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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114487/prevalence-of-trypanosome-infection-in-tsetse-flies-from-oji-river-and-emene-axis-of-enugu-state-nigeria-a-preliminary-report
#1
Kenechukwu Chibuike Onyekwelu, Fidelis Ebele Ejezie, Anthonius Anayochukwu Eze, Joy Ebele Ikekpeazu, Richard Chukwunonye Ezeh, Godknows Chizurumoke Edeh
Introduction: Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by blood-sucking tsetse fly. Trypanosomes remain a constant threat to the lives of humans and animals throughout large regions of Africa. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the presence, prevalence, and species of trypanosome parasite in tsetse flies caught in two areas of no previous documented history of trypanosome infection. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 63 and 77 nonterenal tsetse flies were collected from Oji River and Emene areas of Enugu State Nigeria, respectively...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110677/using-meta-quality-to-assess-the-utility-of-volunteered-geographic-information-for-science
#2
Shaun A Langley, Joseph P Messina, Nathan Moore
BACKGROUND: Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has strong potential to be increasingly valuable to scientists in collaboration with non-scientists. The abundance of mobile phones and other wireless forms of communication open up significant opportunities for the public to get involved in scientific research. As these devices and activities become more abundant, questions of uncertainty and error in volunteer data are emerging as critical components for using volunteer-sourced spatial data...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097642/bovine-trypanosomiasis-in-tsetse-free-pastoral-zone-of-the-far-north-region-cameroon
#3
P F Suh, F Njiokou, A Mamoudou, T M Ahmadou, A Mouhaman, R Garabed
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The Far-North region of Cameroon has been considered free of tsetse and trypanosomiasis for the past three decades. But recent reports by pastoralists indicate its reappearance in the region. This study was aimed to confirm the existence of cattle trypanosomiasis and determine its prevalence, and to establish pastoralists knowledge and practice (KP) of the disease in Ndiyam Shinwa pastoral zone of Cameroon. METHODS: A total of 118 herds were surveyed for a descriptive, cross-sectional study in Ndiyam Shinwa pastoral zone from May to November 2014...
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092797/gold-nanoparticles-against-parasites-and-insect-vectors
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli
Nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. Here, I reviewed current knowledge about the bioactivity of Au NPs on selected insect species of public health relevance, including major mosquito vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus...
October 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073144/the-socio-economic-burden-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis-and-the-coping-strategies-of-households-in-the-south-western-kenya-foci
#5
Salome A Bukachi, Simiyu Wandibba, Isaac K Nyamongo
INTRODUCTION: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), a disease caused by protozoan parasites transmitted by tsetse flies, is an important neglected tropical disease endemic in remote regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Although the determination of the burden of HAT has been based on incidence, mortality and morbidity rates, the true burden of HAT goes beyond these metrics. This study sought to establish the socio-economic burden that households with HAT faced and the coping strategies they employed to deal with the increased burden...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063677/transporters-of-trypanosoma-brucei-phylogeny-physiology-pharmacology
#6
REVIEW
Remo S Schmidt, Juan P Macêdo, Michael E Steinmann, Amaia González Salgado, Peter Bütikofer, Erwin Sigel, Doris Rentsch, Pascal Mäser
Trypanosoma brucei comprise the causative agents of sleeping sickness, T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense, as well as the livestock-pathogenic T. b. brucei. The parasites are transmitted by the tsetse fly and occur exclusively in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei are not only lethal pathogens, but have also become model organisms for molecular parasitology. We focus here on membrane transport proteins of T. brucei, their contribution to homeostasis and metabolism in the context of a parasitic lifestyle, and their pharmacological role as potential drug targets or routes of drug entry...
October 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061160/molecular-prevalence-of-trypanosome-infections-in-cattle-and-tsetse-flies-in-the-maasai-steppe-northern-tanzania
#7
Mary Simwango, Anibariki Ngonyoka, Happiness J Nnko, Linda P Salekwa, Moses Ole-Neselle, Sharadhuli I Kimera, Paul S Gwakisa
BACKGROUND: African trypanosomosis is a disease of public health and economic importance that poses a major threat to the livelihoods of people living in the Maasai Steppe, where there is a significant interaction between people, livestock and wildlife. The vulnerability of the Maasai people to the disease is enhanced by the interaction of their cattle, which act as vehicles for trypanosomes, and tsetse flies close to wildlife in protected areas. This study was aimed at identification of trypanosome infections circulating in cattle and tsetse flies in order to understand their distribution and prevalence in livestock/wildlife interface areas in the Maasai Steppe...
October 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045405/the-study-of-trypanosome-species-circulating-in-domestic-animals-in-two-human-african-trypanosomiasis-foci-of-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-identifies-pigs-and-cattle-as-potential-reservoirs-of-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#8
Martial Kassi N'Djetchi, Hamidou Ilboudo, Mathurin Koffi, Jacques Kaboré, Justin Windingoudi Kaboré, Dramane Kaba, Fabrice Courtin, Bamoro Coulibaly, Pierre Fauret, Lingué Kouakou, Sophie Ravel, Stijn Deborggraeve, Philippe Solano, Thierry De Meeûs, Bruno Bucheton, Vincent Jamonneau
BACKGROUND: Important control efforts have led to a significant reduction of the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Côte d'Ivoire, but the disease is still present in several foci. The existence of an animal reservoir of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense may explain disease persistence in these foci where animal breeding is an important source of income but where the prevalence of animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the trypanosome species circulating in domestic animals in both Bonon and Sinfra HAT endemic foci...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040267/protecting-cows-in-small-holder-farms-in-east-africa-from-tsetse-flies-by-mimicking-the-odor-profile-of-a-non-host-bovid
#9
Rajinder K Saini, Benedict O Orindi, Norber Mbahin, John A Andoke, Peter N Muasa, David M Mbuvi, Caroline M Muya, John A Pickett, Christian W Borgemeister
BACKGROUND: For the first time, differential attraction of pathogen vectors to vertebrate animals is investigated for novel repellents which when applied to preferred host animals turn them into non-hosts thereby providing a new paradigm for innovative vector control. For effectively controlling tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing nagana, repellents more powerful than plant derived, from a non-host animal the waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, have recently been identified...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017575/evidence-for-viable-and-stable-triploid-trypanosoma-congolense-parasites
#10
Eliane Tihon, Hideo Imamura, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Jan Van Den Abbeele
BACKGROUND: Recent whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis identified a viable triploid strain of Trypanosoma congolense. This triploid strain BANANCL2 was a clone of the field isolate BANAN/83/CRTRA/64 that was collected from cattle in Burkina Faso in 1983. RESULTS: We demonstrated the viability and stability of triploidy throughout the complete life-cycle of the parasite by infecting tsetse flies with the triploid clone BANANCL2. Proboscis-positive tsetse flies efficiently transmitted the parasites to mice resulting in systemic infections...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017572/temporal-genetic-differentiation-in-glossina-pallidipes-tsetse-fly-populations-in-kenya
#11
Winnie A Okeyo, Norah P Saarman, Michael Mengual, Kirstin Dion, Rosemary Bateta, Paul O Mireji, Sylvance Okoth, Johnson O Ouma, Collins Ouma, Joel Ochieng, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
BACKGROUND: Glossina pallidipes is a major vector of both Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT and AAT) in Kenya. The disease imposes economic burden on endemic regions in Kenya, including south-western Kenya, which has undergone intense but unsuccessful tsetse fly control measures. We genotyped 387 G. pallidipes flies at 13 microsatellite markers to evaluate levels of temporal genetic variation in two regions that have been subjected to intensive eradication campaigns from the 1960s to the 1980s...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991908/mitochondrial-dual-coding-genes-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#12
Laura E Kirby, Donna Koslowsky
Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted between mammalian hosts by the tsetse fly. In the mammal, they are exclusively extracellular, continuously replicating within the bloodstream. During this stage, the mitochondrion lacks a functional electron transport chain (ETC). Successful transition to the fly, requires activation of the ETC and ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This life cycle leads to a major problem: in the bloodstream, the mitochondrial genes are not under selection and are subject to genetic drift that endangers their integrity...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981471/microfluidics-based-approaches-to-the-isolation-of-african-trypanosomes
#13
Michael P Barrett, Jonathan M Cooper, Clément Regnault, Stefan H Holm, Jason P Beech, Jonas O Tegenfeldt, Axel Hochstetter
African trypanosomes are responsible for significant levels of disease in both humans and animals. The protozoan parasites are free-living flagellates, usually transmitted by arthropod vectors, including the tsetse fly. In the mammalian host they live in the bloodstream and, in the case of human-infectious species, later invade the central nervous system. Diagnosis of the disease requires the positive identification of parasites in the bloodstream. This can be particularly challenging where parasite numbers are low, as is often the case in peripheral blood...
October 5, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974456/hype-or-opportunity-using-microbial-symbionts-in-novel-strategies-for-insect-pest-control
#14
REVIEW
Arinder K Arora, Angela E Douglas
All insects, including pest species, are colonized by microorganisms, variously located in the gut and within insect tissues. Manipulation of these microbial partners can reduce the pest status of insects, either by modifying insect traits (e.g. altering the host range or tolerance of abiotic conditions, reducing insect competence to vector disease agents) or by reducing fitness. Strategies utilizing heterologous microorganisms (i.e. derived from different insect species) and genetically-modified microbial symbionts are under development, particularly in relation to insect vectors of human disease agents...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942771/trypanosoma-congolense-molecular-toolkit-and-resources-for-studying-a-major-livestock-pathogen-and-model-trypanosome
#15
Wendy Gibson, Christopher Kay, Lori Peacock
The African trypanosomiases are diseases of humans and their livestock caused by trypanosomes carried by bloodsucking tsetse flies. Although the human pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is the best known, other trypanosome species are of greater concern for animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, Trypanosomacongolense is a major cattle pathogen, which is as amenable to laboratory culture as T. brucei, with the advantage that its whole life cycle can be recapitulated in vitro. Thus, besides being worthy of study in its own right, T...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934375/into-the-wild-parallel-transcriptomics-of-the-tsetse-wigglesworthia-mutualism-within-kenyan-populations
#16
Miguel Medina Munoz, Adam R Pollio, Hunter L White, Rita V M Rio
Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) have medical significance as the obligate vectors of African trypanosomes. In addition, tsetse harbor a simple gut microbiota. A predominant gut microbiota member, the Gammaproteobacterium Wigglesworthia spp., has coevolved with tsetse for a significant portion of Glossina radiation proving critical to tsetse fitness. Although multiple roles have been described for Wigglesworthia within colony flies, little research has been dedicated towards functional characterization within wild tsetse...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932909/fipronil-1-pour-on-further-studies-of-its-effects-against-lab-reared-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis
#17
B Sawadogo, J B Rayaisse, H Adakal, A T Kabre, B Bauer
In order to assess the residual effects of fipronil 1% on tsetse fly survival, male Glossina palpalis gambiensis were released on non-treated and treated cattle, with 0.1 ml of fipronil/kg b.w. as a pour-on formulation. In a second trial, the female fecundity performances were evaluated by feeding teneral females on the same cattle. These females were then mated and their production parameters monitored, as well as the survival of freshly emerged flies. Fipronil had a significant effect on tsetse fly survival (p < 0...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927459/microarchitecture-of-the-tsetse-fly-proboscis
#18
Wendy Gibson, Lori Peacock, Rachel Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (genus Glossina) are large blood-sucking dipteran flies that are important as vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse anatomy has been well described, including detailed accounts of the functional anatomy of the proboscis for piercing host skin and sucking up blood. The proboscis also serves as the developmental site for the infective metacyclic stages of several species of pathogenic livestock trypanosomes that are inoculated into the host with fly saliva...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917303/the-evaluation-of-gm6-based-elisa-and-ict-as-diagnostic-methods-on-a-mongolian-farm-with-an-outbreak-of-non-tsetse-transmitted-horse-trypanosomosis
#19
Batdorj Davaasuren, Tovuu Amgalanbaatar, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Keisuke Suganuma, Davaajav Otgonsuren, Ehab Mossaad, Sandagdorj Narantsatsral, Banzragch Battur, Badgar Battsetseg, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902917/hsp70-j-protein-machinery-from-glossina-morsitans-morsitans-vector-of-african-trypanosomiasis
#20
Stephen J Bentley, Aileen Boshoff
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the sole vectors of the protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, the causative agents of African Trypanosomiasis. Species of Glossina differ in vector competence and Glossina morsitans morsitans is associated with transmission of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which causes an acute and often fatal form of African Trypanosomiasis. Heat shock proteins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that play critical roles in proteostasis. The activity of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is regulated by interactions with its J-protein (Hsp40) co-chaperones...
2017: PloS One
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