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Stefan Mogk, Christian M Boßelmann, Celestin N Mudogo, Jasmin Stein, Hartwig Wolburg, Michael Duszenko
African trypanosomes induce sleeping sickness. The parasites are transmitted during the blood meal of a tsetse fly and appear primarily in blood and lymph vessels, before they enter the central nervous system. During the latter stage, trypanosomes induce a deregulation of sleep-wake cycles and some additional neurological disorders. Historically, it was assumed that trypanosomes cross the blood-brain barrier and settle somewhere between the brain cells. The brain, however, is a strictly controlled and immune-privileged area that is completely surrounded by a dense barrier that covers the blood vessels: this is the blood-brain barrier...
October 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Cher-Pheng Ooi, Sarah Schuster, Christelle Cren-Travaillé, Eloise Bertiaux, Alain Cosson, Sophie Goyard, Sylvie Perrot, Brice Rotureau
Trypanosoma vivax is the most prevalent trypanosome species in African cattle. It is thought to be transmitted by tsetse flies after cyclical development restricted to the vector mouthparts. Here, we investigated the kinetics of T. vivax development in Glossina morsitans morsitans by serial dissections over 1 week to reveal differentiation and proliferation stages. After 3 days, stable numbers of attached epimastigotes were seen proliferating by symmetric division in the cibarium and proboscis, consistent with colonization and maintenance of a parasite population for the remaining lifespan of the tsetse fly...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Thamani T Gondo, Veronica C Obuseng, Lesego C Mmualefe, Harriet Okatch
HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS)...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Harriet Auty, Sarah Cleaveland, Imna Malele, Joseph Masoy, Tiziana Lembo, Paul Bessell, Stephen Torr, Kim Picozzi, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Identifying hosts of blood-feeding insect vectors is crucial in understanding their role in disease transmission. Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT), also known as acute sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transmitted by tsetse flies. The disease is commonly associated with wilderness areas of east and southern Africa. Such areas hold a diverse range of species which form communities of hosts for disease maintenance. The relative importance of different wildlife hosts remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Sophie Ravel, Ahmadou H Dicko, Marc J B Vreysen, Andrew Parker, Peter Takac, Karine Huber, Issa Sidibé, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Jérémy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies occur in much of sub-Saharan Africa where they are vectors of trypanosomes that cause human and animal African trypanosomosis. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is currently used to eliminate tsetse fly populations in an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) context in Senegal and Ethiopia. Three Glossina palpalis gambiensis strains [originating from Burkina Faso (BKF), Senegal (SEN) and an introgressed strain (SENbkf)] were established and are now available for use in future AW-IPM programmes against trypanosomes in West Africa...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jelle Caers, Matthias B Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Sven Zels, Liesbeth Van Rompay, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
Neuropeptides related to mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) and insect neuropeptide F (NPF) are conserved throughout Metazoa and intimately involved in a wide range of biological processes. In insects NPF is involved in regulating feeding, learning, stress and reproductive behavior. Here we identified and characterized an NPF receptor of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, the sole transmitter of Trypanosoma parasites causing sleeping sickness. We isolated cDNA sequences encoding tsetse NPF (Glomo-NPF) and its receptor (Glomo-NPFR), and examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns using quantitative PCR...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Raghavendran Ramaswamy, Sarah Goomeshi Nobary, Brett A Eyford, Terry W Pearson, Martin J Boulanger
African trypanosomiasis, caused by parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, is a complex of devastating vector-borne diseases of humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Central to the pathogenesis of African trypanosomes is their transmission by the arthropod vector, Glossina spp. (tsetse fly). Intriguingly, the efficiency of parasite transmission through the vector is reduced following depletion of Trypanosoma brucei Procyclic-Specific Surface Antigen-2 (TbPSSA-2). To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of TbPSSA-2, we determined the crystal structures of its ectodomain and that of its homolog T...
September 27, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Simon Peter Musinguzi, Keisuke Suganuma, Masahito Asada, Dusit Laohasinnarong, Thillaiampalam Sivakumar, Naoaki Yokoyama, Boniface Namangala, Chihiro Sugimoto, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
We screened cattle and goats from the districts of Chama, Monze and Mumbwa in Zambia for animal African trypanosomes, Babesia bigemina and Theileria parva using PCRs; 38.1% of the samples tested positive for at least one of the parasite species. The most common parasite was Trypanosoma vivax (19.8%). Its incidence was significantly higher in goats than in cattle, (P<0.05). B. bigemina was found in samples from all the three areas, making it the most widespread of the parasites in Zambia. Among the tested samples, 12...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Igor Minia, Clementine Merce, Monica Terrao, Christine Clayton
African trypanosome procyclic forms multiply in the midgut of tsetse flies, and are routinely cultured at 27°C. Heat shocks of 37°C and above result in general inhibition of translation, and severe heat shock (41°C) results in sequestration of mRNA in granules. The mRNAs that are bound by the zinc-finger protein ZC3H11, including those encoding refolding chaperones, escape heat-induced translation inhibition. At 27°C, ZC3H11 mRNA is predominantly present as an untranslated cytosolic messenger ribonucleoprotein particle, but after heat shocks of 37°C-41°C, the ZC3H11 mRNA moves into the polysomal fraction...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jennifer R Fleming, Lalitha Sastry, Steven J Wall, Lauren Sullivan, Michael A J Ferguson
Trypanosoma vivax is one of the causative agents of Animal African Trypanosomosis in cattle, which is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and transmitted primarily by the bite of the tsetse fly vector. The parasite can also be mechanically transmitted, and this has allowed its spread to South America. Diagnostics are limited for this parasite and in farm settings diagnosis is mainly symptom-based. We set out to identify, using a proteomic approach, candidate diagnostic antigens to develop into an easy to use pen-side lateral flow test device...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jenna Fyfe, Kim Picozzi, Charles Waiswa, Kevin Louis Bardosh, Susan Christina Welburn
INTRODUCTION: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) comprises two fatal parasitic diseases. Uganda is home to both chronic T. b. gambiense (gHAT) and the acute zoonotic form T. b. rhodesiense (rHAT) which occur in two large but discrete geographical foci. The area affected by rHAT has been rapidly expanding due to importation of T. b. rhodesiense infected cattle into tsetse infested but previously HAT free districts. Migration of rHAT has resulted in a considerable human health burden in these newly affected districts...
August 25, 2016: Acta Tropica
Solomon Ngutor Karshima, Ikwe Ajogi, Garba Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomosis is a major economic disease in Nigeria causing considerable morbidity and mortality in livestock. Despite reports in other animals, the disease is under reported in pigs. METHODS: We conducted a community based epidemiological study on African animal trypanosomosis in Karim Lamido area of Taraba State, Nigeria using species-specific PCR on 712 pigs and 706 of the 2822 captured tsetse flies. Data were analysed using Chi-square, odds ratio and multivariate analysis at 95 % confidence interval...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
E Salou, J B Rayaisse, D Kaba, V Djohan, W Yoni, I Barry, F Dofini, J Bouyer, P Solano
Tsetse flies Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are among the major vectors of sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis-HAT) and nagana (African Animal Trypanosomiasis - AAT) in West Africa. Both riparian species occur sympatrically in gallery forests of south west Burkina Faso, but little is known of their interspecies relationships although different authors think there may be some competition between them. The aim of this study was to check if sympatric species have different strategies when approaching a host...
August 11, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Zahra Jalali Sefid Dashti, Junaid Gamieldien, Alan Christoffels
BACKGROUND: Iron metabolism and regulation is an indispensable part of species survival, most importantly for blood feeding insects. Iron regulatory proteins are central regulators of iron homeostasis, whose binding to iron response element (IRE) stem-loop structures within the UTRs of genes regulate expression at the post-transcriptional level. Despite the extensive literature on the mechanism of iron regulation in human, less attention has been given to insect and more specifically the blood feeding insects, where research has mainly focused on the characterization of ferritin and transferrin...
2016: BMC Genomics
Henry M Kariithi, Sjef Boeren, Edwin K Murungi, Just M Vlak, Adly M M Abd-Alla
BACKGROUND: Glossina m. morsitans is the primary vector of the Trypanosoma brucei group, one of the causative agents of African trypanosomoses. The parasites undergo metacyclogenesis, i.e. transformation into the mammalian-infective metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) parasites, in the salivary glands (SGs) of the tsetse vector. Since the MT-parasites are largely uncultivable in vitro, information on the molecular processes that facilitate metacyclogenesis is scanty. METHODS: To bridge this knowledge gap, we employed tandem mass spectrometry to investigate protein expression modulations in parasitized (T...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Christina Lunner-Kolstrup, Tonny Kiggundu Ssali
INTRODUCTION: Safe working conditions are essential for healthy living and for ensuring food security among farmers and farm communities in developing countries. There is limited research on this topic, and documentation is essential to understand and change patterns of human health and safety. METHODS: In May 2014, six male and female farmers on four dairy farms in Uganda and a female veterinarian were interviewed about their awareness and attitudes to agricultural risk factors, health, and safety...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Benoît Stijlemans, Guy Caljon, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Stefan Magez, Carl De Trez
The diseases caused by African trypanosomes (AT) are of both medical and veterinary importance and have adversely influenced the economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, so far not a single field applicable vaccine exists, and chemotherapy is the only strategy available to treat the disease. These strictly extracellular protozoan parasites are confronted with different arms of the host's immune response (cellular as well as humoral) and via an elaborate and efficient (vector)-parasite-host interplay they have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms to evade/manipulate the entire host immune response...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Guy Caljon, Nick Van Reet, Carl De Trez, Marjorie Vermeersch, David Pérez-Morga, Jan Van Den Abbeele
Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei parasites that cause sleeping sickness. Our knowledge on the early interface between the infective metacyclic forms and the mammalian host skin is currently highly limited. Glossina morsitans flies infected with fluorescently tagged T. brucei parasites were used in this study to initiate natural infections in mice. Metacyclic trypanosomes were found to be highly infectious through the intradermal route in sharp contrast with blood stream form trypanosomes...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Lori Peacock, Mick Bailey, Wendy Gibson
BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction in Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei occurs in the insect vector and is important in generating hybrid strains with different combinations of parental characteristics. Production of hybrid parasite genotypes depends on the likelihood of co-infection of the vector with multiple strains. In mosquitoes, existing infection with Plasmodium facilitates the establishment of a second infection, although the asynchronicity of gamete production subsequently prevents mating...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Constance B Hilliard
This ecological correlation study explores the marked differential in osteoporosis susceptibility between East and West Africans. African tsetse belt populations are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant) and possess none of the genetic polymorphisms carried by lactase persistent (lactose tolerant) ethnic populations. What appears paradoxical, however, is the fact that Niger-Kordofanian (NK) West African ethnicities are also at minimal risk of osteoporosis. Although East Africans share a genetic affinity with NK West Africans, they display susceptibility rates of the bone disorder closer to those found in Europe...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
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