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Juanita C Lauer, Suong Cu, Rachel A Burton, Jason K Eglinton
Novel barley (1 → 3, 1 → 4)-β-glucan endohydrolases with increased thermostability. Rapid and reliable degradation of (1 → 3, 1 → 4)-β-glucan to produce low viscosity wort is an essential requirement for malting barley. The (1 → 3, 1 → 4)-β-glucan endohyrolases are responsible for the primary hydrolysis of cell wall β-glucan. The variation in β-glucanase genes HvGlb1 and HvGlb2 that encode EI and EII, respectively, were examined in elite and exotic germplasm. Six EI and 14 EII allozymes were identified, and significant variation was found in β-glucanase from Hordeum vulgare ssp...
February 26, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Bradlee L Heckmann, Xiaodong Zhang, Alicia M Saarinen, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Erin E Kershaw, Rudolf Zechner, Jun Liu
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors essential for cholesterol homeostasis and lipogenesis. LXRα has been implicated in regulating hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation upon both influx of adipose-derived fatty acids (FAs) during fasting and stimulation of de novo FA synthesis by chemical agonism of LXR. However, whether or not a convergent mechanism is employed to drive deposition of FAs from these 2 different sources in TGs is undetermined. Here, we report that the G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2), a selective inhibitor of intracellular TG hydrolysis/lipolysis, is a direct target gene of LXRα...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
Kamal Kumar Bhardwaj, Nitin Kumar Saun, Reena Gupta
The present study showed unique properties of an alkaline, thermophilic lipase of Geobacillus sp. which was isolated from soil of hot spring. The study was aimed to investigate the optimum immobilization conditions of lipase onto silica gel matrix (100-200 mesh) by surface adsorption method and its application in the synthesis of methyl salicylate. Lipase immobilized by surface adsorption onto silica pretreated with 4% glutaraldehyde showed 74.67% binding of protein and the optimum binding time for glutaraldehyde was found to be 2 h...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Agnes C Pimentel, Gabriela C G Ematsu, Marcelo V Liberato, Douglas A A Paixão, João Paulo L Franco Cairo, Fernanda Mandelli, Robson Tramontina, César A Gandin, Mario de Oliveira Neto, Fabio M Squina, Thabata M Alvarez
Endoglucanases are key enzymes in the degradation of cellulose, the most abundant polymer on Earth. The aim of this work was to perform the biochemical and biophysical characterization of CelE2, a soil metagenome derived endoglucanase. CelE2 harbors a conserved domain from glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) and a C-terminal domain with identity to Calx-beta domains. The recombinant CelE2 displayed preference for hydrolysis of oat beta-glucan, followed by lichenan and carboxymethyl cellulose. Optimum values of enzymatic activity were observed at 45°C and pH 5...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Francisco Reta Mares, Claudia Jaime, Andrés Sánchez, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Aarón Gómez, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
: The venom of the Mexican west-coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) was characterized for its protein composition, toxicological profile and immunogenic properties. This venom is composed of 68% Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), 14% phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 11% serine proteinases, 4% SVMPs-inhibitor tripeptides (SVMP-ITs), 2% bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), 0.6% cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), and 0.2% l-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs). SVMPs present in the venom are responsible for azocasein hydrolysis and hemorrhagic activity, but their contribution to the lethal activity of the venom in mice is masked by the neurotoxic activity of PLA2s, which in addition are also responsible for myotoxic activity...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Michael P Whyte
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism that features low serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (hypophosphatasemia) caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of ALP (TNSALP). Autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant inheritance from among >300 TNSALP (ALPL) mutations largely explains HPP's remarkably broad-ranging severity. TNSALP is a cell-surface homodimeric phosphohydrolase richly expressed in the skeleton, liver, kidney, and developing teeth...
February 24, 2017: Bone
Binyuan Zhai, Kevin DuPrez, Tzanko I Doukov, Huan Li, Mengting Huang, Guijun Shang, Jinfeng Ni, Lichuan Gu, Yulong Shen, Li Fan
Holliday junction (HJ) is a hallmark intermediate in DNA recombination and must be processed by dissolution (for double HJ) or resolution to ensure genome stability. Although HJ resolvases have been identified in all domains of life, there is a long-standing effort to search in prokaryotes and eukarya for proteins promoting HJ migration. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of a novel ATPase, Sulfolobus islandicusPIN-domain containing ATPase (SisPINA), encoded by the gene adjacent to the resolvase Hjc coding gene...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
Frank Bürmann, Alrun Basfeld, Roberto Vazquez Nunez, Marie-Laure Diebold-Durand, Larissa Wilhelm, Stephan Gruber
SMC proteins support vital cellular processes in all domains of life by organizing chromosomal DNA. They are composed of ATPase "head" and "hinge" dimerization domains and a connecting coiled-coil "arm." Binding to a kleisin subunit creates a closed tripartite ring, whose ∼47-nm-long SMC arms act as barrier for DNA entrapment. Here, we uncover another, more active function of the bacterial Smc arm. Using high-throughput genetic engineering, we resized the arm in the range of 6-60 nm and found that it was functional only in specific length regimes following a periodic pattern...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
Qian Li, Hao Li, Gaojun Wang, Xiaochang Wang
A continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a high feeding frequency (HFF) of once every 15min was employed in order to ease the loading shock frequently occurred in digester with a low feeding frequency. The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on the co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge was evaluated in a 302-day long-term experiment. Due to the high hydrolysis rate, the maximum CH4 yield in a thermophilic reactor was 407mL CH4/gVSadded, a value that was significantly higher than the 350mL CH4/gVSadded that occurred in a mesophilic reactor...
February 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Atulya K Panda, Umashankar Das, Naoki Umemura, Hiroshi Sakagami, Masami Kawase, Jan Balzarini, Erik De Clercq, Stephen G Dimmock, Praveen K Roayapalley, Jonathan R Dimmock
Novel cytotoxins 3-5 containing the 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadienyl pharmacophore are disclosed. The compounds in series 3 and 5 have the potential to liberate niacin which may reduce some of the side effects of antineoplastic compounds. 3a-c emerged as the most potent cytotoxic compounds with IC50 values in the low micromolar range against human Molt4/C8 and CEM CD4(+) T-lymphocytes as well as murine L1210 leukemia cells. QSAR studies revealed that cytotoxic potencies were negatively correlated with the magnitude of the Hammett sigma values of the aryl substituents...
February 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jennifer Huen, Chia-Liang Lin, Bagher Golzarroshan, Wan-Li Yi, Wei-Zen Yang, Hanna S Yuan
CshA is a dimeric DEAD-box helicase that cooperates with ribonucleases for mRNA turnover. The molecular mechanism for how a dimeric DEAD-box helicase aids in RNA decay remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution structure of the CshA from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. In contrast to typical monomeric DEAD-box helicases, CshA is exclusively a dimeric protein with the RecA-like domains of each protomer forming a V-shaped structure. We show that the C-terminal domains protruding outward from the tip of the V-shaped structure is critical for mediating strong RNA binding and is crucial for efficient RNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis...
February 18, 2017: Structure
Zachary Lee Johnson, Jue Chen
The multidrug resistance protein MRP1 is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that confers resistance to many anticancer drugs and plays a role in the disposition and efficacy of several opiates, antidepressants, statins, and antibiotics. In addition, MRP1 regulates redox homeostasis, inflammation, and hormone secretion. Using electron cryomicroscopy, we determined the molecular structures of bovine MRP1 in two conformations: an apo form at 3.5 Å without any added substrate and a complex form at 3.3 Å with one of its physiological substrates, leukotriene C4...
February 22, 2017: Cell
Koudi Zhu, Binghe Gu, Michale Kerry, Markus Mintert, Jim Luong, Matthias Pursch
A novel base treatment followed by liquid-liquid extraction was developed to remove the interference of excess derivatization reagent BSTFA [N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide] and its byproducts for trace determination of 1-chloro-2-propanol and 2-chloro-1-propanol in a food additive. The corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection in selective ion monitoring mode. Due to a large volume splitless injection needed for achieving the required sensitivity, excess BSTFA in the derivatization sample solution interfered with the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the analytes of interest, making their quantitation not attainable...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yun Liu, Lijun Guo, Liuyang Wang, Wang Zhan, Hua Zhou
This study evaluated the two hydrolysis strategies, involving one thermal and one dilute acid/enzymatic hydrolysis, to produce high xylose and glucose concentrations from lignocellulose assisted with irradiation pretreatment. Prior to hydrolysis, lignocellulose was pretreated by γ-irradiation at 800KGy. The merits of irradiation pretreatment on lignocellulose were contributed to size-reduced particle distributions and low shear rate of material, which allowed high biomass loadings up to 30-40%(w/v, equals to 23-29wt...
February 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jian Li, Haibo Huo, Rui Guo, Biao Liu, Longbo Li, Wenjia Dan, Xinmin Xiao, Jiwen Zhang, Baojun Shi
In this work, twenty-seven novel steroidal pyrazole derivatives were designed and effectively synthesized with two different commercially available staring material, Isopregnanolone 1 and 5,16-Pregnadienolone 7, via the key intermediates, 17β-(4'-formyl)pyrazolylandrost-3β-yl formate and 17-(4'-formyl)pyrazolylandrost- 5,16-dienes-3β-yl formate, which were obtained from the cyclization of steroidal phenylhydrazone with Vilsmeier reagent catalyzed by phosphorous oxychloride followed by hydrolysis, then Borch reduction to afford the target derivatives under mild conditions...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Liao-Bin Dong, Jeffrey D Rudolf, Li Lin, Claudia Ruiz, Michael D Cameron, Ben Shen
Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), two natural products and promising drug leads that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases, are known to have unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties. It is not clear, however, what the metabolic fates of PTM and PTN are and no efforts have been reported to address this key roadblock in the development of these compounds as viable drug options. Here we describe the pharmacokinetics of PTM and PTN, and reveal rapid renal clearance as the primary metabolic liability with three additional sites of chemical liability: (i) amide hydrolysis, (ii) glucuronidation, and (iii) oxidation...
February 16, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Karolina Haernvall, Sabine Zitzenbacher, Motonori Yamamoto, Michael Bernhard Schick, Doris Ribitsch, Georg M Guebitz
Extracellular enzymes are assumed to be responsible for the initial and rate limiting step in biodegradation of polymers. Mainly enzymes with aliphatic esters as their natural substrates (e.g. lipase, cutinases) have until now been evaluated for polyester hydrolysis studies. However, the potential of enzymes with aromatic esters as their natural substrates (e.g. arylesterases) have been neglected although many types of polyester today contain aromatic moieties. Consequently, in order to elucidate biodegradation of phthalic polyesters in aquatic systems, a novel arylesterase (PpEst) was investigated related to hydrolysis of ionic phthalic polyesters...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
María Font, Daniel Plano, Carmen Sanmartín, Juan Antonio Palop
A molecular modeling study has been carried out on a previously reported series of (diselanediyldibenzene-4,1-diylnide)biscarbamate derivatives that show cytotoxic and antiproliferative in vitro activity against MCF-7 human cell line; radical scavenging properties were also confirmed when these compounds were tested for their ability to scavenge DPPH and ABTS radicals. The data obtained allowed us to classify the compounds into two different groups: (a) aliphatic carbamates for which the activity could be related with a first nucleophilic attack (mediated by H2O, for example) on the selenium atoms of the central scaffold, followed by the release of the alkyl N-(4-selanylphenyl) and N-(4-selenenophenyl)carbamate moieties...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Jéssica Bravin Carmello Dos Santos, Rosineide Gomes da Silva Cruz, Paulo Waldir Tardioli
This work evaluated a wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus strain as a whole-cell lipase (Sc-WCL) producer by submerged fermentation. In an orbital shaker, lipase hydrolytic activity of 3000 U L(-1), measured at pH 9.0 and 37 °C by using p-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate, was achieved after 36 h fermentation using glycerol-free production medium in a baffled Erlenmeyer flask at 28 °C and pH 6.8. Maximum productivity of 52.5 U L(-1) h(-1) was achieved after 24 h in bioreactor using glycerol-free production medium at pH 6...
February 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Qidong Yin, Kai He, Aike Liu, Guangxue Wu
Conductive materials can facilitate syntrophic methane (CH4) production by improving direct interspecies electron transfer. The effect of a conductive material, ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4), on the anaerobic treatment of tryptone-based high-strength wastewater was investigated in two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). One was the control reactor without amendment of Fe3O4, and the other was the Fe3O4-amended reactor. In an ASBR reaction cycle, the dosage of Fe3O4 increased the CH4 production rate by 12...
February 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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