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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030557/heading-representations-in-primates-are-compressed-by-saccades
#1
Frank Bremmer, Jan Churan, Markus Lappe
Perceptual illusions help to understand how sensory signals are decoded in the brain. Here we report that the opposite approach is also applicable, i.e., results from decoding neural activity from monkey extrastriate visual cortex correctly predict a hitherto unknown perceptual illusion in humans. We record neural activity from monkey medial superior temporal (MST) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) area during presentation of self-motion stimuli and concurrent reflexive eye movements. A heading-decoder performs veridically during slow eye movements...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993747/the-use-of-virtual-reality-facilitates-dialectical-behavior-therapy%C3%A2-observing-sounds-and-visuals-mindfulness-skills-training-exercises-for-a-latino-patient-with-severe-burns-a-case-study
#2
Jocelyn Gomez, Hunter G Hoffman, Steven L Bistricky, Miriam Gonzalez, Laura Rosenberg, Mariana Sampaio, Azucena Garcia-Palacios, Maria V Navarro-Haro, Wadee Alhalabi, Marta Rosenberg, Walter J Meyer, Marsha M Linehan
Sustaining a burn injury increases an individual's risk of developing psychological problems such as generalized anxiety, negative emotions, depression, acute stress disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing use of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) by clinical psychologists, to date, there are no published studies using standard DBT® or DBT® skills learning for severe burn patients. The current study explored the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions of a patient with severe burn injuries...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986411/virtual-reality-improves-embodiment-and-neuropathic-pain-caused-by-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Polona Pozeg, Estelle Palluel, Roberta Ronchi, Marco Solcà, Abdul-Wahab Al-Khodairy, Xavier Jordan, Ammar Kassouha, Olaf Blanke
OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in body ownership and chronic neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) using multisensory own body illusions and virtual reality (VR). METHODS: Twenty patients with SCI with paraplegia and 20 healthy control participants (HC) participated in 2 factorial, randomized, repeated-measures design studies. In the virtual leg illusion (VLI), we applied asynchronous or synchronous visuotactile stimulation to the participant's back (either immediately above the lesion level or at the shoulder) and to the virtual legs as seen on a VR head-mounted display...
October 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978768/force-illusions-and-drifts-observed-during-muscle-vibration
#4
Sasha Reschechtko, Cristian Cuadra, Mark L Latash
We explored predictions of a scheme that views position and force perception as a result of measuring proprioceptive signals within a reference frame set by ongoing efferent process. In particular, this hypothesis predicts force illusions caused by muscle vibration and mediated via changes in both afferent and efferent components of kinesthesia. Healthy subjects performed accurate steady force production tasks by pressing with the four fingers of one hand (the task hand) on individual force sensors with and without visual feedback...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976045/electrophysiological-evidence-for-differences-between-fusion-and-combination-illusions-in-audiovisual-speech-perception
#5
Martijn Baart, Alma Lindborg, Tobias S Andersen
Incongruent audiovisual speech stimuli can lead to perceptual illusions such as fusions or combinations. Here, we investigated the underlying audiovisual integration process by measuring ERPs. We observed that visual speech-induced suppression of P2 amplitude (which is generally taken as a measure of audiovisual integration) for fusions was comparable to suppression obtained with fully congruent stimuli, whereas P2 suppression for combinations was larger. We argue that these effects arise because the phonetic incongruency is solved differently for both types of stimuli...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971005/auditory-cross-modal-reorganization-in-cochlear-implant-users-indicates-audio-visual-integration
#6
Maren Stropahl, Stefan Debener
There is clear evidence for cross-modal cortical reorganization in the auditory system of post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) users. A recent report suggests that moderate sensori-neural hearing loss is already sufficient to initiate corresponding cortical changes. To what extend these changes are deprivation-induced or related to sensory recovery is still debated. Moreover, the influence of cross-modal reorganization on CI benefit is also still unclear. While reorganization during deafness may impede speech recovery, reorganization also has beneficial influences on face recognition and lip-reading...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958908/error-correction-and-spatial-generalization-in-human-grasp-control
#7
Evan Cesanek, Fulvio Domini
The visual processes that support grasp planning are often studied by analyzing averaged kinematics of repeated movements, as in the literature on grasping and visual illusions. However, by recalibrating visuomotor mappings, the sensorimotor system can adjust motor outputs without changing visual processing, which complicates the interpretation of averaged behavior. We developed a dynamic model of grasp planning and adaptation that can explain why some studies find decrements in illusion effects on grasping while others do not...
September 27, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955269/category-selectivity-of-human-visual-cortex-in-perception-of-rubin-face-vase-illusion
#8
Xiaogang Wang, Na Sang, Lei Hao, Yong Zhang, Taiyong Bi, Jiang Qiu
When viewing the Rubin face-vase illusion, our conscious perception spontaneously alternates between the face and the vase; this illusion has been widely used to explore bistable perception. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have studied the neural mechanisms underlying bistable perception through univariate and multivariate pattern analyses; however, no studies have investigated the issue of category selectivity. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the Rubin face-vase illusion by introducing univariate amplitude and multivariate pattern analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954892/memory-guided-saccades-show-effect-of-perceptual-illusion-whereas-visually-guided-saccades-do-not
#9
Delphine Massendari, Matteo Lisi, Thérèse Collins, Patrick Cavanagh
The double-drift stimulus (a drifting Gabor with orthogonal internal motion) generates a large discrepancy between its physical and perceived path. Surprisingly, saccades directed to the double-drift stimulus land along the physical, and not perceived, path (Lisi & Cavanagh, 2015). Here we asked whether memory-guided saccades exhibited the same dissociation from perception. Participants were asked to keep their gaze centered on a fixation dot while the double-drift stimulus moved back and forth on a linear path in the periphery...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949035/a-biologically-inspired-neurocomputational-model-for-audio-visual-integration-and-causal-inference
#10
Cristiano Cuppini, Ladan Shams, Elisa Magosso, Mauro Ursino
Recently, experimental and theoretical research has focused on the brain's abilities to extract information from a noisy sensory environment and how cross-modal inputs are processed to solve the causal inference problem to provide the best estimate of external events. Despite the empirical evidence suggesting that the nervous system uses a statistically optimal and probabilistic approach in addressing these problems, little is known about the brain's architecture needed to implement these computations. The aim of this work is to realize a mathematical model, based on physiologically plausible hypotheses, to analyze the neural mechanisms underlying multisensory perception and causal inference...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900301/geometric-phase-generated-optical-illusion
#11
Fuyong Yue, Xiaofei Zang, Dandan Wen, Zile Li, Chunmei Zhang, Huigang Liu, Brian D Gerardot, Wei Wang, Guoxing Zheng, Xianzhong Chen
An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900225/the-neural-basis-of-spatial-vision-losses-in-the-dysfunctional-visual-system
#12
Jinfeng Huang, Yifeng Zhou, Caiyuan Liu, Zhongjian Liu, Chunmeng Luan, Tzvetomir Tzvetanov
Human vision relies on correct information processing from the eye to various visual areas. Disturbances in the visual perception of simple features are believed to come from low-level network (e.g., V1) disruptions. In the present study, we modelled monocular losses in spatial vision through plausible multiple network modifications in early visual coding. We investigated perceptual deficits in anisometropic amblyopia and used the monocular tilt illusion as a probe of primary visual cortex orientation coding and inhibitory interactions...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887785/bioplausible-multiscale-filtering-in-retino-cortical-processing-as-a-mechanism-in-perceptual-grouping
#13
Nasim Nematzadeh, David M W Powers, Trent W Lewis
Why does our visual system fail to reconstruct reality, when we look at certain patterns? Where do Geometrical illusions start to emerge in the visual pathway? How far should we take computational models of vision with the same visual ability to detect illusions as we do? This study addresses these questions, by focusing on a specific underlying neural mechanism involved in our visual experiences that affects our final perception. Among many types of visual illusion, 'Geometrical' and, in particular, 'Tilt Illusions' are rather important, being characterized by misperception of geometric patterns involving lines and tiles in combination with contrasting orientation, size or position...
September 8, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853037/does-visuomotor-adaptation-contribute-to-illusion-resistant-grasping
#14
Evan Cesanek, Carlo Campagnoli, Jordan A Taylor, Fulvio Domini
Do illusory distortions of perceived object size influence how wide the hand is opened during a grasping movement? Many studies on this question have reported illusion-resistant grasping, but this finding has been contradicted by other studies showing that grasping movements and perceptual judgments are equally susceptible. One largely unexplored explanation for these contradictions is that illusion effects on grasping can be reduced with repeated movements. Using a visuomotor adaptation paradigm, we investigated whether an adaptation model could predict the time course of Ponzo illusion effects on grasping...
August 29, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851953/embodiment-in-a-child-like-talking-virtual-body-influences-object-size-perception-self-identification-and-subsequent-real-speaking
#15
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Domna Banakou, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze, Mel Slater
People's mental representations of their own body are malleable and continuously updated through sensory cues. Altering one's body-representation can lead to changes in object perception and implicit attitudes. Virtual reality has been used to embody adults in the body of a 4-year-old child or a scaled-down adult body. Child embodiment was found to cause an overestimation of object sizes, approximately double that during adult embodiment, and identification of the self with child-like attributes. Here we tested the contribution of auditory cues related to one's own voice to these visually-driven effects...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843995/what-s-left-of-the-mirror-illusion-when-the-mirror-can-no-longer-be-seen-bilateral-integration-of-proprioceptive-afferents
#16
Marie Chancel, Anne Kavounoudias, Michel Guerraz
Recent data suggest that manipulating the muscle afferents of one arm affects both ipsilateral and contralateral perceptual estimates. Here, we used the mirror paradigm to study the bimanual integration of kinesthetic muscle afferents. The reflection of a moving hand in a mirror positioned in the sagittal plane creates an illusion of symmetrical bimanual movement. Although vision clearly has a role in kinesthesia, its role in the mirror illusion might have been overestimated. Conversely, the role of bimanual integration of muscle afferents might have been underestimated...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842754/chen-s-double-eyelid-fold-illusion-an-eye-size-assimilation-illusion-induced-by-a-supratarsal-fold-in-the-brow-eye-unit-a-preliminary-report
#17
Sheng-Ni Chen, Sheng-Hung Chen, Chen-Chia Chen, Chien-Lin Huang, Hao-Chih Tai, Yong-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Double eyelidplasty can enhance the eye size and facial attractiveness of Asian individuals with single eyelids. The authors hypothesize that a supratarsal fold can induce an eye size assimilation illusion to enhance eye dimensions and aesthetics, and seek to define the optimum vertical proportion between a supratarsal fold and the eye fissure associated with maximal induction of the size assimilation illusion. METHODS: A photometric study of the replicated photographs of ten female Taiwanese patients after double eyelidplasty was designed...
August 25, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835810/the-eye-pupil-s-response-to-static-and-dynamic-illusions-of-luminosity-and-darkness
#18
Daniele Zavagno, Luca Tommasi, Bruno Laeng
Pupil diameters were recorded with an eye-tracker while participants observed cruciform patterns of gray-scale gradients that evoked illusions of enhanced brightness (glare) or of enhanced darkness. The illusions were either presented as static images or as dynamic animations which initially appeared as a pattern of filled squares that-in a few seconds-gradually changed into gradients until the patterns were identical to the static ones. Gradients could either converge toward the center, resulting in a central region of enhanced, illusory, brightness or darkness, or oriented toward each side of the screen, resulting in the perception of a peripheral ring of illusory brightness or darkness...
July 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826921/visual-and-somatosensory-phenomena-following-cerebral-venous-infarction
#19
Aleksandra Loster-Niewińska, Edyta Dziadkowiak, Justyna Chojdak-Łukasiewicz, Anna Zimny, Bogusław Paradowski
BACKGROUND: The most frequent clinical presentation of occipital or visual tract lesion is hemianopsia or quadrantanopsia. However, damage to the primary or secondary visual cortex can also manifest as visual hallucinations (photopsiae or complex phenomena). We report visual and somatosensory phenomena following cerebral venous infarction based on a study of a patient with a history of recent head injury. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 61-year-old man with a history of recent head injury presented with a headache of two weeks duration...
July 14, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821653/human-occipital-and-parietal-gaba-selectively-influence-visual-perception-of-orientation-and-size
#20
Chen Song, Kristian Sandberg, Lau Møller Andersen, Jakob Udby Blicher, Geraint Rees
GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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