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Karen P Hayhurst, Matthias Pierce, Matthew Hickman, Toby Seddon, Graham Dunn, John Keane, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: Although evidence points to a strong link between illicit drug use and crime, robust evidence for temporal order in the relationship is scant. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence for pathways through opiate/crack cocaine use and offending to determine temporal order. METHODS: A systematic review sourced five databases, three online sources, bibliographies and citation mapping. Inclusion criteria were: focus on opiate/crack use, and offending; pre-drug use information; longitudinal design; corroborative official crime records...
October 19, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
Insomnia is considered a hyperarousal disorder, in which several psychophysiological domains including the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are over-activated, potentially contributing to increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Here, we aimed to determine whether insomnia that develops in the context of the transition to menopause (menopausal transition insomnia, MTI) is similarly characterized by autonomic arousal. We also took into account modulation of the ANS by the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle, a factor that has not previously been considered in studies on insomnia...
October 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Tatsuya Isomura, Masahiko Sumitani, Ko Matsudaira, Mika Kawaguchi, Reo Inoue, Jun Hozumi, Takeyuki Tanaka, Hirofumi Oshima, Kanto Mori, Shuji Taketomi, Hiroshi Inui, Keitaro Tahara, Ryota Yamagami, Kazuhiro Hayakawa
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of the linguistically validated Japanese version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale (LANSS-J) as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in the clinical setting. METHODS: Patients with neuropathic pain or nociceptive pain who were 20 to 85 years of age were included. Sensitivity and specificity using the original cutoff value of 12 were assessed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the LANSS-J...
October 22, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Christel Häggström, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Björn Zethelius, David Robinson, Birgitta Grundmark, Lars Holmberg, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Hans Garmo, Pär Stattin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has consistently been associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer, however, if this decrease is related to the use of anti-diabetic drugs is unknown. We prospectively studied men in the comparison cohort in the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) 3.0, with data on T2DM, use of metformin, sulphonylurea, and insulin retrieved from national health care registers and demographic databases. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prostate cancer, adjusted for confounders...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Anika Wranke, Beatriz Calle Serrano, Benjamin Heidrich, Janina Kirschner, Birgit Bremer, Patrick Lehmann, Svenja Hardtke, Katja Deterding, Kerstin Port, Max Westphal, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. Pegylated interferon alfa (PEG- IFNα) is effective in only 25-30% of patients and is associated with frequent side effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical long-term outcome of hepatitis delta in relation to different antiviral treatment strategies. METHODS: We studied 136 anti-HDV-positive patients who were followed for at least 6 months in a retrospective single-center cohort (mean time of follow up 5...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Huma Siddiqui, Tsute Chen, Ardita Aliko, Piotr M Mydel, Roland Jonsson, Ingar Olsen
BACKGROUND: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. OBJECTIVE: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15;10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Somayeh Beirami, Hadi Rahimzadeh Barzoki, Nader Bahramifar
Preconcentration of trace amounts of diazinon by carbon mesoporous CMK-3 in water and biological samples and measurement by high-performance liquid chromatography were investigated. CMK-3, was prepared using hexagonal SBA-15 as the template. The synthesized materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET, TEM and Boehm titration method. The preconcentration procedure was optimized using a multivariate optimization approach following a two-stage process. Effect of analytical parameters including the amount of the CMK-3 as an adsorbent, pH, type and volume of eluent, flow rate of eluent and sample were studied by screening project, then the effective parameters were optimized by response surface methodology based on central composite design...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
M Elnaghy, S E Elsaka
AIM: To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA) and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) reciprocating instruments during immersion in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and saline solutions at body temperature. METHODOLOGY: A total of 180 new WaveOne Gold primary size 25, .07 taper, and Reciproc size 25, .08 taper were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: no immersion (control, air); Group 2: immersion in saline at 37°C ± 1°C; and Group 3: immersion in 5% NaOCl at 37°C ± 1°C...
October 21, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Britton Trabert, Ronald C Eldridge, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Meredith S Shiels, Troy J Kemp, Chantal Guillemette, Patricia Hartge, Mark E Sherman, Louise A Brinton, Amanda Black, Anil K Chaturvedi, Allan Hildesheim, Sonja I Berndt, Mahboobeh Safaeian, Ligia Pinto, Nicolas Wentzensen
Inflammation is proposed to increase risk of developing endometrial cancer, but few prospective epidemiologic studies have investigated the relationship between circulating inflammation markers and endometrial cancer risk. In a nested case-control study within the PLCO Screening Trial we measured serum levels of 64 inflammation-related biomarkers in 284 incident endometrial cancer cases and 284 matched controls. Using multivariable logistic regression inflammation markers were evaluated individually and combined into a cross-validated inflammation score...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Andrew S Hwang, Steven J Atlas, Johan Hong, Jeffrey M Ashburner, Adrian H Zai, Richard W Grant, Clemens S Hong
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the attributes of patients who require more effort to manage may improve risk adjustment approaches and lead to more efficient resource allocation, improved patient care and health outcomes, and reduced burnout in primary care clinicians. OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize high-effort patients from the physician's perspective. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-nine primary care physicians in an academic primary care network...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Marek Sierzega, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska, Marta Surman, Bozenna Mytar, Andrzej Matyja, Maciej Siedlar, Jan Kulig
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) may serve as a simple index of the immune function. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of NLR, PLR, and LMR in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and to verify whether such biomarkers are associated with changes in populations of lymphoid cells. METHODS: The prognostic implications of blood count parameters were evaluated in a retrospective cohort of 442 subjects undergoing pancreatic resections for PDAC...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Aideen Maguire, John Moriarty, Dermot O'Reilly, Mark McCann
PURPOSE: Educational attainment has been shown to be positively associated with mental health and a potential buffer to stressful events. One stressful life event likely to affect everyone in their lifetime is bereavement. This paper assesses the effect of educational attainment on mental health post-bereavement. METHODS: By utilising large administrative datasets, linking Census returns to death records and prescribed medication data, we analysed the bereavement exposure of 208,332 individuals aged 25-74 years...
October 21, 2016: Quality of Life Research
T J Tan, Kenneth K Lau, Dana Jackson, Nicholas Ardley, Adina Borasu
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR), and filtered back projection (FBP) image reconstruction algorithms in the delineation of ureters and overall image quality on non-enhanced computed tomography of the renal tracts (NECT-KUB). This was a prospective study of 40 adult patients who underwent NECT-KUB for investigation of ureteric colic. Images were reconstructed using FBP, SIR, and MBIR techniques and individually and randomly assessed by two blinded radiologists...
October 21, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Richard Bell, Sanjay Pandanaboyana, Saira Nisar, Vivek Upasani, Giles Toogood, J Peter Lodge, K Raj Prasad
INTRODUCTION: This study analysed the effect of age on survival in patients undergoing major hepatectomy (MH) for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) with age was also assessed. METHOD: Patients undergoing MH for CRLM between 1996 and 2011 were reviewed. Patients aged <75 or ≥75 were compared for disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) as well as impact of AC on survival. RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty-seven patients underwent MH of which 105 (14 %) were aged ≥75...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
George J Greene, Greg Swann, Angela J Fought, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Thomas J Hope, Patrick F Kiser, Brian Mustanski, Richard T D'Aquila
HIV prevention method preferences were evaluated among 512 U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM; median age: 22 years). Approximately 90 % consistently preferred one option across pairwise comparisons of condoms, daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and long-acting PrEP delivered via either an injectable or one of two types of PrEP implants differing in visibility. Condoms were most frequently preferred (33.8 %), followed by non-visible implants (21.5 %), and oral PrEP (17.0 %); HIV risk was reported by more choosing implants...
October 21, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Liya Lu, Chaoqiang Jiang, Danny F Mackay, Jill P Pell, Kar Keung Cheng, Tai Hing Lam, G Neil Thomas
OBJECTIVES: We studied the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Chinese non-smokers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study: Cardiovascular Disease Sub-cohort Study (GBCS-CVD). Guangzhou residents aged ≥ 50 years were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Baseline data included measurement of ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and self-reported smoking status and SHS exposure...
October 20, 2016: Vascular
Xiaxia Meng, Dengwu Li, Dan Zhou, Dongmei Wang, Qiaoxiao Liu, Sufang Fan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
F Li, H-T Wang, Y-Y Chen, W-L Wu, J-Y Liu, J-S Hao, D-Y Luo
This study was performed to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative cleft relapse and oronasal fistula after Furlow palatoplasty in infants. Sixty-two infants with cleft palate, aged 6-12 months (mean 8.25 months), who underwent cleft repair by Furlow double opposing Z-plasty between March 2012 and August 2014, were enrolled in the study. Risk factors for postoperative cleft relapse and oronasal fistula after Furlow palatoplasty were identified by logistic regression analysis. The incidence rates of cleft relapse at 1 week and oronasal fistula at 3 months after surgery were 24...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Ethan A Winkler, John K Yue, Adam R Ferguson, Nancy R Temkin, Murray B Stein, Jason Barber, Esther L Yuh, Sourabh Sharma, Gabriela G Satris, Thomas W McAllister, Jonathan Rosand, Marco D Sorani, Hester F Lingsma, Phiroz E Tarapore, Esteban G Burchard, Donglei Hu, Celeste Eng, Kevin K W Wang, Pratik Mukherjee, David O Okonkwo, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Geoffrey T Manley
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical trajectories and outcomes. The source of variability remains unclear, but may involve genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A SNP in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is suggested to influence development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its role in TBI remains unclear. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with PTSD and global functional outcome as measured by the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), respectively...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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