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Saving young lives

Eugene A Kiyatkin, Suelynn E Ren
Psychomotor stimulants are frequently used by humans to intensify the subjective experience of different types of social interactions. Since psychomotor stimulants enhance metabolism and increase body temperatures, their use under conditions of physiological activation and in warm humid environments could result in pathological hyperthermia, a life-threatening symptom of acute drug intoxication. Here, we will describe the brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA, MDPV, and methylone, three structurally related recreational drugs commonly used by young adults during raves and other forms of social gatherings...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Tara Kelley-Baker, Eduardo Romano
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of U.S. child-endangerment laws on the prevalence of child passengers fatally injured in motor vehicle crashes in which the adult driver was drinking. METHOD: We used data from the 2002-2012 Fatality Analysis Reporting System. We conducted both bivariate and multivariate analyses using Heckman selection models. RESULTS: After adjusting for several cofactors, including driver demographics and blood alcohol concentration, child seat positioning, and seat belt laws, we found that passing a DUI child-endangerment law may have no impact at all on the likelihood of finding impaired drivers among those driving with children...
September 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Lucy M Warren, David R Dance, Kenneth C Young
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risks and benefits of breast screening in terms of number of deaths due to radiation-induced cancers and the number of lives saved due to modern screening in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) in England. METHODS: A radiation risk model, patient dose data and data from national screening statistics were used to estimate the number of deaths due to radiation induced breast cancers in the NHSBSP in England. Dose and dose effectiveness factors (DDREFs) equal to one and two were assumed...
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Julian Koenig, Romuald Brunner, Gloria Fischer-Waldschmidt, Peter Parzer, Paul L Plener, JiYeon Park, Camilla Wasserman, Vladimir Carli, Christina W Hoven, Marco Sarchiapone, Danuta Wasserman, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
Direct self-injurious behaviour (D-SIB) is associated with suicidal behaviour and suicide risk. It is not known if D-SIB cessation reduces these risks. The aim of this study was to explore trajectories of D-SIB and their prospective influence on suicidal thoughts and behaviour during adolescence. Data (n = 506; 62.06 % females, 14.53 years) from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study were analysed. D-SIB and suicidal thoughts and behaviour were assessed at baseline (T0), 1- (T1) and 2-year follow-up (T2)...
August 24, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
Opioid use disorder is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among US youth. Effective treatments, both medications and substance use disorder counseling, are available but underused, and access to developmentally appropriate treatment is severely restricted for adolescents and young adults. Resources to disseminate available therapies and to develop new treatments specifically for this age group are needed to save and improve lives of youth with opioid addiction.
September 2016: Pediatrics
Liliana Carvajal-Vélez, Agbessi Amouzou, Jamie Perin, Abdoulaye Maïga, Hayalnesh Tarekegn, Akanni Akinyemi, Solomon Shiferaw, Mark Young, Jennifer Bryce, Holly Newby
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains a high burden disease, responsible for nine percent of deaths in children under five globally. We analyzed diarrhea management practices in young children and their association with the source of care. METHODS: We used Demographic and Health Survey data from 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa with high burdens of childhood diarrhea. We classified the quality of diarrhea management practices as good, fair, or poor based on mothers' reports for children with diarrhea, using WHO/UNICEF recommendations for appropriate treatment...
2016: BMC Public Health
Kirsten Ribu, Tulpesh Patel
People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Rony K Roy, Michal M Hoppe, Supriya Srivastava, Animesh Samanta, Neel Sharma, Kar Tong Tan, Henry Yang, Dominic C Voon, Brendan Pang, Ming Teh, Naoko Murata-Kamiya, Masanori Hatakeyama, Young-Tae Chang, Wei Peng Yong, Yoshiaki Ito, Khek Yu Ho, Patrick Tan, Richie Soong, Phillip H Koeffler, Khay Guan Yeoh, Anand D Jeyasekharan
Early detection of gastric cancers saves lives, but remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify cell-surface biomarkers of early gastric cancer. We hypothesized that a subset of plasma membrane proteins induced by the Helicobacter pylori oncoprotein CagA will be retained in early gastric cancers through non-oncogene addiction. An inducible system for expression of CagA was used to identify differentially upregulated membrane protein transcripts in vitro. The top hits were then analyzed in gene expression datasets comparing transcriptome of gastric cancer with normal tissue, to focus on markers retained in cancer...
July 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Jonathan A Drezner, Kimberly G Harmon, Irfan M Asif, Joseph C Marek
Cardiovascular (CV) screening in young athletes remains challenging and a topic of considerable debate. Recent criticisms of ECG screening have perpetuated arguments that ECG screening is neither indicated nor effective by applying outdated incidence data and flawed methodology. In response, this article provides a critical review of the arguments in favour of ECG screening in athletes and the early detection of CV disorders at elevated risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Importantly, no study to date has demonstrated that screening by history and physical examination alone is effective in detecting athletes at risk or in preventing SCD...
July 14, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Younes Nozari, Masih Tajdini, Mehdi Mehrani, Rosa Ghaderpanah
Distinguishing ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) differential diagnoses is more challenging. Myopericarditis is one of these differentials that results from viral involvement of myocardium and pericardium of the heart. Myopericarditis in focal form can mimic acute STEMI in its electrocardiogram (ECG) features and elevated cardiac enzymes. Myocarditis patients may face thrombolytic related complications such as intracranial bleeding, myocardial rupture, and hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade. Furthermore, re-administration of streptokinase (a common thrombolytic agent in our country) is banned for at least six months of previous administration; however, it can save patients' lives in emergency conditions such as massive pulmonary embolism...
2016: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Dafina Petrova, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Andrés Catena, Joop van der Pligt
Contrary to people's intuitions, many screenings can have both benefits (e.g., lives saved) and harms (e.g., unnecessary treatments). Statistical information is often provided to ensure informed decision making. However, few theoretical models have addressed the role of comprehension of such information in screening decisions. In an experiment, we studied how cognitive skills, emotions, and a priori beliefs about screening affect comprehension of the evidence of benefits and harms from screening and intentions to get screened...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Elaine M McMahon, Paul Corcoran, Grace O'Regan, Helen Keeley, Mary Cannon, Vladimir Carli, Camilla Wasserman, Gergö Hadlaczky, Marco Sarchiapone, Alan Apter, Judit Balazs, Maria Balint, Julio Bobes, Romuald Brunner, Doina Cozman, Christian Haring, Miriam Iosue, Michael Kaess, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Bogdan Nemes, Tina Podlogar, Vita Poštuvan, Pilar Sáiz, Merike Sisask, Alexandra Tubiana, Peeter Värnik, Christina W Hoven, Danuta Wasserman
In this cross-sectional study, physical activity, sport participation and associations with well-being, anxiety and depressive symptoms were examined in a large representative sample of European adolescents. A school-based survey was completed by 11,110 adolescents from ten European countries who took part in the SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) study. The questionnaire included items assessing physical activity, sport participation and validated instruments assessing well-being (WHO-5), depressive symptoms (BDI-II) and anxiety (SAS)...
June 9, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Scott D Rhodes, Frank Y Wong
There remains a profound need for innovative and effective interventions designed for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) generally, and racial and ethnic minority YMSM, YMSM living in rural communities, and low-income YMSM, particularly, to prevent HIV and improve health outcomes in the United States. This introduction to this theme issue, "Behavioral HIV Prevention Interventions for Diverse YMSM," of AIDS Education and Prevention identifies some of the research needs, priorities, and opportunities that emerged during a seminal NIMHD-sponsored workshop on HIV prevention behavioral interventions for diverse YMSM...
June 2016: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Štěpánka Kučerová, Petr Hejna, Martin Dobiáš
The otoscopy is an examination of the external auditory canal, the eardrum, and the middle ear with an instrument called an otoscope. It is a simple, inexpensive, and time-saving endoscopic method typically used by general practitioners and otorhinolaryngologists. Authors present a prospective study of otoscopic findings investigated consecutively at autopsy. Of the 250 examined persons, 50 positive findings were identified: 38 cases with petechial hemorrhages and 12 cases with tympanic membrane perforation or hemotympanon...
2016: Soudní Lékarství
Elisabeta Ioana Hiriscau, Nicola Stingelin-Giles, Danuta Wasserman, Stella Reiter-Theil
Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Carl Tollef Solberg, Espen Gamlund
BACKGROUND: The state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic fields of priority setting and badness of death...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Anat Brunstein Klomek, Avigal Snir, Alan Apter, Vladimir Carli, Camilla Wasserman, Gergö Hadlaczky, Christina W Hoven, Marco Sarchiapone, Judit Balazs, Julio Bobes, Romuald Brunner, Paul Corcoran, Doina Cosman, Christian Haring, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Michael Kaess, Vita Postuvan, Merike Sisask, Alexandra Tubiana, Airi Varnik, Janina Žiberna, Danuta Wasserman
Previous studies have examined the association between victimization by bullying and both suicide ideation and suicide attempts. The current study examined the association between victimization by bullying and direct-self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) among a large representative sample of male and female adolescents in Europe. This study is part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study and includes 168 schools, with 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, SD = 0.89). Students were administered a self-report survey within the classroom, in which they were asked about three types of victimization by bullying (physical, verbal and relational) as well as direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB)...
March 24, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Tony Durkee, Vladimir Carli, Birgitta Floderus, Camilla Wasserman, Marco Sarchiapone, Alan Apter, Judit A Balazs, Julio Bobes, Romuald Brunner, Paul Corcoran, Doina Cosman, Christian Haring, Christina W Hoven, Michael Kaess, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Bogdan Nemes, Vita Postuvan, Pilar A Saiz, Peeter Värnik, Danuta Wasserman
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)...
March 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Orit Nakar, Romuald Brunner, Oliver Schilling, Andrew Chanen, Gloria Fischer, Peter Parzer, Vladimir Carli, Danuta Wasserman, Marco Sarchiapone, Camilla Wasserman, Christina W Hoven, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent risk-taking and self-harm behaviors are associated with affect dysregulation and impulsivity, both core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We hypothesized that the developmental courses of these behaviors i) tend to cluster rather than appear individually, and ii) might indicate adolescent BPD pathology. Therefore, we explored the developmental trajectories of self-injurious behavior (SIB), suicidal behavior (SB) and substance misuse (SM) in a community sample of adolescents; and we investigated the trajectories' overlap and its associations with BPD traits...
June 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Linda P Fried
The world is aging as a result of unprecedented successes worldwide adding 30 years of life expectancy and presenting great opportunities for all of society, but only if we invest effectively. This article, written as a requested background article for the World Health Organization 2015 World Report on Aging, proposes that creating health into the oldest ages could lay the basis for a third demographic dividend resulting from the societal benefits from the generative social capital of older adults, on top of the second demographic dividend's savings associated with longer lives...
April 2016: Gerontologist
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