instructing the participants to view a live video feed of their hand from the first-person perspective...
December 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213057/a-catch-up-illusion-arising-from-a-distance-dependent-perception-bias-in-judging-relative-movement
#2
Tobias Meilinger, Bärbel Garsoffky, Stephan Schwan
The perception of relative target movement from a dynamic observer is an unexamined psychological three body problem. To test the applicability of explanations for two moving bodies participants repeatedly judged the relative movements of two runners chasing each other in video clips displayed on a stationary screen. The chased person always ran at 3 m/s with an observer camera following or leading at 4.5, 3, 1.5 or 0 m/s. We harmonized the chaser speed in an adaptive staircase to determine the point of subjective equal movement speed between runners and observed (i) an underestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved towards the viewer, and (ii) an overestimation of chaser speed if the runners moved away from the viewer, leading to a catch-up illusion in case of equidistant runners...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204264/curvature-blindness-illusion
#3
Kohske Takahashi
We report a novel illusion--curvature blindness illusion: a wavy line is perceived as a zigzag line. The following are required for this illusion to occur. First, the luminance contrast polarity of the wavy line against the background is reversed at the turning points. Second, the curvature of the wavy line is somewhat low; the right angle is too steep to be perceived as an illusion. This illusion implies that, in order to perceive a gentle curve, it is necessary to satisfy more conditions--constant contrast polarity--than perceiving an obtuse corner...
November 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204263/the-oscillating-potential-model-of-visually-induced-vection
#4
Takeharu Seno, Ken-Ichi Sawai, Hidetoshi Kanaya, Toshihiro Wakebe, Masaki Ogawa, Yoshitaka Fujii, Stephen Palmisano
Visually induced illusions of self-motion are often referred to as vection. This article developed and tested a model of responding to visually induced vection. We first constructed a mathematical model based on well-documented characteristics of vection and human behavioral responses to this illusion. We then conducted 10,000 virtual trial simulations using this Oscillating Potential Vection Model (OPVM). OPVM was used to generate simulated vection onset, duration, and magnitude responses for each of these trials...
November 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187829/multisensory-motion-perception-in-3-4-month-old-infants
#5
Elena Nava, Massimo Grassi, Viola Brenna, Emanuela Croci, Chiara Turati
Human infants begin very early in life to take advantage of multisensory information by extracting the invariant amodal information that is conveyed redundantly by multiple senses. Here we addressed the question as to whether infants can bind multisensory moving stimuli, and whether this occurs even if the motion produced by the stimuli is only illusory. Three- to 4-month-old infants were presented with two bimodal pairings: visuo-tactile and audio-visual. Visuo-tactile pairings consisted of apparently vertically moving bars (the Barber Pole illusion) moving in either the same or opposite direction with a concurrent tactile stimulus consisting of strokes given on the infant's back...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184060/predictive-feedback-to-v1-dynamically-updates-with-sensory-input
#6
Grace Edwards, Petra Vetter, Fiona McGruer, Lucy S Petro, Lars Muckli
Predictive coding theories propose that the brain creates internal models of the environment to predict upcoming sensory input. Hierarchical predictive coding models of vision postulate that higher visual areas generate predictions of sensory inputs and feed them back to early visual cortex. In V1, sensory inputs that do not match the predictions lead to amplified brain activation, but does this amplification process dynamically update to new retinotopic locations with eye-movements? We investigated the effect of eye-movements in predictive feedback using functional brain imaging and eye-tracking whilst presenting an apparent motion illusion...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167368/perception-of-contextual-size-illusions-by-honeybees-in-restricted-and-unrestricted-viewing-conditions
#7
Scarlett R Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair E Garcia, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adrian G Dyer
How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested whether honeybees perceive contextual size illusions, and whether errors in perception of size differed under restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163732/a-comparison-of-the-effects-and-side-effects-of-oral-betahistine-with-injectable-promethazine-in-the-treatment-of-acute-peripheral-vertigo-in-emergency
#8
Hassan Motamed, Meisam Moezzi, Ali Dalir Rooyfard, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Zahra Izadi
Background: Vertigo is an illusion of rotation that is caused by the asymmetry of neurological function of the right and left vestibular nuclei. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of oral betahistine with injectable promethazine in treatment of acute peripheral vertigo. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial study, the patients with acute peripheral vertigo were assigned in the two groups: receiving promethazine intramuscularly at a dose of 25 mg (group A) and receiving 8 mg betahistine tablets (group B) and the severity of their vertigo was evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) scoring system...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161965/i-am-there-%C3%A2-but-not-quite-an-unfaithful-mirror-that-reduces-feelings-of-ownership-and-agency
#9
Noreen O'Sullivan, Christophe de Bezenac, Andrea Piovesan, Hannah Cutler, Rhiannon Corcoran, David Fenyvesi, Marco Bertamini
The experience of seeing one's own face in a mirror is a common experience in daily life. Visual feedback from a mirror is linked to a sense of identity. We developed a procedure that allowed individuals to watch their own face, as in a normal mirror, or with specific distortions (lag) for active movement or passive touch. By distorting visual feedback while the face is being observed on a screen, we document an illusion of reduced embodiment. Participants made mouth movements, while their forehead was touched with a pen...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160144/parkinson-s-disease-psychosis-presentation-diagnosis-and-management
#10
Ruth B Schneider, Julia Iourinets, Irene H Richard
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Psychosis is a common feature of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) encompasses minor phenomena (illusions, passage hallucinations and presence hallucinations), visual and nonvisual hallucinations and delusions. PDP is associated with reduced function and quality of life. The initial management approach should focus on identification and treatment of any contributory medical factors, reduction or discontinuation of medications with potential to induce or worsen psychosis, nonpharmacological strategies and consideration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment in the setting of dementia...
November 21, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151098/the-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome
#11
Douglas J Lanska, John R Lanska
In 1955, English psychiatrist John Todd defined the Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) as self-experienced paroxysmal body-image illusions involving distortions of the size, mass, or shape of the patient's own body or its position in space, often accompanied by depersonalization and/or derealization. AIWS had been described by American Neurologist Caro Lippman in 1952, but Todd's report was the most influential. Todd named the syndrome for the perceptual disorder of altered body image experienced by the protagonist in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145190/charles-bonnet-syndrome-and-other-hallucinatory-phenomena
#12
François Boller, Daniel S Birnbaum, Nicoletta Caputi
Descriptions of hallucinatory phenomena have figured prominently since the beginning of recorded history. Jean Etienne Esquirol (1772-1840) is usually credited for having introduced the term in 1817, differentiating between hallucinations and illusions. Both are wrong perceptions, but in illusions, an external stimulus is always present whereas hallucinations are perceptions that occur in the absence of corresponding sensory stimuli. They occur in a variety of conditions but more often in the mentally ill, especially in schizophrenia where hallucinations, particularly auditory hallucinations represent for many, such as Henri Ey one of the cardinal features...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136409/neural-representation-of-form-contingent-color-filling-in-in-the-early-visual-cortex
#13
Sang Wook Hong, Frank Tong
Perceptual filling-in exemplifies the constructive nature of visual processing. Color, a prominent surface property of visual objects, can appear to spread to neighboring areas that lack any color. We investigated cortical responses to a color filling-in illusion that effectively dissociates perceived color from the retinal input (van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009). Observers adapted to a star-shaped stimulus with alternating red- and cyan-colored points to elicit a complementary afterimage. By presenting an achromatic outline that enclosed one of the two afterimage colors, perceptual filling-in of that color was induced in the unadapted central region...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117288/dynamic-network-communication-in-the-human-functional-connectome-predicts-perceptual-variability-in-visual-illusion
#14
Zhiwei Wang, Kristina Zeljic, Qinying Jiang, Yong Gu, Wei Wang, Zheng Wang
Ubiquitous variability between individuals in visual perception is difficult to standardize and has thus essentially been ignored. Here we construct a quantitative psychophysical measure of illusory rotary motion based on the Pinna-Brelstaff figure (PBF) in 73 healthy volunteers and investigate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying perceptual variation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We acquired fMRI data from a subset of 42 subjects during spontaneous and 3 stimulus conditions: expanding PBF, expanding modified-PBF (illusion-free) and expanding modified-PBF with physical rotation...
November 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114808/preferential-processing-of-cardinal-over-oblique-orientations-in-human-vision
#15
Gerald Westheimer
The oblique effect-poorer performance when contours are in oblique meridians-is here extended from the discrimination of line-orientation to the tilt illusion and to the detection and contextual induction of curvature. The distinction is made between a contour's susceptibility to contextual perturbation and its capacity to induce such perturbation, for which the oblique effect is only about one half. That the cardinal/oblique superiority is retained for the orientation of illusory borders and for the implicit orientation of shapes lacking explicit rectilinear delineation has implications for its neural substrate...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100659/the-sander-parallelogram-illusion-dissociates-action-and-perception-despite-control-for-the-litany-of-past-confounds
#16
Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale, Kate E Merritt, James T Enns
The two visual systems hypothesis proposes that human vision is supported by a occipito-temporal network for the conscious visual perception of the world, and a fronto-parietal network for visually-guided, object-directed actions. Two specific claims about the fronto-parietal network's role in sensorimotor control have generated much data and controversy: (1) the network relies primarily on the absolute metrics of target objects, which it rapidly transforms into effector-specific frames of reference to guide the fingers, hands, and limbs, and (2) the network is largely unaffected by scene-based information extracted by the occipito-temporal network for those same targets...
October 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075665/memristive-stochastic-plasticity-enables-mimicking-of-neural-synchrony-memristive-circuit-emulates-an-optical-illusion
#17
Marina Ignatov, Martin Ziegler, Mirko Hansen, Hermann Kohlstedt
The human brain is able to integrate a myriad of information in an enormous and massively parallel network of neurons that are divided into functionally specialized regions such as the visual cortex, auditory cortex, or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Each of these regions participates as a context-dependent, self-organized, and transient subnetwork, which is shifted by changes in attention every 0.5 to 2 s. This leads to one of the most puzzling issues in cognitive neuroscience, well known as the "binding problem...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071561/color-adjustment-potential-of-resin-composites
#18
Branka Trifkovic, John M Powers, Rade D Paravina
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate color adjustment potential (CAP) of resin composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two shades of each of eight commercial resin composites and one control shade were evaluated. Visual (color competent observers, controlled conditions) and instrumental color evaluations (spectroradiometer, spectrophotometer) were performed. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Fisher's PLSD intervals for comparison of means, and Spearman's rank order correlation...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071104/how-does-plate-size-affect-estimated-satiation-and-intake-for-individuals-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-groups
#19
M Peng
OBJECTIVE: Manipulating plate sizes could possibly introduce perceptual biases for judging food satiation and intake, which is thought to be related to the Delbeouf illusion - a visual illusion based on the perceived size of one object related to another. This study was to investigate whether an association exists between an individual's susceptibility to the plate-size-effect and their weight status (i.e. normal-weight versus overweight). METHODS: The study assessed the effect of plate size amongst normal-weight (N = 124) and overweight (N = 79) New Zealand Europeans...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060078/motor-imagery-enhancement-paradigm-using-moving-rubber-hand-illusion-system
#20
Minsu Song, Jonghyun Kim
Motor imagery (MI) has been widely used in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface. The size of event-related desynchronization (ERD) is a key parameter for successful motor imaginary rehabilitation and BCI adaptation. Many studies have used visual guidance for enhancement/ amplification of motor imagery ERD amplitude, but their enhancements were not significant. We propose a novel ERD enhancing paradigm using body-ownership illusion, or also known as rubber hand illusion (RHI). The system was made by motorized, moving rubber hand which can simulate wrist extension...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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