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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772025/shape-shifting-trypanosomes-flagellar-shortening-followed-by-asymmetric-division-in-trypanosoma-congolense-from-the-tsetse-proventriculus
#1
Lori Peacock, Christopher Kay, Mick Bailey, Wendy Gibson
Trypanosomatids such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma are digenetic, single-celled, parasitic flagellates that undergo complex life cycles involving morphological and metabolic changes to fit them for survival in different environments within their mammalian and insect hosts. According to current consensus, asymmetric division enables trypanosomatids to achieve the major morphological rearrangements associated with transition between developmental stages. Contrary to this view, here we show that the African trypanosome Trypanosoma congolense, an important livestock pathogen, undergoes extensive cell remodelling, involving shortening of the cell body and flagellum, during its transition from free-swimming proventricular forms to attached epimastigotes in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724777/the-analysis-and-interpretation-of-critical-temperatures
#2
Joel G Kingsolver, James Umbanhowar
Critical temperatures are widely used to quantify the upper and lower thermal limits of organisms. But measured critical temperatures often vary with methodological details, leading to spirited discussions about the potential consequences of stress and acclimation during the experiments. We review a model based on the simple assumption that failure rate increases with increasing temperature, independent of previous temperature exposure, water loss or metabolism during the experiment. The model predicts that mean critical thermal maximal temperatures ( CT max ) increases nonlinearly with starting temperature and ramping rate, a pattern frequently observed in empirical studies...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720251/a-meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-african-animal-trypanosomiasis-in-nigeria-from-1960-to-2017
#3
REVIEW
Paul Olalekan Odeniran, Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
BACKGROUND: African animal trypanosomiasis is an economically significant disease that affects the livestock industry in Nigeria. It is caused by several parasites of the genus Trypanosoma. National estimates of the disease prevalence in livestock and tsetse flies are lacking, therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to understand the trend of the disease prevalence over the years. METHODS: Publications were screened in Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, Global Health, EMBASE and PubMed databases...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703229/impact-of-an-integrated-control-campaign-on-tsetse-populations-in-burkina-faso
#4
Lassané Percoma, Adama Sow, Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Ahmadou H Dicko, Oumarou Serdebéogo, Mariam Ouédraogo, Jean-Baptiste Rayaissé, Jérémy Bouyer, Adrien M G Belem, Issa Sidibé
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human and animal trypanosomosis. In Burkina Faso, a project aiming to create zones free of tsetse flies and trypanosomosis was executed from June 2006 to December 2013. After the determination of tsetse distribution in the intervention area from December 2007 to November 2008, the control campaign was launched in November 2009 and ended in December 2013. The goal was to eliminate tsetse flies from 40,000 km2 of area, through an integrated control campaign including insecticide targets, traps and cattle, sequential aerial treatment (SAT) and the mass treatment of livestock using trypanocides...
April 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695261/sticky-small-target-an-effective-sampling-tool-for-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-newstead-1910
#5
Njelembo J Mbewe, Rajinder K Saini, Baldwyn Torto, Janet Irungu, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian W W Pirk
BACKGROUND: Small targets comprising panels of blue and insecticide-treated black netting material each 0.25 × 0.25 m have been shown to attract and kill Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead, 1910 (Diptera: Glossinidae) thereby reducing its population density by over 90% in field trials. However, their attractive ability has not been fully exploited for sampling purposes. Therefore, in this study we assessed the effectiveness of using sticky small targets as sampling tools for G. f. fuscipes in western Kenya...
April 25, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686664/susceptibility-of-tsetse-species-to-glossina-pallidipes-salivary-gland-hypertrophy-virus-gpsghv
#6
Güler Demirbas-Uzel, Henry M Kariithi, Andrew G Parker, Marc J B Vreysen, Robert L Mach, Adly M M Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs, family Hytrosaviridae ) are non-occluded dsDNA viruses that are pathogenic to some dipterans. SGHVs primarily replicate in salivary glands (SG), thereby inducing overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms in their adult hosts. SGHV infection of non-SG tissues results in distinct pathobiologies, including reproductive dysfunctions in tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) and house fly. Infection with the G. pallidipes virus (GpSGHV) resulted in the collapse of several laboratory colonies, which hindered the implementation of area wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs that had a sterile insect technique (SIT) component...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666191/flagellum-inheritance-in-trypanosoma-brucei-requires-a-kinetoplastid-specific-protein-phosphatase
#7
Qing Zhou, Gang Dong, Ziyin Li
Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle in sub-Saharan Africa and alternates between its mammalian hosts and its insect vector, the tsetse fly. T. brucei uses a flagellum for motility, cell division, and cell-cell communication. Proper positioning and attachment of the newly assembled flagellum rely on the faithful duplication and segregation of flagellum-associated cytoskeletal structures. These processes are regulated by the polo-like kinase homolog TbPLK, whose activity and abundance are under stringent control to ensure spatiotemporally regulated phosphorylation of its substrates...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649484/vision-and-the-genesis-of-survival-strategies-in-tsetse-flies-a-laboratory-study
#8
Emmanuel Kamba Mebourou, Balázs Bernáth, Dominique Schenker, Patrick M Guerin
Organisms respond to environmental stimuli in ways that optimize survival and reproduction. Tsetse fly life-history is characterized by high investment in progeny by the pregnant female and low birth rate. This places constraints on tsetse populations across the sub-Saharan biotopes they colonize where extreme climatic conditions militate against survival. Controlling metabolic rate is crucial in biotopes where daily swings in temperature can exceed 20 o C. Tsetse acquire their nutrient requirements from the blood meal...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629449/post-hoc-support-vector-machine-learning-for-impedimetric-biosensors-based-on-weak-protein-ligand-interactions
#9
Y Rong, A V Padron, K J Hagerty, N Nelson, S Chi, N O Keyhani, J Katz, S P A Datta, C Gomes, E S McLamore
Impedimetric biosensors for measuring small molecules based on weak/transient interactions between bioreceptors and target analytes are a challenge for detection electronics, particularly in field studies or in the analysis of complex matrices. Protein-ligand binding sensors have enormous potential for biosensing, but achieving accuracy in complex solutions is a major challenge. There is a need for simple post hoc analytical tools that are not computationally expensive, yet provide near real time feedback on data derived from impedance spectra...
April 9, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614112/a-fine-tuned-vector-parasite-dialogue-in-tsetse-s-cardia-determines-peritrophic-matrix-integrity-and-trypanosome-transmission-success
#10
Aurélien Vigneron, Emre Aksoy, Brian L Weiss, Xiaoli Bing, Xin Zhao, Erick O Awuoche, Michelle B O'Neill, Yineng Wu, Geoffrey M Attardo, Serap Aksoy
Arthropod vectors have multiple physical and immunological barriers that impede the development and transmission of parasites to new vertebrate hosts. These barriers include the peritrophic matrix (PM), a chitinous barrier that separates the blood bolus from the midgut epithelia and thus modulates vector-microbiota interactions. In tsetse flies, a sleeve-like PM is continuously produced by the cardia organ located at the fore- and midgut junction. African trypanosomes, Trypanosoma brucei, must bypass the PM twice; first to colonize the midgut and secondly to reach the salivary glands (SG), to complete their transmission cycle in tsetse...
April 3, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606092/rna-seq-analysis-validates-the-use-of-culture-derived-trypanosoma-brucei-and-provides-new-markers-for-mammalian-and-insect-life-cycle-stages
#11
Arunasalam Naguleswaran, Nicholas Doiron, Isabel Roditi
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the parasite causing Nagana in domestic animals, is closely related to the parasites causing sleeping sickness, but does not infect humans. In addition to its importance as a pathogen, the relative ease of genetic manipulation and an innate capacity for RNAi extend its use as a model organism in cell and infection biology. During its development in its mammalian and insect (tsetse fly) hosts, T. b. brucei passes through several different life-cycle stages...
April 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587237/isothermal-microcalorimetry-a-quantitative-method-to-monitor-trypanosoma-congolense-growth-and-growth-inhibition-by-trypanocidal-drugs-in-real-time
#12
M Gysin, O Braissant, K Gillingwater, R Brun, P Mäser, T Wenzler
Trypanosoma congolense is a protozoan parasite that is transmitted by tsetse flies, causing African Animal Trypanosomiasis, also known as Nagana, in sub-Saharan Africa. Nagana is a fatal disease of livestock that causes severe economic losses. Two drugs are available, diminazene and isometamidium, yet successful treatment is jeopardized by drug resistant T. congolense. Isothermal microcalorimetry is a highly sensitive tool that can be used to study growth of the extracellular T. congolense parasites or to study parasite growth inhibition after the addition of antitrypanosomal drugs...
March 16, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562674/variations-in-the-peritrophic-matrix-composition-of-heparan-sulphate-from-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-morsitans-morsitans
#13
Evelyn Rogerson, Julien Pelletier, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Clair Rose, Sarah Taylor, Scott Guimond, Marcelo Lima, Mark Skidmore, Edwin Yates
Tsetse flies are the principal insect vectors of African trypanosomes -sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. One of the tsetse fly species, Glossina morsitans morsitans , is host to the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei , a major cause of African trypanosomiasis. Precise details of the life cycle have yet to be established, but the parasite life cycle involves crossing the insect peritrophic matrix (PM). The PM consists of the polysaccharide chitin, several hundred proteins, and both glycosamino- and galactosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides...
March 19, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559304/comparison-of-single-cell-sensitivities-to-acetone-1-octen-3-ol-and-3-methylphenol-in-the-riverine-tsetse-species-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-and-g-palpalis-palpalis
#14
Lamini Ouedraogo, C J den Otter
Action potentials from individual cells were recorded from antennae (funiculi) of living tsetse flies, Glossina p. palpalis and Glossina f. fuscipes using a "surface-contact" recording technique. Stimuli were vapours of 1-octen-3-ol, acetone and 3-methylphenol. Of the 101 and 128 olfactory cells tested for their sensitivity to odour stimuli in G. p. palpalis and G. f. fuscipes, respectively, the majority (83 and 77%) were activated by more than one chemical. The numbers of these "generalist" cells were 20 and 15% higher in females than in males...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529232/expression-levels-of-odorant-receptor-genes-in-the-savanna-tsetse-fly-glossina-morsitans-morsitans
#15
Steven Ger Nyanjom, Cyrus Tare, Fred Wamunyokoli, George Fredrick Obiero
Tsetse flies (Glossina) are vectors of African trypanosomiasis. Olfaction plays a critical role in Glossina behavior, including larviposition, feeding, and reproduction. Odorant receptors (ORs) are important in insect chemoreception as they bind volatile odorants and transport them to olfactory receptor neurons to elicit behavioral response. To better understand Glossina chemoreception, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to examine the expression levels of ORs in female and male Glossina morsitans morsitans Wiedemann, 1850 (Diptera: Glossinidae) antennae and legs...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528164/thioester-containing-proteins-in-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-and-their-response-to-trypanosome-infection
#16
I Matetovici, J Van Den Abbeele
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are conserved proteins with a role in innate immune immunity. In the current study, we characterized the TEP family in the genome of six tsetse fly species (Glossina spp.). Tsetse flies are the biological vectors of several African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness in humans or nagana in livestock. The analysis of the tsetse TEP sequences revealed information about their structure, evolutionary relationships and expression profiles under both normal and trypanosome infection conditions...
June 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515882/how-maternal-investment-varies-with-environmental-factors-and-the-age-and-physiological-state-of-wild-tsetse-glossina-pallidipes-and-glossina-morsitans-morsitans
#17
John W Hargrove, M Odwell Muzari, Sinead English
Theory suggests females should optimize resource allocation across reproductive bouts to maximize lifetime reproduction, balancing current and future reproductive efforts according to physiological state and projected survival and reproduction. Tests of these ideas focus on long-lived vertebrates: few measure age-related reproductive output in iteroparous invertebrates, or partition reserves between those allocated to offspring versus mothers. We investigated how maternal age, and environmental and physiological factors influence reproductive investment in wild tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen and G...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514930/inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-regulation-of-trypanosoma-brucei-life-stage-development
#18
Igor Cestari, Atashi Anupama, Kenneth Stuart
Many cellular processes change during the Trypanosoma brucei life cycle as this parasite alternates between the mammalian host and tsetse fly vector. We show that the inositol phosphate pathway helps regulate these developmental changes. Knockdown of inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which phosphorylates Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, resulted in changes in bloodstream forms that are characteristic of insect stage procyclic forms. These changes include expression of the procyclic surface coat, up-regulation of RNA-binding proteins that we show to regulate stage-specific transcripts, and activation of oxidative phosphorylation with increased ATP production in bloodstream forms...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514668/integrated-cost-benefit-analysis-of-tsetse-control-and-herd-productivity-to-inform-control-programs-for-animal-african-trypanosomiasis
#19
Anne Meyer, Hannah R Holt, Farikou Oumarou, Kalinga Chilongo, William Gilbert, Albane Fauron, Chisoni Mumba, Javier Guitian
BACKGROUND: Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and its tsetse vector are responsible for annual losses estimated in billions of US dollars ($). Recent years have seen the implementation of a series of multinational interventions. However, actors of AAT control face complex resource allocation decisions due to the geographical range of AAT, diversity of ecological and livestock systems, and range of control methods available. METHODS: The study presented here integrates an existing tsetse abundance model with a bio-economic herd model that captures local production characteristics as well as heterogeneities in AAT incidence and breed...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471415/blue-and-black-cloth-targets-effects-of-size-shape-and-color-on-stable-fly-diptera-muscidae-attraction
#20
Jerome A Hogsette, Lane D Foil
Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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