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Guillaume Gillot, Jean-Luc Jany, Elisabeth Poirier, Marie-Bernadette Maillard, Stella Debaets, Anne Thierry, Emmanuel Coton, Monika Coton
Penicillium roqueforti is used as a ripening culture for blue cheeses and largely contributes to their organoleptic quality and typical characteristics. Different types of blue cheeses are manufactured and consumed worldwide and have distinct aspects, textures, flavors and colors. These features are well accepted to be due to the different manufacturing methods but also to the specific P. roqueforti strains used. Indeed, inoculated P. roqueforti strains, via their proteolytic and lipolytic activities, have an effect on both blue cheese texture and flavor...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Samir S Roy, Manju Kapoor
Hsp90 contains two distinct Nucleotide Binding Sites (NBS), in its N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD), respectively. The NTD site belongs to the GHKL super-family of ATPases and has been the subject of extensive characterization. However, a structure of the nucleotide-bound form of CTD is still unavailable. In this study molecular modeling was employed to incorporate experimental data using partial constructs of the CTD, from work published by many research groups, onto existing structural models of its apo- form...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Joanna Szewińska, Joanna Simińska, Wiesław Bielawski
Proteolysis is an important process for development and germination of cereal seeds. Among the many types of proteases identified in plants are the cysteine proteases (CPs) of the papain and legumain families, which play a crucial role in hydrolysing storage proteins during seed germination as well as in processing the precursors of these proteins and the inactive forms of other proteases. Moreover, all of the tissues of cereal seeds undergo progressive degradation via programed cell death, which is integral to their growth...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Akhi Akhter, Emanuel Rosonina
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Gcn4 is expressed during amino acid starvation and its abundance is controlled by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Cdk8, a kinase component of the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex, phosphorylates Gcn4 which triggers its ubiquitination/proteolysis and is thought to link Gcn4 degradation with transcription of target genes. In addition to phosphorylation and ubiquitination, we previously showed that Gcn4 becomes sumoylated in a DNA-binding dependent manner, while a non-sumoylatable form of Gcn4 showed increased chromatin occupancy, but only if Cdk8 was present...
October 21, 2016: Genetics
Satomi Igawa, Mari Kishibe, Masako Minami-Hori, Masaru Honma, Hisashi Tsujimura, Junko Ishikawa, Tsutomu Fujimura, Masamoto Murakami, Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder. Chronic AD lesions present hyperkeratosis, indicating a disturbed desquamation process. Kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) 7 is a serine protease involved in the proteolysis of extracellular corneodesmosome (CD) components, including desmocollin1 and corneodesmosin (Cdsn), which leads to desquamation. KLK7 is secreted by lamellar granules, and upregulated in AD lesional skin. However, despite increased KLK7 protein levels, immunostaining and electron microscopy indicated numerous CDs remaining in the uppermost layer of the stratum corneum (SC) from AD lesions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Shobini Jayaraman, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Olga Gursky
Lipids in the body are transported via lipoproteins that are nanoparticles comprised of lipids and amphipathic proteins termed apolipoproteins. This family of lipid surface-binding proteins is over-represented in human amyloid diseases. In particular, all major proteins of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including apoA-I, apoA-II and serum amyloid A, can cause systemic amyloidoses in humans upon protein mutations, post-translational modifications or overproduction. Here, we begin to explore how the HDL lipid composition influences amyloid deposition by apoA-I and related proteins...
October 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Leandro H Manfredi, D Lustrino, Juliano Machado, Wilian Assis Silveira, Neusa Maria Zanon, Luiz C Navegantes, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut
Previous studies have shown that catecholamines in vivo and in vitro inhibit the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscles under basal conditions. In the present study we sought to investigate the role of catecholamines in regulating the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats acutely exposed to cold. Overall proteolysis, the activity of proteolytic systems as well as protein levels and gene expression of different components of calpain system were investigated in rats submitted to adrenodemedullation (ADMX) and exposed to cold for 24 h...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Cristina Puy, Erik I Tucker, Ivan S Ivanov, David Gailani, Stephanie A Smith, James H Morrissey, András Gruber, Owen J T McCarty
INTRODUCTION: Factor (F) XI supports both normal human hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Activated FXI (FXIa) promotes thrombin generation by enzymatic activation of FXI, FIX, FX, and FV, and inactivation of alpha tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPIα), in vitro. Some of these reactions are now known to be enhanced by short-chain polyphosphates (SCP) derived from activated platelets. These SCPs act as a cofactor for the activation of FXI and FV by thrombin and FXIa, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Gisele de A Padilha, Lucas F B Horta, Lillian Moraes, Cassia L Braga, Milena V Oliveira, Cíntia L Santos, Isalira P Ramos, Marcelo M Morales, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Regina C S Goldenberg, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco
BACKGROUND: In patients with emphysema, invasive mechanical ventilation settings should be adjusted to minimize hyperinflation while reducing respiratory effort and providing adequate gas exchange. We evaluated the impact of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on pulmonary and diaphragmatic damage, as well as cardiac function, in experimental emphysema. METHODS: Emphysema was induced by intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase in Wistar rats, once weekly for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Nariman Balenga, Pedram Azimzadeh, Joyce A Hogue, Paul N Staats, Yuhong Shi, James Koh, Holly Dressman, John A Olson
Abnormal feedback of serum calcium to parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is the hallmark of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). While the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid neoplasia in PHPT has been linked to abnormal expression of genes involved in cell growth (i.e. cyclin D1, retinoblastoma and β catenin), the molecular basis of abnormal calcium sensing by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and PTH hypersecretion in PHPT are incompletely understood. Through gene expression profiling, we discovered that an orphan adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, GPR64/ADGRG2 is expressed in human normal parathyroid glands and is overexpressed in parathyroid tumors from patients with PHPT...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
F Femiano, R Femiano, L Femiano, A Jamilian, R Rullo, L Perillo
AIM: This review aims to summarise our understanding of the destructive role of acid environment and metalloproteinases in dentin caries progression using a review process. METHOD: The acids resulting from consumption of sugars by acidogenic and aciduric bacteria can cause demineralisation of the tooth surface, but are not able to cause caries-like lesions. The appearance of such lesions requires the activation of enzymatic proteolysis in an acidic environment for degradation of the dentin organic matrix, leading to cavity formation...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Iñigo Ruiz de Escudero, Natalia Mara Vera-Velasco, Patricia Hernández-Martínez, Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez, Tomás Ceballos, Leopoldo Palma, Baltasar Escriche, Primitivo Caballero, Juan Ferré
The Vip3Ca protein, discovered in a screening of Spanish collections of Bacillus thuringiensis, was known to be toxic to Chrysodeixis chalcites, Mamestra brassicae and Trichoplusia ni. In the present study, its activity has been tested with additional insect species and we found that Cydia pomonella is moderately susceptible to this protein. Vip3Ca (of approximately 90 kDa) was processed to an approximately 70 kDa protein when incubated with midgut juice in all tested species. The kinetics of proteolysis correlated with the susceptibility of the insect species to Vip3Ca...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
XianJun Yuan, AiYou Wen, Seare T Desta, ZhiHao Dong, Tao Shao
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of 4 chemical compounds with antimicrobial property on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage. RESULTS: Potassium diformate and formic acid rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xiongjing Jiang
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of mortality in older adults. Most AAAs are asymptomatic and screening programs have been introduced to identify AAAs. There is currently some recommendations for medical optimisation of patients with AAA, such as anti-hypertension, statin, Anti-platelet therapy, B-blockade, et al. Some medical treatments to limit progression of small AAAs, which have examined the potential of targeting inflammation, proteolysis, the renin-angiotensin system, the coagulation system and sex hormones as approaches to limiting AAA pathogenesis are investigated as well as...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tomonori Sato, Yoshiaki Ito, Takashi Nagasawa
Sarcopenia is a condition of the loss of muscle mass that is associated with aging and that increases the risk for bedridden state, thereby warranting studies of interventions that attenuate sarcopenia. Here the effects of 2-month dietary L-lysine (Lys) supplementation (1.5-3.0 %) on myofibrillar protein degradation and major proteolytic systems were investigated in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). At 36 weeks of age, skeletal muscle and lean body mass was reduced in SAMP8 when compared with control senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1)...
October 17, 2016: Biogerontology
Mohamed Alalem, Alpana Ray, Bimal K Ray
Activation of mTOR is implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer. mTOR inhibition exhibited promising antitumor effects in breast cancer; however, its effect is compromised by several feedback mechanisms. One of such mechanisms is the upregulation of mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Despite the established role of mTOR activation in breast cancer, the status of total mTOR protein and its impact on the tumor behavior and response to treatment are poorly understood. Besides, the mechanisms underlying mTOR protein degradation in normal and cancer breast cells are still largely unknown...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Matthew P Jackson, Eric W Hewitt
Proteostasis refers to the regulation of the cellular concentration, folding, interactions and localization of each of the proteins that comprise the proteome. One essential element of proteostasis is the disposal of misfolded proteins by the cellular pathways of protein degradation. Lysosomes are an important site for the degradation of misfolded proteins, which are trafficked to this organelle by the pathways of macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy and endocytosis. Conversely, amyloid diseases represent a failure in proteostasis, in which proteins misfold, forming amyloid deposits that are not degraded effectively by cells...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
Shaofeng Yan, Hao Xue, Ping Zhang, Xiao Han, Xing Guo, Guang Yuan, Lin Deng, Gang Li
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play the important role in the process of glioblastoma cell invasion through 3D matrices. However, the effects of MMP inhibitors used in the treatment of malignant gliomas are unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to explore the reason and mechanism by which cells move through the dense extracellular matrix without proteolysis. The results showed that MMP inhibitor (MMPI), Ilomastat, induced glioma cells to have an amoeboid-like morphology with invasive ability. Moreover, the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain (MLC) signal is involved in the MMPI-induced movement mode switch, and RhoA activation is dependent on P115RhoGEF...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Eun Young Hwang, Mi Suk Jeong, Sang Kyun Park, Sung Chul Ha, Hak Sun Yu, Se Bok Jang
Toxascaris leonina Galectin (Tl-gal) is a galectin-9 homologue protein isolated from an adult worm of the canine gastrointestinal nematode parasite, and Tl-gal vaccinated challenge can inhibit inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)-induced mice. We determined the first X-ray structures of full-length Tl-gal complexes with carbohydrates (lactose, LacNAc, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), SiaLac, and glucose). Bonds were formed on concave surfaces of both CRDs in Tl-gal. All binding sites are discovered in the HXXXR and WGXEER motifs...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chiung-Yueh Hsu, Géraldine Gasc, Anne-Aurélie Raymond, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Hidenari Takahara, Guy Serre, Marie-Claire Méchin, Michel Simon
Hornerin (HRNR) shares numerous features with filaggrin, a key contributor to the epidermal barrier functions. The two proteins display a related structural organization, are expressed by the granular keratinocytes as a large precursor processed by proteolysis, and are cross-linked to the cornified cell envelopes. Two main steps in the metabolism of filaggrin are its deimination and calpain-1 cleavage. Here, using ion-exchange chromatography and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of human epidermis extracts, we determined that HRNR is deiminated in vivo...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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