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acute kidney failure pediatric

Isabella Guzzo, Federica Morolli, Francesca Diomedi Camassei, Antonina Piazza, Elvira Poggi, Luca Dello Strologo
BACKGROUND: Several cases of severe antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) secondary to antibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-Ab) have been described with variable outcome. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We report the case of a 13-year-old boy whose first kidney transplant failed due to steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection, with the subsequent development of sensitization. He received a second kidney transplant which was complicated by early humoral rejection, with weakly positive staining for the complement degradation product C4d...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Ramachandran Rameshkumar, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh, Subramanian Mahadevan, Parameswaran Narayanan, Ponnarmeni Satheesh, Puneet Jain
BACKGROUND: Septic acute kidney injury (AKI) accounts for more than half of all cases of AKI in critically ill children. The renal histology was found to alter the management in more than two-third of cases of adult acute renal failure. Better insight into the pathogenesis of pediatric septic AKI could be based on developing a clearer appreciation of the histopathological changes. No comprehensive study of the histopathological features of septic AKI in critically ill children has yet been performed...
October 13, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Sheetal Gupta, Ghanshyam Singh Sengar, Praveen K Meti, Anil Lahoti, Mukesh Beniwal, Murlidhar Kumawat
OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence, risk factors, and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study conducted in PICU of Department of Paediatrics, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, from October 2013 to May 2014. In this study, 536 patients of aged 29 days to 16 years were screened for AKI according to the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage Renal Disease (pRIFLE) criteria...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Shweta Kukrety, Pradeepa Vimalachandran, Rajesh Kunadharaju, Vishisht Mehta, Agnes Colanta, Mahmoud Abu Hazeem
Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) is an immune mediated disease associated Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposition within the affected organs. While the disease is commonly seen in the pediatric age group, it is rarely seen in adults. We report the case of a 93-year-old Caucasian lady who presented with nonthrombocytopenic purpuric rash and acute kidney injury after an episode of bronchitis. Rapid and progressive deterioration of renal function prompted a kidney biopsy, which showed findings consistent with IgA nephropathy confirming the diagnosis of HSP...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Amy E McAlister, Kira Geile, Carmen M Halabi, T Keefe Davis
We describe the successful treatment of a pediatric transplant patient with simultaneous intermittent hemodialysis and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The patient presented with kidney graft failure. He had life threatening electrolyte disturbances and fluid overload due to antibody-mediated rejection. Therefore, he was in need of both emergent kidney replacement therapy and TPE. Both extracorporeal circuits were set up, established, and maintained safely and effectively without difficulty or alarms. Running intermittent hemodialysis and TPE simultaneously significantly reduced therapy time, allowed both needed therapies priority, and provided a superior pediatric patient experience in an acute situation...
October 2016: Hemodialysis International
Sriram Pothapregada, Banupriya Kamalakannan, Mahalaskhmy Thulasingham, Srinivasan Sampath
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile and outcome of dengue fever in children at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All children (0-12 years of age) diagnosed and confirmed as dengue fever from August 2012 to January 2015 were reviewed retrospectively from hospital case records as per the revised World Health Organization guidelines for dengue fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by NS1 antigen-based ELISA test or dengue serology for IgM and IgG antibodies, and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16...
July 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Roberto Gordillo, Tania Ahluwalia, Robert Woroniecki
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common in critically ill children and have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in children is difficult to estimate because of the lack of a standard definition for AKI. The pediatric RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria can be used to define AKI in children. Various biomarkers in urine and blood have been studied to detect AKI in critically ill children...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To observe the occurrence rate of elevated serum amylase and lipase in critically ill children, to explore the relationship between elevated pancreatic enzymes and pancreatic injury, and the effect of elevated pancreatic enzymes on state of illness and the prognosis. METHOD: The data of cases treated in pediatric intensive care unit(ICU) of 17 children's hospitals were collected prospectively from January 2012 to March 2014 according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Erika Biro, Edit Szikszay, Petronella Pethő-Orosz, László Bigida, György Balla, Tamás Szabó
Acute lymphoid leukemia is the most frequently occurring malignancy in childhood, but acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with associated acute renal failure as the leading manifestation of leukemia is extremely rare. Only a few pediatric cases have been described in the literature. We present a surprising case in which physical examination and initial investigation were not typical for leukemia. Ultrasound showed only modest kidney enlargement while laboratory results indicated acute renal failure. Renal biopsy indicated tubulointerstitial nephritis, and subsequent steroid treatment led to sudden clinical improvement...
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Alireza Mehrnia, Thuy X Le, Tamer R Tamer, Suphamai Bunnapradist
Improving long-term transplant and patient survival is still an ongoing challenge in kidney transplant medicine. Our objective was to identify the subsequent risks of new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) and acute rejection (AR) in the first year post-transplant in predicting mortality and transplant failure. A total of 4687 patients without preexisting diabetes (age 2-20 years, 2004-2010) surviving with a functioning transplant for longer than 1 year with at least one follow-up report were identified from the OPTN/UNOS database as of September 2014...
August 31, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Amanda B Hassinger, Sudha Garimella, Brian H Wrotniak, Jo L Freudenheim
OBJECTIVES: Increasingly prevalent in pediatric intensive care, acute kidney injury imparts significant short- and long-term consequences. Despite advances in acute kidney injury research, clinical outcomes are worsening. We surveyed pediatric critical care physicians to describe the current state of acute kidney injury diagnosis and management in critically ill children. DESIGN: Anonymous electronic questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric critical care physicians from academic centers, the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators network, and/or the pediatric branch of Society of Critical Care Medicine...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Susumu Eguchi, Hiroyuki Furukawa, Shinji Uemoto, Koji Umeshita, Hajime Imamura, Akihiko Soyama, Tsuyoshi Shimamura, Shuji Isaji, Yasuhiro Ogura, Hiroto Egawa, Shigeyuki Kawachi, Mureo Kasahara, Hiroaki Nagano, Yonson Ku, Hideki Ohdan, Yoshihiko Maehara, Shuntaro Sato, Yukihiro Inomata
BACKGROUND: Because simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation has been limited as a standard practice because of a severe shortage of deceased donors in Japan, living donor (LD) liver transplantation alone (LTA) is indicated in most recipients with maintenance renal replacement therapy (MRRT). METHODS: A retrospective nationwide survey of LD LTA was performed for liver transplant patients on MRRT. The characteristics of donors and recipients, postoperative complications, survival rate, and causes of death were analyzed...
June 2016: Transplantation Direct
David S Cooper, David M Kwiatkowski, Stuart L Goldstein, Catherine D Krawczeski
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of acute kidney injury and its impact on immediate, short-, and long-term outcomes. In addition, the spectrum of cardiorenal syndromes will be reviewed including the pathophysiology on this interaction and its impact on outcomes. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE and PubMed. CONCLUSION: The field of cardiac intensive care continues to advance in tandem with congenital heart surgery...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Morgan B Slater, Andrea Gruneir, Paula A Rochon, Andrew W Howard, Gideon Koren, Christopher S Parshuram
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury may be promoted by critical illness, preexisting medical conditions, and treatments received both before and during ICU admission. We aimed to estimate the frequency of acute kidney injury during ICU treatment and to determine factors, occurring both before and during the ICU stay, associated with the development of acute kidney injury. DESIGN: Cohort study of critically ill children. SETTING: University-affiliated PICU...
September 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Wejdan Al-Jboor, Reham Almardini, Jwaher Al Bderat, Mahdi Frehat, Hazem Al Masri, Mohammad Saleh Alajloni
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in patients in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). We conducted this study to estimate the incidence and the mortality rate of AKI in critically ill children as well as to describe some other related factors. A retrospective study was conducted at PICU of Queen Rania Abdulla Children Hospital, Amman, Jordan for the period extending from May 2011 to June 2013. The medical records of all patients admitted during this period, and their demographic data were reviewed...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Om P Mishra, Avinash K Rai, Pradeep Srivastava, Khushaboo Pandey, Abhishek Abhinay, Rajniti Prasad, Rabindra N Mishra, Franz Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and interleukin 18 (IL-18) were found to be useful for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI). The objective of this study was to determine the predictive ability of biomarkers for mortality and variation in levels in relation to different stages of AKI, need for dialysis, etiologies, and with duration of hospital stay. METHODS: Urinary NGAL, NAG, and IL-18 levels were measured in 50 children with AKI and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
July 7, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Marcia C Riyuzo, Liciana V de A Silveira, Célia S Macedo, José R Fioretto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognosis factors of children with sepsis and acute kidney injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of children with sepsis and acute kidney injury that were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary hospital. A multivariate analysis was performed to compare risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Seventy-seven children (47 males) were retrospectively studied, median age of 4 months. Mean length of hospital stay was 7...
July 2, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Zi-Hao Yang, Bo-Tao Ning, Chen-Mei Zhang, Ru Lin, Sheng Ye, Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to discribe the experience in supporting children with refractory cardiopulmonary failure with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 12 children with refractory cardiopulmonary failure supported with ECMO from February 2009 to August 2015 in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. RESULTS: Seven of the 12 patients were weaned successfully from ECMO and dischaged from the hospital, with a survival rate of 58...
August 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Norbert Lameire, Wim Van Biesen, Raymond Vanholder
In this review we summarize the world-wide epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with special emphasis on low-income countries, notably those of the sub-Saharan continent. We discuss definitions and classification systems used in pediatric AKI literature. At present, despite some shortcomings, traditional Pediatric Risk Injury Failure Loss and End Stage Kidney Disease (pRIFLE) and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) systems are the most clinically useful. Alternative definitions, such as monitoring serum cystatin or novel urinary biomarkers, including cell cycle inhibitors, require more long-term studies in heterogenous pediatric AKI populations before they can be recommended in routine clinical practice...
June 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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