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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921082/global-role-of-cyclic-amp-signaling-in-ph-dependent-responses-in-candida-albicans
#1
Jeffrey M Hollomon, Nora Grahl, Sven D Willger, Katja Koeppen, Deborah A Hogan
Candida albicans behaviors are affected by pH, an important environmental variable. Filamentous growth is a pH-responsive behavior, where alkaline conditions favor hyphal growth and acid conditions favor growth as yeast. We employed filamentous growth as a tool to study the impact of pH on the hyphal growth regulator Cyr1, and we report that downregulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by acidic pH contributes to the inhibition of hyphal growth in minimal medium with GlcNAc. Ras1 and Cyr1 are generally required for efficient hyphal growth, and the effects of low pH on Ras1 proteolysis and GTP binding are consistent with diminished cAMP output...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919820/tnf-%C3%AE-and-cancer-cachexia-molecular-insights-and-clinical-implications
#2
REVIEW
Hetal J Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
Cancer cachexia characterized by a chronic wasting syndrome, involves skeletal muscle loss and adipose tissue loss and resistance to conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is responsible for the reduction in quality and length of life of cancer patients. It also decreases the muscle strength of the patients. The pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors produced by the tumor cells have important role in genesis of cachexia. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) may have important role in the pathological mechanisms of cachexia in cancer...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918112/validation-of-adam10-metalloprotease-as-a-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry3aa-toxin-functional-receptor-in-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#3
V M Ruiz-Arroyo, I García-Robles, C Ochoa-Campuzano, G A Goig, E Zaitseva, G Baaken, A C Martínez-Ramírez, C Rausell, M D Real
Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) are insecticidal pore-forming toxins that bind to specific receptor molecules on the brush border membrane of susceptible insect midgut cells to exert their toxic action. In the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), a coleopteran pest, we previously proposed that interaction of Cry3Aa toxin with a CPB ADAM10 metalloprotease is an essential part of the mode of action of this toxin. Here, we annotated the gene sequence encoding an ADAM10 metalloprotease protein (CPB-ADAM10) in the CPB genome sequencing project, and using RNA interference gene silencing we demonstrated that CPB-ADAM10 is a Cry3Aa toxin functional receptor in CPB...
December 5, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917837/purification-crystallization-and-characterization-of-the-pseudomonas-outer-membrane-protein-fapf-a-functional-amyloid-transporter
#4
Sarah L Rouse, Wlliam J Hawthorne, Sebastian Lambert, Marc L Morgan, Stephen A Hare, Stephen Matthews
Bacteria often produce extracellular amyloid fibres via a multi-component secretion system. Aggregation-prone, unstructured subunits cross the periplasm and are secreted through the outer membrane, after which they self-assemble. Here, significant progress is presented towards solving the high-resolution crystal structure of the novel amyloid transporter FapF from Pseudomonas, which facilitates the secretion of the amyloid-forming polypeptide FapC across the bacterial outer membrane. This represents the first step towards obtaining structural insight into the products of the Pseudomonas fap operon...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916606/fbx8-is-a-metastasis-suppressor-downstream-of-mir-223-and-targeting-mtor-for-degradation-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
F F Wang, X J Zhang, Y R Yan, X H Zhu, J Yu, Y Ding, J L Hu, W J Zhou, Z C Zeng, W T Liao, Y Q Ding, L Liang
F-box proteins are critical components of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases and involved in the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Dysregulation of F-box protein-mediated proteolysis often leads to human malignancies. F-box only protein 8 (FBX8), a novel component of F-box proteins, is down-regulated in several tumors and closely correlates with tumor progression. However, little is known about its function, regulatory mechanisms and substrates in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914061/probing-oligomerized-conformations-of-defensin-in-the-membrane
#6
Wenxun Gan, Dina Schneidman, Ning Zhang, Buyong Ma, Ruth Nussinov
Computational prediction and design of membrane protein-protein interactions facilitate biomedical engineering and biotechnological applications. Due to their antimicrobial activity, human defensins play an important role in the innate immune system. Human defensins are attractive pharmaceutical targets due to their small size, broad activity spectrum, reduced immunogenicity, and resistance to proteolysis. Protein engineering based modification of defensins can improve their pharmaceutical properties. Here we present an approach to computationally probe defensins' oligomerization states in the membrane...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913948/branched-chain-amino-acids-administration-suppresses-endurance-exercise-related-activation-of-ubiquitin-proteasome-signaling-in-trained-human-skeletal-muscle
#7
Evgeny A Lysenko, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Egor M Lednev, Olga L Vinogradova, Daniil V Popov
We tested whether post exercise ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA < 10 g) is sufficient to activate signaling associated with muscle protein synthesis and suppress exercise-induced activation of mechanisms associated with proteolysis in endurance-trained human skeletal muscle. Nine endurance-trained athletes performed a cycling bout with and without BCAA ingestion (0.1 g/kg). Post exercise ACC(Ser79/222) phosphorylation (endogenous marker of AMPK activity) was increased (~3-fold, P < 0...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913191/the-shedding-derived-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-endproducts-sustains-inflammation-during-acute-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection
#8
Antonella Antonelli, Stefania Di Maggio, Joanna Rejman, Francesca Sanvito, Alice Rossi, Alessandro Catucci, Andrea Gorzanelli, Alessandra Bragonzi, Marco E Bianchi, Angela Raucci
BACKGROUND: The membrane-bound isoform of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (FL-RAGE) is primarily expressed by alveolar epithelial cells and undergoes shedding by the protease ADAM10, giving rise to soluble cleaved RAGE (cRAGE). RAGE has been associated with the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic lung disorders. Whether the proteolysis of FL-RAGE is altered by a given inflammatory stimulus is unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients and is the major pathogen associated with chronic lung diseases...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911384/analysis-of-scap-n-glycosylation-and-trafficking-in-human-cells
#9
Chunming Cheng, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Feng Geng, Xiaoning Wu, Xiang Cheng, Qiyue Li, Deliang Guo
Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909054/identification-of-a-substrate-selective-exosite-within-the-metalloproteinase-anthrax-lethal-factor
#10
Allison B Goldberg, Eunice Cho, Chad J Miller, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E Turk
The metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is secreted by Bacillus anthracis to promote disease virulence through disruption of host signaling pathways. LF is a highly specific protease, exclusively cleaving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and rodent NACHT leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 1B (NLRP1B). How LF achieves such restricted substrate specificity is not understood. Previous studies have suggested the existence of an exosite interaction between LF and MKKs that promotes cleavage efficiency and specificity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906959/pcna-dependent-cleavage-and-degradation-of-sde2-regulates-response-to-replication-stress
#11
Ukhyun Jo, Winson Cai, Jingming Wang, Yoojin Kwon, Alan D D'Andrea, Hyungjin Kim
Maintaining genomic integrity during DNA replication is essential for cellular survival and for preventing tumorigenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) functions as a processivity factor for DNA replication, and posttranslational modification of PCNA plays a key role in coordinating DNA repair against replication-blocking lesions by providing a platform to recruit factors required for DNA repair and cell cycle control. Here, we identify human SDE2 as a new genome surveillance factor regulated by PCNA interaction...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906069/the-beneficial-role-of-proteolysis-in-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-stress-adaptation
#12
REVIEW
Ryan A V Bell, Mohammad Al-Khalaf, Lynn A Megeney
Muscle atrophy derived from excessive proteolysis is a hallmark of numerous disease conditions. Accordingly, the negative consequences of skeletal muscle protein breakdown often overshadow the critical nature of proteolytic systems in maintaining normal cellular function. Here, we discuss the major cellular proteolysis machinery-the ubiquitin/proteosome system, the autophagy/lysosomal system, and caspase-mediated protein cleavage-and the critical role of these protein machines in establishing and preserving muscle health...
April 6, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905556/cellular-aspartyl-proteases-promote-the-unconventional-secretion-of-biologically-active-hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17
#13
Francesca Caccuri, Maria Luisa Iaria, Federica Campilongo, Kristen Varney, Alessandro Rossi, Stefania Mitola, Silvia Schiarea, Antonella Bugatti, Pietro Mazzuca, Cinzia Giagulli, Simona Fiorentini, Wuyuan Lu, Mario Salmona, Arnaldo Caruso
The human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein p17 (p17), although devoid of a signal sequence, is released by infected cells and detected in blood and in different organs and tissues even in HIV-1-infected patients undergoing successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Extracellularly, p17 deregulates the function of different cells involved in AIDS pathogenesis. The mechanism of p17 secretion, particularly during HIV-1 latency, still remains to be elucidated. A recent study showed that HIV-1-infected cells can produce Gag without spreading infection in a model of viral latency...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905546/transcriptome-analysis-confers-a-complex-disease-resistance-network-in-wild-rice-oryza-meyeriana-against-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#14
Xiao-Jie Cheng, Bin He, Lin Chen, Su-Qin Xiao, Jian Fu, Yue Chen, Teng-Qiong Yu, Zai-Quan Cheng, Hong Feng
Rice bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the devastating diseases of rice. It is well established that the wild rice Oryza meyeriana is immune to BB. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis was carried out by RNA sequencing of O. meyeriana leaves, inoculated with Xoo to understand the transcriptional responses and interaction between the host and pathogen. Totally, 57,313 unitranscripts were de novo assembled from 58.7 Gb clean reads and 14,143 unitranscripts were identified after Xoo inoculation...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905294/glucocorticoids-increase-skeletal-muscle-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inducing-kinase-nik-links-to-muscle-atrophy
#15
Christopher S Fry, Syed Z Nayeem, Edgar L Dillon, Partha S Sarkar, Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Randall J Urban, Traver J Wright, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Ronald G Tilton, Sanjeev Choudhary
Glucocorticoids (GC) are a frontline therapy for numerous acute and chronic diseases because of their demonstrated efficacy at reducing systemic inflammation. An unintended side effect of GC therapy is the stimulation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for GC-induced skeletal muscle atrophy have been extensively investigated, and the ability to treat patients with GC without unintended muscle atrophy has yet to be realized. We have reported that a single, standard-of-care dose of Methylprednisolone increases in vivo expression of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), an important upstream regulatory kinase controlling NF-κB activation, along with other key muscle catabolic regulators such as Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 that induce skeletal muscle proteolysis...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903272/inhibition-of-bromodomain-and-extra-terminal-bet-proteins-increases-nkg2d-ligand-mica-expression-and-sensitivity-to-nk-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-role-of-cmyc-irf4-mir-125b-interplay
#16
Maria Pia Abruzzese, Maria Teresa Bilotta, Cinzia Fionda, Alessandra Zingoni, Alessandra Soriani, Elisabetta Vulpis, Cristiana Borrelli, Beatrice Zitti, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Rosa Molfetta, Rossella Paolini, Angela Santoni, Marco Cippitelli
BACKGROUND: Anti-cancer immune responses may contribute to the control of tumors after conventional chemotherapy, and different observations have indicated that chemotherapeutic agents can induce immune responses resulting in cancer cell death and immune-stimulatory side effects. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence highlight the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in immune responses toward multiple myeloma (MM), and combination therapies able to enhance the activity of NK cells against MM are showing promise in treating this hematologic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903232/solution-structure-and-expression-profile-of-an-insect-cytokine-manduca-sexta-stress-response-peptide-2
#17
Lynn Goss Schrag, Xiaolong Cao, Alvaro Ivan Herrera, Yang Wang, Haobo Jiang, Om Prakash
Manduca sexta stress response peptide-2 (SRP2) is predicted to be a 25-residue peptide (FGVKDGKCPSGRVRRLGICVPDDDY), which may function as an insect cytokine to regulate immune responses. Produced as an inactive precursor, endogenous proSRP2 is probably converted to active SRP2 by limited proteolysis in response to invading pathogens, along with prophenoloxidase and pro-Spätzle activation. In addition to immunity, SRP2 may control head morphogenesis or other developmental processes in the lepidopteran insect...
November 21, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900431/interspecies-comparison-of-peptide-substrate-reporter-metabolism-using-compartment-based-modeling
#18
Allison J Tierney, Nhat Pham, Kunwei Yang, Brooks K Emerick, Michelle L Kovarik
Peptide substrate reporters are fluorescently labeled peptides that can be acted upon by one or more enzymes of interest. Peptide substrates are readily synthesized and more easily separated than full-length protein substrates; however, they are often more rapidly degraded by peptidases. As a result, peptide reporters must be made resistant to proteolysis in order to study enzymes in intact cells and lysates. This is typically achieved by optimizing the reporter sequence in a single cell type or model organism, but studies of reporter stability in a variety of organisms are needed to establish the robustness and broader utility of these molecular tools...
November 29, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899286/natural-mitochondrial-proteolysis-confirms-transcription-systematically-exchanging-deleting-nucleotides-peptides-coded-by-expanded-codons
#19
Hervé Seligmann
Protein sequences have higher linguistic complexities than human languages. This indicates undeciphered multilayered, overprinted information/genetic codes. Some superimposed genetic information is revealed by detections of transcripts systematically (a) exchanging nucleotides (nine symmetric, e.g. A<->C, fourteen asymmetric, e.g. A->C->G->A, swinger RNAs) translated according to tri-, tetra- and pentacodons, and (b) deleting mono-, dinucleotides after each trinucleotide (delRNAs). Here analyses of two independent proteomic datasets considering natural proteolysis confirm independently translation of these non-canonical RNAs, also along tetra- and pentacodons, increasing coverage of putative, cryptically encoded proteins...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898009/effects-of-glycosylation-on-the-enzymatic-activity-and-mechanisms-of-proteases
#20
REVIEW
Peter Goettig
Posttranslational modifications are an important feature of most proteases in higher organisms, such as the conversion of inactive zymogens into active proteases. To date, little information is available on the role of glycosylation and functional implications for secreted proteases. Besides a stabilizing effect and protection against proteolysis, several proteases show a significant influence of glycosylation on the catalytic activity. Glycans can alter the substrate recognition, the specificity and binding affinity, as well as the turnover rates...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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