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Meihui Chang, Xiaoyu Chu, Jinzhi Lv, Qingbin Li, Jian Tian, Ningfeng Wu
Pullulanase (EC plays an important role in the specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin. Enhancing its thermostability is required for its industrial application. In this study, rational protein design was used to improve the thermostability of PulB from Bacillus naganoensis (AB231790.1), which has strong enzymatic properties. Three positive single-site mutants (PulB-D328H, PulB-N387D, and PulB-A414P) were selected from six mutants. After incubation at 65°C for 5 min, the residual activities of PulB-D328H, PulB-N387D, and PulB-A414P were 4...
2016: PloS One
Luca Fusi, Valentina Percario, Elisabetta Brunello, Marco Caremani, Pasquale Bianco, Joseph D Powers, Massimo Reconditi, Vincenzo Lombardi, Gabriella Piazzesi
KEY POINTS: Myosin filament mechanosensing determines the efficiency of the contraction by adapting the number of switched ON motors to the load. Accordingly, the unloaded shortening velocity (V0 ) is already set at the end of the latency relaxation (LR), ∼10 ms after the start of stimulation, when the myosin filament is still in the OFF state. Here the number of actin-attached motors per half-myosin filament (n) during V0 shortening imposed either at the end of LR or at the plateau of the isometric contraction is estimated from the relation between half-sarcomere compliance and force during the force redevelopment after the shortening...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Anastasia V Balakireva, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Theterm gluten intolerance may refer to three types of human disorders: autoimmune celiac disease (CD), allergy to wheat and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Gluten is a mixture of prolamin proteins present mostly in wheat, but also in barley, rye and oat. Gluten can be subdivided into three major groups: S-rich, S-poor and high molecular weight proteins. Prolamins within the groups possess similar structures and properties. All gluten proteins are evolutionarily connected and share the same ancestral origin...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Joanna Berlowska, Weronika Cieciura, Sebastian Borowski, Marta Dudkiewicz, Michal Binczarski, Izabela Witonska, Anna Otlewska, Dorota Kregiel
Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Yu Zhang, Jia-Qun Wang, Wei-Hua Zhang
Based on our initial design, we synthesized two series of coumarin ring-opening derivatives by the reactions of hydrolysis and methylation. Results of antifungal screening in vitro showed that the target compounds exhibited potent activity against the six common pathogenic fungi. Compounds 6b, 6e, 6g, 6i, 7b and 7c were identified as the most active ones, and the EC50 values of these active compounds were further tested. Compared to the commonly used fungicide Azoxystrobin (0.0884 µM), compounds 6b (0.0544 µM) and 6e (0...
October 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Liping Sun, Weidan Chang, Qingyu Ma, Yongliang Zhuang
In this study, the stable collagen hydrolysate was prepared by alcalase hydrolysis and twice simulated gastrointestinal digestion from Alaska pollock skin. The characteristics of hydrolysates and antioxidant activities in vitro, including 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and hydroxyl radical (OH·) scavenging activity, were determined. After twice simulated gastrointestinal digestion of skin collagen (SGI-2), the degree of hydrolysis (DH) reached 26...
October 17, 2016: Marine Drugs
Xiaobei Wang, Huaixu Cheng, Mingsheng Lu, Yaowei Fang, Yuliang Jiao, Weijuan Li, Gengmao Zhao, Shujun Wang
Dental plaque is a biofilm of water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharides, produced primarily by Streptococcus mutans. Dextranase can inhibit biofilm formation. Here, a dextranase gene from the marine microorganism Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11-1 is described, and cloned and expressed using E. coli DH5α competent cells. The recombinant enzyme was then purified and its properties were characterized. The optimal temperature and pH were determined to be 60°C and 6.5, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography data show that the final hydrolysis products were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose...
November 2016: Biofouling
R Pola, O Janoušková, T Etrych
Cytarabine is one of the most efficient drugs in the treatment of hematological malignancies. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of two different polymer conjugates of cytarabine that were designed for the controlled release of cytarabine within the leukemia cells. Reactive copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and 3-(3-methacrylamidopropa-noyl)thiazolidine-2-thione) or 3-(Nmethacryloylglycyl-phenylalanylleucylglycyl)thiazolidine-2-thione were used in the study as reactive polymer precursors for reaction with cytarabine...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Xiaoyang Shi, Hang Xiao, Klaus Lackner, Xi Chen
A great deal of information exists concerning the hydration of ions in bulk water. Much less noticeable, but equally ubiquitous is the hydration of ions holding on to several water molecules in nanoscopic pores or in natural air at low relative humidity. Such hydration of ions with a high ratio of ions to water molecules (up to 1:1) are essential in determining the energetics of many physical and chemical systems. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the energetics of ion hydration in nanopores based on molecular modeling of a series of basic salts associated with different numbers of water molecules...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nuray Erin, Tümay İpekçi, Bahar Akkaya, İrem Hicran Özbudak, Mehmet Baykara
Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide (CGRP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and Substance P (SP) are sensory neuropeptides which may alter cancer growth through modulation of chronic inflammation. We recently reported that SP suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through neuroimmune modulation. These neuropeptides are hydrolyzed by Neprilysin (NEP) to bioactive fragments. Decreased activity of NEP was reported in clear cell and chromophobe type renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is however not known how the levels of neuropeptides hydrolyzed with NEP changes in RCC...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
Qingqi Yan, Yumei Wang, Wawat Rodiahwati, Antje Spiess, Michael Modigell
Screw press processing of biomass can be considered as a suitable mechanically based pretreatment for biofuel production since it disrupts the structure of lignocellulosic biomass with high shear and pressure forces. The combination with chemical treatment has been suggested to increase the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Within the study, the synergetic effect of alkaline (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) soaking and screw press pretreatment on wheat straw was evaluated based on, e.g., sugar recovery and energy efficiency...
October 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Hee Jin Lee, In Jung Kim, Hak Jin Youn, Eun Ju Yun, In-Geol Choi, Kyoung Heon Kim
Processivity is a typical characteristic of cellobiohydrolases (CBHs); it enables the enzyme to successively hydrolyze the ends of cellulose chains and to produce cellobiose as the major product. Some microbes, which do not have CBHs, utilize endoglucanases (EGs) that exhibit processivity, commonly referred to as processive EGs. A processive EG identified from Hahella chejuensis, HcCel5, has a catalytic domain (CD) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) and two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM6s)...
October 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Teng-Fei Li, Nian Gong, Yong-Xiang Wang
Aconitines, including bulleyaconitine A, probably the most bioactive and abundant alkaloids in Aconitum plant, are a group of diester C19-diterpenoid alkaloids with one acetylester group attached to C8 of the diterpenoid skeleton and one benzoylester group to C14. Hydrolysis of both groups is involved in the processing of Aconitum, a traditional Chinese medicinal approach. We recently demonstrated that bulleyaconitine A produced anti-hypersensitivity, which was mediated by stimulation of spinal microglial dynorphin A expression...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Laura Acquasaliente, Daniele Peterle, Simone Tescari, Nicola Pozzi, Vittorio Pengo, Vincenzo De Filippis
: β2-Glycoprotein I (β2GpI) is the major autoantigen in the antiphospholipid syndrome, a thrombotic autoimmune disease. Nonetheless, the physiological role of β2GpI is still unclear. In a recent work, we have shown that β2GpI selectively inhibits the procoagulant functions of human a-thrombin (αT) (i.e. prolongs fibrin clotting time, tc, and inhibits αT-induced platelets aggregation) without affecting the unique anticoagulant activity of the protease, i.e. the proteolytic generation of the anticoagulant protein C (PC) from the PC zymogen, which interacts with αT exclusively at the protease catalytic site...
October 19, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Hamse Kjerstadius, Jo de Vrieze, Jes la Cour Jansen, Åsa Davidsson
High-volume, low-strength industrial wastewaters constitute a large potential for biogas production, which could be realized by membrane bioreactors operating at the ambient temperature of the wastewater. However, the start-up of low-temperature anaerobic processes using unadapted inoculum can be sensitive to overloading, which results in acidification. This study assessed if a novel acidification limit test can be used to identify stable organic loading rates as well as process over-loading. The test is based on easy-to-apply batch experiments for determination of the hydrolysis rate constant and the specific methanogenic activity of the acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic pathways...
October 14, 2016: Water Research
Lorenzo Teodonio, Mauro Missori, Dominika Pawcenis, Joanna Łojewska, Francesco Valle
Mapping the morphological and nano-mechanical properties of cellulose fibers within paper sheets or textile products at the nano-scale level by using atomic force microscopy is a challenging task due to the huge surface level variation of these materials. However this task is fundamental for applications in forensic or cultural heritage sciences and for the industrial characterization of materials. In order to correlate between nano-mechanical properties and local nanometer scale morphology of different layers of cellulose fibers, a new strategy to prepare samples of isolated cellulose fibers was designed...
October 5, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Alexandre Guillot, Manuel Dauchez, Nicolas Belloy, Jessica Jonquet, Laurent Duca, Beatrice Romier, Pascal Maurice, Laurent Debelle, Laurent Martiny, Vincent Durlach, Stephanie Baud, Sebastien Blaise
Sialic acids (SA) are monosaccharides that can be located at the terminal position of glycan chains on a wide range of proteins. The post-translational modifications, such as N-glycan chains, are fundamental to protein functions. Indeed, the hydrolysis of SA by specific enzymes such as neuraminidases can lead to drastic modifications of protein behavior. However, the relationship between desialylation of N-glycan chains and possible alterations of receptor function remains unexplored. Thus, the aim of the present study is to establish the impact of SA removal from N-glycan chains on their conformational behavior...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xuelin Zhang, Yang Wang, Pingsheng Liu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an epidemic metabolic condition driven by an underlying lipid homeostasis disorder. The lipid droplet (LD), the main organelle involved in neutral lipid storage and hydrolysis, is a potential target for NAFLD therapeutic treatment. In this review, we summarize recent progress elucidating the connections between LD-associated proteins and NAFLD found by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic and proteomic studies. Finally, we discuss a possible mechanism by which the protein 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13 (17β-HSD13) may promote the development of NAFLD...
October 18, 2016: Protein & Cell
Roent Dune A Cayetano, Tae Hyun Kim
Corn stover was treated using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) at controlled ammoniation temperature. Moisturized corn stover (50 % moisture) was contacted with anhydrous ammonia (0.1 g NH3/g-biomass) in a batch reactor at various temperatures (ambient to 150 °C). After ammoniation at elevated and controlled temperature, ammoniated corn stover was pretreated at various temperatures (60-150 °C) for 72-144 h. Change in composition was marginal at low pretreatment temperature but was relatively severe with pretreatment at high temperature (130-150 °C)...
October 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Thomas A Masters, John Kendrick-Jones, Folma Buss
Myosins are cytoskeletal motor proteins that use energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to generate force and movement along actin filaments. Humans express 38 myosin genes belonging to 12 classes that participate in a diverse range of crucial activities, including muscle contraction, intracellular trafficking, cell division, motility, actin cytoskeletal organisation and cell signalling. Myosin malfunction has been implicated a variety of disorders including deafness, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Usher syndrome, Griscelli syndrome and cancer...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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