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visual illusion

Stefania S Moro, Jennifer K E Steeves
Integrating vision and hearing is an important way in which we process our rich sensory environment. Partial deprivation of the visual system from the loss of one eye early in life results in adaptive changes in the remaining senses (e.g., Hoover et al. in Exp Brain Res 216:565-74, 2012). The current study investigates whether losing one eye early in life impacts the temporal window in which audiovisual events are integrated and whether there is vulnerability to the sound-induced flash illusion. In Experiment 1, we measured the temporal binding window with a simultaneity judgement task where low-level auditory and visual stimuli were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies...
April 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Dominika Radziun, H Henrik Ehrsson
Short-term visual deprivation by blindfolding influences tactile acuity and orientation in space and, on a neural level, leads to enhanced excitability of visual and motor cortices. However, to the best of our knowledge, the possible effects of short-term visual deprivation on body representation have not been examined. In the present study, we tested two groups of 30 healthy participants with the somatic rubber hand illusion, a well-established paradigm to probe the dynamic plasticity of body representation...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Meredith Lanska, Deanne Westerman
Stimuli that are fluently processed are more likely to be called "old" on a recognition memory test compared with less fluently processed stimuli. The goal of the current study was to investigate how the perceived diagnostic value of fluency is affected by a match between encoding and test conditions. During the encoding phase, participants engaged in different tasks designed to reflect different phonological processing requirements. On a later recognition test, the phonological fluency of some of the items was enhanced...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Denise Linsmayer, Christoph Kindler, Wiebke Anheier, Julia Reiff, Per Suppa, Dieter F Braus
We report on a 54-year-old patient who described a progressive anxiety disorder additionally recurrent sight disorders associated with room-tilt illusions and subjective visual field defects. She also reported disturbances of concentration and attention and of a modified typeface accompanied by difficulty in writing with an increase of grammatical errors. Based on the case, the relevant anamnestic and clinical data, the neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings and also differential diagnosis of the posterior cortical atrophy, a rare neurodegenerative disease, will be discussed...
April 17, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
Cyril Thomas, André Didierjean, Gustav Kuhn
When faced with a difficult question, people sometimes work out an answer to a related, easier question without realizing that a substitution has taken place (e.g., Kahneman, 2011, Thinking, fast and slow. New York, Farrar, Strauss, Giroux). In two experiments, we investigated whether this attribute substitution effect can also affect the interpretation of a simple visual event sequence. We used a magic trick called the 'Flushtration Count Illusion', which involves a technique used by magicians to give the illusion of having seen multiple cards with identical backs, when in fact only the back of one card (the bottom card) is repeatedly shown...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Claudia S Lüttke, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Floris P de Lange
The human brain can quickly adapt to changes in the environment. One example is phonetic recalibration: a speech sound is interpreted differently depending on the visual speech and this interpretation persists in the absence of visual information. Here, we examined the mechanisms of phonetic recalibration. Participants categorized the auditory syllables /aba/ and /ada/, which were sometimes preceded by the so-called McGurk stimuli (in which an /aba/ sound, due to visual /aga/ input, is often perceived as 'ada')...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Stephanie Rosemann, Christiane M Thiel
Hearing loss is associated with difficulties in understanding speech, especially under adverse listening conditions. In these situations, seeing the speaker improves speech intelligibility in hearing-impaired participants. On the neuronal level, previous research has shown cross-modal plastic reorganization in the auditory cortex following hearing loss leading to altered processing of auditory, visual and audio-visual information. However, how reduced auditory input effects audio-visual speech perception in hearing-impaired subjects is largely unknown...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Chen Song, Geraint Rees
The integration of inputs across the entire visual field into a single conscious experience is fundamental to human visual perception. This integrated nature of visual experience is illustrated by contextual illusions such as the tilt illusion, in which the perceived orientation of a central grating appears tilted away from its physical orientation, due to the modulation by a surrounding grating with a different orientation. Here we investigated the relative contribution of local, intra-hemispheric and global, inter-hemispheric integration mechanisms to perception of the tilt illusion...
March 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Laysa Hedjar, Venice Cowardin, Arthur G Shapiro
The visual system has separable visual encoding for luminance and for contrast modulation [J. Vis.8(1), B152 (2008)1534-736210.1167/8.6.1]; the two dimensions can be represented with a luminance contrast versus luminance plane. Here we use a contrast asynchrony paradigm to explore contextual effects on luminance contrast modulation: two identical rectangular bars (0.5°×2.5°) have luminance levels that modulate at 2 Hz; when one bar is placed on a bright field and the other bar on a dark field, observers perceive the bars modulating in antiphase with each other and yet becoming light and dark at the same time...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Donald A Redelmeier, Sheharyar Raza
Aerial perspective illusion is a feature of visual perception where landscapes appear relatively close in clear light and distant in dim light. We hypothesized that bright sunlight might cause drivers to perceive distant terrain as relatively close and misinterpret the approach speed of surrounding landscape as unduly slow. This hypothesis would mean, in turn, that drivers in bright sunlight may underestimate their progress on the road, compensate by traveling at a faster baseline speed, and ultimately increase the prevailing risk of a life-threatening traffic crash...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Eiji Watanabe, Akiyoshi Kitaoka, Kiwako Sakamoto, Masaki Yasugi, Kenta Tanaka
The cerebral cortex predicts visual motion to adapt human behavior to surrounding objects moving in real time. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, predictive coding is one of the leading theories. Predictive coding assumes that the brain's internal models (which are acquired through learning) predict the visual world at all times and that errors between the prediction and the actual sensory input further refine the internal models. In the past year, deep neural networks based on predictive coding were reported for a video prediction machine called PredNet...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Karin Binder, Stefan Krauss, Georg Bruckmaier, Jörg Marienhagen
In medicine, diagnoses based on medical test results are probabilistic by nature. Unfortunately, cognitive illusions regarding the statistical meaning of test results are well documented among patients, medical students, and even physicians. There are two effective strategies that can foster insight into what is known as Bayesian reasoning situations: (1) translating the statistical information on the prevalence of a disease and the sensitivity and the false-alarm rate of a specific test for that disease from probabilities into natural frequencies, and (2) illustrating the statistical information with tree diagrams, for instance, or with other pictorial representation...
2018: PloS One
Paulina K Piotrowski, Benedikt A Weggler, David A Yoxtheimer, Christina N Kelly, Erica Barth-Naftilan, James E Saiers, Frank L Dorman
Hydraulic fracturing is an increasingly common technique for the extraction of natural gas entrapped in shale formations. This technique has been highly criticized due to the possibility of environmental contamination, underscoring the need for method development to identify chemical factors that could be utilized in point-source identification of environmental contamination events. Here, we utilize comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight (HRT) mass spectrometry, which offers a unique instrumental combination allowing for petrole-omics hydrocarbon fingerprinting...
March 27, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Millad J Sobhanian, Rohit Agarwal, Ethan Meltzer, Eric Kildebeck, Benjamin S Frohman, Ashley N Frohman, Steven L Galetta, Shiv Saidha, Owen White, Pablo Villoslada, Friedemann Paul, Axel Petzold, Robert L Rennaker, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Laura J Balcer, Randy Kardon, Elliot M Frohman, Teresa C Frohman
BACKGROUND: The Pulfrich phenomenon (PF) is the illusory perception that an object moving linearly along a 2-D plane appears to instead follow an elliptical 3-D trajectory, a consequence of inter-eye asymmetry in the timing of visual object identification in the visual cortex; with optic neuritis as a common etiology. OBJECTIVE: We have designed an objective method to identify the presence and magnitude of the PF, in conjunction with a cooresponding strategy by which to abolish the effect; with monocular application of neutral density filters to the less affected fellow eye, in patients with MS and a history of optic neuropathy (e...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Mélodie Derome, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Deborah Badoud, Larisa Morosan, Dimitri Van De Ville, François Lazeyras, Stephan Eliez, Raymond Chan, David Rudrauf, Sophie Schwartz, Martin Debbane
The mirror-gazing task (MGT) experimentally induces illusions, ranging from simple color changes in the specular image of oneself, to depersonalization-like anomalous self-experiences (ASE) as in experiencing one's specular image as someone else. The objective was to characterize how connectivity in resting-state networks (RSNs) differed in adolescents reporting such depersonalization-like ASEs during the MGT, in a cross-sectional (Y1) and in a longitudinal manner (a year after). 75 adolescents were recruited; for the cross-sectional analysis, participants were split into 2 groups: those who reported depersonalization-like ASEs on the MGT (ASE), and those who did not (NoASE)...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Tena, Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina, Mª Carolina Valbuena-Iglesias, Pablo Ruisoto Palomera
Optical illusions are involved in the perception of false or erroneous images which might involve disorientation. They occur by a discordance by the peripheral systems about the information captured and generally, resulting in pilots failure to recognize key signals. The aim of this study is to review the state of the art of spatial disorientation and optical illusions in aviation pilots. This kind of disorientation has important practical consequences, because a remarkable percentage of plane accidents are related to pilot's optical illusions...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Cathrin Rohleder, Dagmar Koethe, Stefan Fritze, Cristina E Topor, F Markus Leweke, Dusan Hirjak
OBJECTIVES: Binocular depth inversion illusion (BDII), a visual, 'top-down'-driven information process, is impaired in schizophrenia and particularly in its early stages. BDII is a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing and represents a valid diagnostic tool for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, neurobiological underpinnings of aberrant BDII in first-episode schizophrenia are largely unknown at present. METHODS: In this study, 22 right-handed, first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients underwent BDII assessment and MRI scanning at 1...
March 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Mikkel Thøgersen, John Hansen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Herta Flor, Laura Petrini
The purpose of the present study was to assess changes in body perception when visual feedback was removed from the hand and arm with the purpose of resembling the visual deprivation arising from amputation. The illusion was created by removing the visual feedback from the participants' own left forearm using a mixed reality (MR) and green screen environment. Thirty healthy persons (15 female) participated in the study. Each subject experienced two MR conditions, one with and one without visual feedback from the left hand, and a baseline condition with normal vision of the limb (no MR)...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Miranda Smit, Haike E Van Stralen, Bart Van den Munckhof, Tom J Snijders, Hendrik Christiaan Dijkerman
Reports on patients who lack ownership over their entire body are extremely rare. Here, we present patient SA who suffered from complete body disownership after a tumour resection in the right temporoparietal cortex. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed selective bilateral ownership problems, despite intact primary visual and somatosensory senses. SA's disownership seems to stem from a suboptimal multimodal integration, as shown by the rubber hand illusion and the beneficial effect during and after simple exercises aiming at multisensory recalibration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Christian I Penaloza, Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio
EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) systems have demonstrated potential to assist patients with devastating motor paralysis conditions. However, there is great interest in shifting the BCI trend toward applications aimed at healthy users. Although BCI operation depends on technological factors (i.e., EEG pattern classification algorithm) and human factors (i.e., how well the person can generate good quality EEG patterns), it is the latter that is least investigated. In order to control a motor imagery-based BCI, users need to learn to modulate their sensorimotor brain rhythms by practicing motor imagery using a classical training protocol with an abstract visual feedback...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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