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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779301/updates-on-aaa-screening-and-surveillance
#1
Mayo Theivendran, Jason Chuen
BACKGROUND: Screening and diagnostic surveillance of latent conditions have a profound impact on public healthcare expenditure and clinical outcomes. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. OBJECTIVE: This article is the second of two that will outline current areas of controversy and research in AAA disease in order to support a more detailed understanding of issues in managing patients with this condition, and inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779300/coroners-recommendations-for-prevention-of-resident-deaths-in-aged-care-the-role-of-primary-care-providers
#2
Georgia Aitken, Athena Demosthenous, Lyndal Bugeja, Melissa Willoughby, Carmel Young, Joseph E Ibrahim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Currently, very little is known about how coroners consider a role for general practitioners (GPs) and registered nurses (RNs) in recommendations for the prevention of premature death. Involving these professions in recommendations generally directed towards government organisations or residential aged care providers and management may contribute to more successful broader policy changes. The aim of this article was to examine whether coroners' recommendations describe a specific role for GPs and RNs in the prevention of premature death in residential aged care settings and, if so, what domains of practice were considered...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779299/health-issues-of-refugees-attending-an-infectious-disease-refugee-health-clinic-in-a-regional-australian-hospital
#3
Peta J Masters, Penelope J Lanfranco, Emmy Sneath, Amanda J Wade, Sarah Huffam, James Pollard, James Standish, Kate McCloskey, Eugene Athan, Daniel P O'Brien, N Deborah Friedman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Refugees in Australia present with conditions different to those of the general population. The aim of this study was to review the reasons for referral, prevalence of conditions and treatment outcomes for refugee patients attending a specialist referral clinic in regional Victoria. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients attending the refugee health clinic at University Hospital Geelong from January 2007 to December 2012...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779291/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-an-update
#4
Jason Chuen, Mayo Theivendran
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. Treatment options have expanded in recent years to increase the range of morphology suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and with potential implications on treatment thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This article is the first of two that will outline current treatment options for AAA, including areas of controversy and research in AAA disease, to inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779264/compliance-to-follow-up-and-adherence-to-medication-in-hypertensive-patients-in-an-urban-informal-settlement-in-kenya-comparison-of-three-models-of-care
#5
Ng'endo Kuria, Anthony Reid, Philip Owiti, Hannock Tweya, Caleb Kipkurui Kibet, Lilian Mbau, Marcel Manzi, Victor Murunga, Tecla Namusonge, Joseph Kibachio
OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare, among three models of care, compliance to scheduled clinic appointments and adherence to anti-hypertensive medication of patients in an informal settlement of Kibera, Kenya. METHODS: Routinely collected patient data were used from three health facilities, six walkway clinics and one weekend/church clinic. Patients were eligible if they had received hypertension care for more than six months. Compliance with clinic appointments and self-reported adherence to medication were determined from clinic records and compared using the Chi-square test...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779261/better-diet-quality-is-associated-with-lower-odds-of-severe-periodontitis-in-us-hispanics-latinos
#6
Christian R Salazar, Nadia Laniado, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Luisa N Borrell, Qibin Qi, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Douglas E Morse, Richard H Singer, Robert C Kaplan, Victor Badner, Ira B Lamster
AIM: We investigated the cross-sectional association between diet quality and severe periodontitis in a sample of diverse Hispanics from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13,920 Hispanic/Latinos aged 18-74 years of different heritages underwent a full-mouth oral examination and completed two 24hr dietary recalls during 2008-2011. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥30% tooth sites with clinical attachment loss ≥ 5mm...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779259/periodontal-status-among-elderly-inhabitants-of-northern-manhattan-the-whicap-ancillary-study-of-oral-health
#7
Jaffer A Shariff, Sandra Burkett, Caitlin Wei-Ming Watson, Bin Cheng, James M Noble, Panos N Papapanou
AIM: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontitis in a tri-ethnic cohort of ≥65 year-old participants of the Washington-Heights Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP). METHODS: 1,130 individuals (57% of eligible invitees) participated in a full-mouth periodontal examination that included assessments of bleeding on probing, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL) at six sites/tooth. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 75...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779226/phenotypic-characterization-of-enzymatic-activity-of-clinical-dermatophyte-isolates-from-animals-with-and-without-skin-lesions-and-humans
#8
Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Przemysław Zięba
AIMS: The pathogenesis of dermatophytoses is associated with the secretion of enzymes degrading the infected tissue components. Although many studies on enzymatic activity of dermatophytes have been conducted over the years, there have been no concrete proposals on construction of the profile of enzymes characteristic of individual species, genus, or ecological types of dermatophytes. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of clinical dermatophyte isolates from both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals and humans to produce different enzymes...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779180/the-impact-of-an-adolescent-depressive-disorders-clinical-pathway-on-healthcare-utilization
#9
Brooke Lifland, Davene R Wright, Rita Mangione-Smith, Arti D Desai
Clinical pathways are known to improve the value of health care in medical and surgical settings but have been rarely studied in the psychiatric setting. This study examined the association between level of adherence to an adolescent depressive disorders inpatient clinical pathway and length of stay (LOS), cost, and readmissions. Patients in the high adherence category had significantly longer LOS and higher costs compared to the low adherence category. There was no difference in the odds of 30-day emergency department return visits or readmissions...
May 19, 2018: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779161/empowering-lay-counsellors-with-technology-masivukeni-a-standardized-multimedia-counselling-support-tool-to-deliver-art-counselling
#10
H Gouse, R N Robbins, C A Mellins, A Kingon, J Rowe, M Henry, R H Remien, A Pearson, F Victor, J A Joska
Lay-counsellors in resource-limited settings convey critical HIV- and ART-information, and face challenges including limited training and variable application of counselling. This study explored lay-counsellors and Department of Health (DoH) perspectives on the utility of a multimedia adherence counselling program. Masivukeni, an mHealth application that provides scaffolding for delivering standardized ART counselling was used in a 3-year randomized control trail at two primary health care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa...
May 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779083/identifying-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-advanced-fibrosis-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#11
Yuval A Patel, Elizabeth J Gifford, Lisa M Glass, Marsha J Turner, Byungjoo Han, Cynthia A Moylan, Steve Choi, Ayako Suzuki, Dawn Provenzale, Christine M Hunt
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Severe NAFLD with advanced fibrosis results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Associated with metabolic syndrome, NAFLD is often initially clinically silent, yet intensive lifestyle intervention with 7% or greater weight loss can improve or resolve NAFLD. Using a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) liver biopsy cohort, we evaluated simple noninvasive fibrosis scoring systems to identify NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (or severe disease) to assist providers...
May 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779065/digital-technologies-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-recent-innovations-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Joseph Firth, John Torous, Rebekah Carney, Jill Newby, Theodore D Cosco, Helen Christensen, Jerome Sarris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on "first-generation" e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779024/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-metformin-to-treat-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#13
Stephen L Seliger, Kaleab Z Abebe, Kenneth R Hallows, Dana C Miskulin, Ronald D Perrone, Terry Watnick, Kyongtae Tae Bae
BACKGROUND: Metformin inhibits cyclic AMP generation and activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which inhibits the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin pathways. Together these effects may reduce cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). METHODS: A phase II, double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of 26 months duration. Participants will include nondiabetic adults (n = 96) aged 18-60 years, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥50 mL/min/1...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779014/current-insights-on-use-of-growth-factors-as-therapy-for-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#14
Justin C Kennon, Mohamed E Awad, Norman Chutkan, John DeVine, Sadanand Fulzele
Chronic low back pain is a critical health problem and a leading cause of disability in aging populations. A major cause of low back pain is considered to be the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Recent advances in therapeutics, particularly cell and tissue engineering, offer potential methods for inhibiting or reversing IVD degeneration, which have previously been impossible. The use of growth factors is under serious consideration as a potential therapy to enhance IVD tissue regeneration. We reviewed the role of chosen prototypical growth factors and growth factor combinations that have the capacity to improve IVD restoration...
May 19, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779008/intervention-planning-for-the-reduce-maintenance-intervention-a-digital-intervention-to-reduce-reulceration-risk-among-patients-with-a-history-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#15
Kate Greenwell, Katy Sivyer, Kavita Vedhara, Lucy Yardley, Frances Game, Trudie Chalder, Gayle Richards, Nikki Drake, Katie Gray, John Weinman, Katherine Bradbury
OBJECTIVES: To develop a comprehensive intervention plan for the REDUCE maintenance intervention to support people who have had diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) to sustain behaviours that reduce reulceration risk. METHODS: Theory-based, evidence-based and person-based approaches to intervention development were used. In phase I of intervention planning, evidence was collated from a scoping review of the literature and qualitative interviews with patients who have had DFUs (n=20)...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778918/cognitive-mechanisms-of-sleep-outcomes-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia
#16
Philip I Chow, Karen S Ingersoll, Frances P Thorndike, Holly R Lord, Linda Gonder-Frederick, Charles M Morin, Lee M Ritterband
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate in a randomized clinical trial the role of sleep-related cognitive variables in the long-term efficacy of an online, fully automated cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for insomnia (CBT-I) (Sleep Healthy Using the Internet [SHUTi]). METHOD: Three hundred and three participants (Mage  = 43.3 years; SD = 11.6) were randomly assigned to SHUTi or an online patient education condition and assessed at baseline, postintervention (nine weeks after baseline), and six and 12 months after the intervention period...
December 20, 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778671/international-study-of-comparative-health-effectiveness-with-medical-and-invasive-approaches-ischemia-trial-rationale-and-design
#17
David J Maron, Judith S Hochman, Sean M O'Brien, Harmony R Reynolds, William E Boden, Gregg W Stone, Sripal Bangalore, John A Spertus, Daniel B Mark, Karen P Alexander, Leslee Shaw, Jeffrey S Berger, T Bruce Ferguson, David O Williams, Robert A Harrington, Yves Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Prior trials comparing a strategy of optimal medical therapy with or without revascularization have not shown that revascularization reduces cardiovascular events in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). However, those trials only included participants in whom coronary anatomy was known prior to randomization and did not include sufficient numbers of participants with significant ischemia. It remains unknown whether a routine invasive approach offers incremental value over a conservative approach with catheterization reserved for failure of medical therapy in patients with moderate or severe ischemia...
April 21, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778584/evaluating-the-capacity-of-california-s-publicly-funded-universities-to-provide-medication-abortion
#18
Sarah Raifman, Patricia Anderson, Shelly Kaller, Diane Tober, Daniel Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To explore the capacity of the University of California (UC) and California State University (CSU) student health centers to provide medication abortion (MA), to identify gaps in resources required to implement proposed Senate Bill 320, which would mandate the provision of MA on UC and CSU campuses, and to explore California student health center staff perspectives on the benefits and challenges of providing MA. STUDY DESIGN: UC and CSU student health center (SHC) staff participated in a self-administered online survey; we conducted in-depth data collection including site visits and conference calls at a subset of campuses...
May 17, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778472/effects-of-ad-libitum-milk-replacer-feeding-and-butyrate-supplementation-on-behavior-immune-status-and-health-of-holstein-calves-in-the-postnatal-period
#19
C Gerbert, D Frieten, C Koch, G Dusel, K Eder, T Stefaniak, J Bajzert, P Jawor, A Tuchscherer, H M Hammon
Animal welfare in dairy calf husbandry depends on calf rearing and is probably improved by intensive milk feeding programs. In addition, butyrate supplementation in milk replacer (MR) stimulates postnatal growth and may affect the immune system in calves. We have investigated the combined effects of ad libitum MR feeding and butyrate supplementation on feeding behavior, health, and the immune responses in calves. Holstein calves (n = 64) were examined from birth until wk 11 of age. Calves received MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778465/roles-for-selenium-and-selenoprotein-p-in-the-development-progression-and-prevention-of-intestinal-disease
#20
REVIEW
Sarah P Short, Jennifer M Pilat, Christopher S Williams
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential to human health, the function of which is mediated in part by incorporation into a class of proteins known as selenoproteins (SePs). As many SePs serve antioxidant functions, Se has long been postulated to protect against inflammation and cancer development in the gut by attenuating oxidative stress. Indeed, numerous studies over the years have correlated Se levels with incidence and severity of intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
May 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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