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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917303/the-evaluation-of-gm6-based-elisa-and-ict-as-diagnostic-methods-on-a-mongolian-farm-with-an-outbreak-of-non-tsetse-transmitted-horse-trypanosomosis
#1
Batdorj Davaasuren, Tovuu Amgalanbaatar, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Keisuke Suganuma, Davaajav Otgonsuren, Ehab Mossaad, Sandagdorj Narantsatsral, Banzragch Battur, Badgar Battsetseg, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902917/hsp70-j-protein-machinery-from-glossina-morsitans-morsitans-vector-of-african-trypanosomiasis
#2
Stephen J Bentley, Aileen Boshoff
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the sole vectors of the protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, the causative agents of African Trypanosomiasis. Species of Glossina differ in vector competence and Glossina morsitans morsitans is associated with transmission of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which causes an acute and often fatal form of African Trypanosomiasis. Heat shock proteins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that play critical roles in proteostasis. The activity of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is regulated by interactions with its J-protein (Hsp40) co-chaperones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880965/multiple-evolutionary-origins-of-trypanosoma-evansi-in-kenya
#3
Christine M Kamidi, Norah P Saarman, Kirstin Dion, Paul O Mireji, Collins Ouma, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Achim Schnaufer, Adalgisa Caccone
Trypanosoma evansi is the parasite causing surra, a form of trypanosomiasis in camels and other livestock, and a serious economic burden in Kenya and many other parts of the world. Trypanosoma evansi transmission can be sustained mechanically by tabanid and Stomoxys biting flies, whereas the closely related African trypanosomes T. brucei brucei and T. b. rhodesiense require cyclical development in tsetse flies (genus Glossina) for transmission. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary origins of T. evansi...
September 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871083/interspecies-quorum-sensing-in-co-infections-can-manipulate-trypanosome-transmission-potential
#4
Eleanor Silvester, Julie Young, Alasdair Ivens, Keith R Matthews
Quorum sensing (QS) is commonly used in microbial communities and some unicellular parasites to coordinate group behaviours (1,2) . An example is Trypanosoma brucei, which causes human African trypanosomiasis, as well as the livestock disease, nagana. Trypanosomes are spread by tsetse flies, their transmission being enabled by cell-cycle arrested 'stumpy forms' that are generated in a density-dependent manner in mammalian blood. QS is mediated through a small (<500 Da), non-proteinaceous, stable but unidentified 'stumpy induction factor' (3) , whose signal response pathway has been identified...
September 4, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870536/animal-african-trypanosomiasis-in-nigeria-a-long-way-from-elimination-eradication
#5
REVIEW
C Isaac, J A Ohiolei, F Ebhodaghe, I B Igbinosa, A A Eze
Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a disease of livestock that directly hinders livestock production and therefore impedes the socio-economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. The establishment of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) was to enhance the goal of elimination and eradication of tsetse flies and AAT from endemic countries in Africa. In order to achieve AAT eradication, a five-step progressive control pathway (PCP) model has been proposed. The data presented in this report demonstrates that Nigeria is highly endemic of AAT and that it is yet to comprehensively approach the process of eradication as it is at the infancy stage of data gathering and processing...
September 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866983/patterns-of-tsetse-abundance-and-trypanosome-infection-rates-among-habitats-of-surveyed-villages-in-maasai-steppe-of-northern-tanzania
#6
Anibariki Ngonyoka, Paul S Gwakisa, Anna B Estes, Linda P Salekwa, Happiness J Nnko, Peter J Hudson, Isabella M Cattadori
BACKGROUND: Changes of land cover modify the characteristics of habitat, host-vector interaction and consequently infection rates of disease causing agents. In this paper, we report variations in tsetse distribution patterns, abundance and infection rates in relation to habitat types and age in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. In Africa, Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis negatively impacted human life where about 40 million people are at risk of contracting the disease with dramatic socio-economical consequences, for instance, loss of livestock, animal productivity, and manpower...
September 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856450/the-incrimination-of-three-trypanosome-species-in-clinically-affected-german-shepherd-dogs-in-sudan
#7
Ehab Mossaad, Rawan A Satti, Abdeen Fadul, Keisuke Suganuma, Bashir Salim, E A Elamin, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
Canine trypanosomosisis (CT) is a common disease caused by tsetse- and non-tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes worldwide. The severity of the disease varies from acute, sub-acute to chronic with non-specific clinical signs. Here, we attempt in a cross-sectional study to assess the current situation of CT and the role of dogs in transmitting trypanosomes to other domesticated animals. The study was carried out during July 2016 on 50 caged German shepherd dogs in Khartoum State to investigate the prevalence of dog trypanosomosis using both serological (CATT/Trypanosoma evansi) and molecular (KIN-PCR, RoTat1...
August 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854189/a-dynamic-model-for-estimating-adult-female-mortality-from-ovarian-dissection-data-for-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-pallidipes-austen-sampled-in-zimbabwe
#8
Sarah F Ackley, John W Hargrove
Human and animal trypanosomiasis, spread by tsetse flies (Glossina spp), is a major public health concern in much of sub-Saharan Africa. The basic reproduction number of vector-borne diseases, such as trypanosomiasis, is a function of vector mortality rate. Robust methods for estimating tsetse mortality are thus of interest for understanding population and disease dynamics and for optimal control. Existing methods for estimating mortality in adult tsetse, from ovarian dissection data, often use invalid assumptions of the existence of a stable age distribution, and age-invariant mortality and capture probability...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832610/first-fossil-of-an-oestroid-fly-diptera-calyptratae-oestroidea-and-the-dating-of-oestroid-divergences
#9
Pierfilippo Cerretti, John O Stireman, Thomas Pape, James E O'Hara, Marco A T Marinho, Knut Rognes, David A Grimaldi
Calyptrate flies include about 22,000 extant species currently classified into Hippoboscoidea (tsetse, louse, and bat flies), the muscoid grade (house flies and relatives) and the Oestroidea (blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and relatives). Calyptrates are abundant in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems, often playing key roles as decomposers, parasites, parasitoids, vectors of pathogens, and pollinators. For oestroids, the most diverse group within calyptrates, definitive fossils have been lacking. The first unambiguous fossil of Oestroidea is described based on a specimen discovered in amber from the Dominican Republic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831063/sterol-targeting-drugs-reveal-life-cycle-stage-specific-differences-in-trypanosome-lipid-rafts
#10
Aabha I Sharma, Cheryl L Olson, João I Mamede, Felipe Gazos-Lopes, Conrad L Epting, Igor C Almeida, David M Engman
Cilia play important roles in cell signaling, facilitated by the unique lipid environment of a ciliary membrane containing high concentrations of sterol-rich lipid rafts. The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is a single-celled eukaryote with a single cilium/flagellum. We tested whether flagellar sterol enrichment results from selective flagellar partitioning of specific sterol species or from general enrichment of all sterols. While all sterols are enriched in the flagellum, cholesterol is especially enriched...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807106/developmental-adaptations-of-trypanosome-motility-to-the-tsetse-fly-host-environments-unravel-a-multifaceted-in-vivo-microswimmer-system
#11
Sarah Schuster, Timothy Krüger, Ines Subota, Sina Thusek, Brice Rotureau, Andreas Beilhack, Markus Engstler
The highly motile and versatile protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex life cycle in the tsetse fly. Here we introduce the host insect as an expedient model environment for microswimmer research, as it allows examination of microbial motion within a diversified, secluded and yet microscopically tractable space. During their week-long journey through the different microenvironments of the fly´s interior organs, the incessantly swimming trypanosomes cross various barriers and confined surroundings, with concurrently occurring major changes of parasite cell architecture...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805642/hytrosaviruses-current-status-and-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Henry M Kariithi, Irene K Meki, Drion G Boucias, Adly Mm Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) are entomopathogenic dsDNA, enveloped viruses that replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of the adult dipterans, Glossina spp (GpSGHV) and Musca domestica (MdSGHV). Although belonging to the same virus family (Hytrosaviridae), SGHVs have distinct morphologies and pathobiologies. Two GpSGHV strains potentially account for the differential pathologies in lab-bred tsetse. New data suggest incorporation of host-derived cellular proteins and lipids into mature SGHVs. In addition to within the SGs, MdSGHV undergoes limited replication in the corpora allata, potentially disrupting hormone biosynthesis, and GpSGHV replicates in the milk glands providing a transmission conduit to progeny tsetse...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804485/transcriptional-profiling-of-midguts-prepared-from-trypanosoma-t-congolense-positive-glossina-palpalis-palpalis-collected-from-two-distinct-cameroonian-foci-coordinated-signatures-of-the-midguts-remodeling-as-t-congolense-supportive-niches
#13
Jean M Tsagmo Ngoune, Flobert Njiokou, Béatrice Loriod, Ginette Kame-Ngasse, Nicolas Fernandez-Nunez, Claire Rioualen, Jacques van Helden, Anne Geiger
Our previous transcriptomic analysis of Glossina palpalis gambiensis experimentally infected or not with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense aimed to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with infection. Specifically, we selected candidate genes governing tsetse fly vector competence that could be used in the context of an anti-vector strategy, to control human and/or animal trypanosomiasis. The present study aimed to verify whether gene expression in field tsetse flies (G. p. palpalis) is modified in response to natural infection by trypanosomes (T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800584/expression-of-the-rna-binding-protein-rbp10-promotes-the-bloodstream-form-differentiation-state-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#14
Elisha Mugo, Christine Clayton
In nearly all eukaryotes, cellular differentiation is governed by changes in transcription, and stabilized by chromatin and DNA modification. Gene expression control in the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei, in contrast, relies almost exclusively on post-transcriptional mechanisms, so RNA binding proteins must assume the burden that is usually borne by transcription factors. T. brucei multiply in the blood of mammals as bloodstream forms, and in the midgut of Tsetse flies as procyclic forms. We show here that a single RNA-binding protein, RBP10, promotes the bloodstream-form trypanosome differentiation state...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750007/adding-tsetse-control-to-medical-activities-contributes-to-decreasing-transmission-of-sleeping-sickness-in-the-mandoul-focus-chad
#15
Mahamat Hissene Mahamat, Mallaye Peka, Jean-Baptiste Rayaisse, Kat S Rock, Mahamat Abdelrahim Toko, Justin Darnas, Guihini Mollo Brahim, Ali Bachar Alkatib, Wilfrid Yoni, Inaki Tirados, Fabrice Courtin, Samuel P C Brand, Cyrus Nersy, Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh, Steve J Torr, Mike J Lehane, Philippe Solano
BACKGROUND: Gambian sleeping sickness or HAT (human African trypanosomiasis) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense transmitted by riverine species of tsetse. A global programme aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 and stop transmission by 2030. In the South of Chad, the Mandoul area is a persistent focus of Gambian sleeping sickness where around 100 HAT cases were still diagnosed and treated annually until 2013. Pre-2014, control of HAT relied solely on case detection and treatment, which lead to a gradual decrease in the number of cases of HAT due to annual screening of the population...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742275/the-proteome-and-transcriptome-of-the-infectious-metacyclic-form-of-trypanosoma-brucei-define-quiescent-cells-primed-for-mammalian-invasion
#16
Romain Christiano, Nikolay G Kolev, Huafang Shi, Elisabetta Ullu, Tobias C Walther, Christian Tschudi
The infectious metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei result from a complex development in the tsetse fly vector. When they infect mammals, they cause African sleeping sickness in humans. Due to scarcity of biological material and difficulties of the tsetse fly as an experimental system, very limited information is available concerning the gene expression profile of metacyclic forms. We used an in vitro system based on expressing the RNA binding protein 6 to obtain infectious metacyclics and determined their protein and mRNA repertoires by mass-spectrometry (MS) based proteomics and mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in comparison to non-infectious procyclic trypanosomes...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727848/the-nuclear-proteome-of-trypanosoma-brucei
#17
Carina Goos, Mario Dejung, Christian J Janzen, Falk Butter, Susanne Kramer
Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan flagellate that is transmitted by tsetse flies into the mammalian bloodstream. The parasite has a huge impact on human health both directly by causing African sleeping sickness and indirectly, by infecting domestic cattle. The biology of trypanosomes involves some highly unusual, nuclear-localised processes. These include polycistronic transcription without classical promoters initiated from regions defined by histone variants, trans-splicing of all transcripts to the exon of a spliced leader RNA, transcription of some very abundant proteins by RNA polymerase I and antigenic variation, a switch in expression of the cell surface protein variants that allows the parasite to resist the immune system of its mammalian host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716719/metacyclic-vsg-expression-site-promoters-are-recognized-by-the-same-general-transcription-factor-that-is-required-for-rna-polymerase-i-transcription-of-bloodstream-expression-sites
#18
Nikolay G Kolev, Arthur Günzl, Christian Tschudi
Infectious metacyclic Trypanosoma brucei cells develop in the salivary glands of tsetse flies. A critical aspect of the developmental program leading to acquisition of infectivity is the synthesis of a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. Metacyclic VSG genes are transcribed from a set of specialized VSG expression sites (ESs) that differ from bloodstream VSG ESs by being monocistronic, being significantly shorter, lacking long stretches of 70-bp repeats, and having distinct promoter sequences. Both metacyclic and bloodstream VSG ESs are transcribed by the multifunctional T...
September 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716154/new-insights-from-gorongosa-national-park-and-niassa-national-reserve-of-mozambique-increasing-the-genetic-diversity-of-trypanosoma-vivax-and-trypanosoma-vivax-like-in-tsetse-flies-wild-ungulates-and-livestock-from-east-africa
#19
Carla Mf Rodrigues, Herakles A Garcia, Adriana C Rodrigues, André G Costa-Martins, Carlos L Pereira, Dagmar L Pereira, Zakaria Bengaly, Luis Neves, Erney P Camargo, Patrick B Hamilton, Marta Mg Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax is a major pathogen of livestock in Africa and South America (SA), and genetic studies limited to small sampling suggest greater diversity in East Africa (EA) compared to both West Africa (WA) and SA. METHODS: Multidimensional scaling and phylogenetic analyses of 112 sequences of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene and 263 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA (ITS rDNA) were performed to compare trypanosomes from tsetse flies from Gorongosa National Park and Niassa National Reserve of Mozambique (MZ), wild ungulates and livestock from EA, and livestock isolates from WA and SA...
July 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706938/inhibitors-of-glycosomal-protein-import-provide-new-leads-against-trypanosomiasis
#20
COMMENT
Vishal C Kalel, Leonidas Emmanouilidis, Maciej Dawidowski, Wolfgang Schliebs, Michael Sattler, Grzegorz M Popowicz, Ralf Erdmann
Vector-borne trypanosomatid parasite infections in tropical and sub-tropical countries constitute a major threat to humans and livestock. Trypanosoma brucei parasites are transmitted by tsetse fly and lead to African sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. In Latin American countries, Trypanosoma cruzi infections spread by triatomine kissing bugs lead to Chagas disease. Various species of Leishmania transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sandflies manifest in a spectrum of diseases termed Leishmaniasis...
July 3, 2017: Microbial Cell
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