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Steven Ger Nyanjom, Cyrus Tare, Fred Wamunyokoli, George Fredrick Obiero
Tsetse flies (Glossina) are vectors of African trypanosomiasis. Olfaction plays a critical role in Glossina behavior, including larviposition, feeding, and reproduction. Odorant receptors (ORs) are important in insect chemoreception as they bind volatile odorants and transport them to olfactory receptor neurons to elicit behavioral response. To better understand Glossina chemoreception, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to examine the expression levels of ORs in female and male Glossina morsitans morsitans Wiedemann, 1850 (Diptera: Glossinidae) antennae and legs...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
I Matetovici, J Van Den Abbeele
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are conserved proteins with a role in innate immune immunity. In the current study, we characterized the TEP family in the genome of six tsetse fly species (Glossina spp.). Tsetse flies are the biological vectors of several African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness in humans or nagana in livestock. The analysis of the tsetse TEP sequences revealed information about their structure, evolutionary relationships and expression profiles under both normal and trypanosome infection conditions...
March 12, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
John W Hargrove, M Odwell Muzari, Sinead English
Theory suggests females should optimize resource allocation across reproductive bouts to maximize lifetime reproduction, balancing current and future reproductive efforts according to physiological state and projected survival and reproduction. Tests of these ideas focus on long-lived vertebrates: few measure age-related reproductive output in iteroparous invertebrates, or partition reserves between those allocated to offspring versus mothers. We investigated how maternal age, and environmental and physiological factors influence reproductive investment in wild tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen and G...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Igor Cestari, Atashi Anupama, Kenneth Stuart
Many cellular processes change during the Trypanosoma brucei life cycle as this parasite alternates between the mammalian host and tsetse fly vector. We show that the inositol phosphate pathway helps regulate these developmental changes. Knockdown of inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which phosphorylates Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, resulted in changes in bloodstream forms that are characteristic of insect stage procyclic forms. These changes include expression of the procyclic surface coat, upregulation of RNA-binding proteins that we show to regulate stage-specific transcripts, and activation of oxidative phosphorylation with increased ATP production in bloodstream forms...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Anne Meyer, Hannah R Holt, Farikou Oumarou, Kalinga Chilongo, William Gilbert, Albane Fauron, Chisoni Mumba, Javier Guitian
BACKGROUND: Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and its tsetse vector are responsible for annual losses estimated in billions of US dollars ($). Recent years have seen the implementation of a series of multinational interventions. However, actors of AAT control face complex resource allocation decisions due to the geographical range of AAT, diversity of ecological and livestock systems, and range of control methods available. METHODS: The study presented here integrates an existing tsetse abundance model with a bio-economic herd model that captures local production characteristics as well as heterogeneities in AAT incidence and breed...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jerome A Hogsette, Lane D Foil
Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Simon Alderton, Ewan T Macleod, Neil E Anderson, Gwen Palmer, Noreen Machila, Martin Simuunza, Susan C Welburn, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to incorporate climatic drivers which affect tsetse fly (G. m. morsitans) population dynamics, and ultimately disease transmission. The model was used to gain a greater understanding of how tsetse populations fluctuate seasonally, and investigate any response observed in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease transmission, with a view to gaining a greater understanding of disease dynamics...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Helena Reis, Marie Schwebs, Sabrina Dietz, Christian J Janzen, Falk Butter
During its life cycle, Trypanosoma brucei shuttles between a mammalian host and the tsetse fly vector. In the mammalian host, immune evasion of T. brucei bloodstream form (BSF) cells relies on antigenic variation, which includes monoallelic expression and periodic switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The active VSG is transcribed from only 1 of the 15 subtelomeric expression sites (ESs). During differentiation from BSF to the insect-resident procyclic form (PCF), the active ES is transcriptionally silenced...
January 29, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Joshua B Benoit, Veronika Michalkova, Elise M Didion, Yanyu Xiao, Aaron A Baumann, Geoffrey M Attardo, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies are important vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Ability to reduce tsetse populations is an effective means of disease control. Lactation is an essential component of tsetse's viviparous reproductive physiology and requires a dramatic increase in the expression and synthesis of milk proteins by the milk gland organ in order to nurture larval growth. In between each gonotrophic cycle, tsetse ceases milk production and milk gland tubules undergo a nearly two-fold reduction in width (involution)...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jason Carnes, Suzanne M McDermott, Kenneth Stuart
Editosomes are the multiprotein complexes that catalyze the insertion and deletion of uridines to create translatable mRNAs in the mitochondria of kinetoplastids. Recognition and cleavage of a broad diversity of RNA substrates in vivo require three functionally distinct RNase III-type endonucleases, as well as five additional editosome proteins that contain noncatalytic RNase III domains. RNase III domains have recently been identified in the editosome accessory proteins KREPB9 and KREPB10, suggesting a role related to editing endonuclease function...
January 2018: MSphere
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Xiaoqing Yu, Aurélien Vigneron, Kuang-Yao Lee, Mo Li, Brian L Weiss, Hongyu Zhao, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome...
January 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Estefania Calvo Alvarez, Christelle Cren-Travaillé, Aline Crouzols, Brice Rotureau
Trypanosomiases and leishmaniases, caused by a group of related protist parasites, are Neglected Tropical Diseases currently threatening >500 million people worldwide. Reporter proteins have revolutionised the research on infectious diseases and have opened up new advances in the understanding of trypanosomatid-borne diseases in terms of both biology, pathogenesis and drug development. Here, we describe the generation and some applications of a new chimeric triple reporter fusion protein combining the red-shifted firefly luciferase PpyREH9 and the tdTomato red fluorescent protein, fused by the TY1 tag...
January 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sen Claudine Henriette Ngomtcho, Judith Sophie Weber, Elisabeth Ngo Bum, Thaddeus Terlumun Gbem, Sørge Kelm, Mbunkah Daniel Achukwi
BACKGROUND: African trypanosomes are mainly transmitted through the bite of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). The present study investigated the occurrence of pathogenic trypanosomes in tsetse flies and cattle in tsetse fly-infested areas of Northern Cameroon. RESULTS: Trypanosomes were identified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, both by size estimation and sequencing of PCR products. Apparent density indices recorded in Gamba and Dodeo were 3...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Faith Ebhodaghe, Maxwell Kelvin Billah, Delphina Adabie-Gomez, Adam Yahaya
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify isolated population(s) of Glossina palpalis in Ghana using geometric morphometrics to evaluate variations in wing-shape and size between populations of the fly from three regions. RESULTS: Wing shape of G. palpalis tsetse flies from the Northern, Western and Eastern Regions varied significantly between each other. Populations from the Northern and Western Regions varied the most (Mahalanobis Distance = 54.20). The least variation was noticed between populations from the Western and Eastern Regions (MD = 1...
December 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Mireille Djimangali Bassène, Momar Talla Seck, Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Assane Gueye Fall, Baba Sall, Marc J B Vreysen, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Jérémy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: In the Niayes area, located in the west of Senegal, only one tsetse species, Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) was present. The Government of Senegal initiated and implemented an elimination programme in this area that included a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The G. p. gambiensis strain (BKF) mass-reared at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES) in Burkina Faso was used for the SIT component...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
S Andrea Moreno, Gabriela V Cantos
We hypothesize that the hexokinases of trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon match the blood glucose levels of hosts. We studied the kinetic properties of purified hexokinase in T. equiperdum (specific activity=302U/mg), and compare with other members of Trypanozoon. With ATP (Km=104.7μM) as phosphate donor, hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose (Km=24.9μM) and mannose (Km=8.8μM). With respect to glucose, mannose and inorganic pyrophosphate respectively are a competitive, and a mixed inhibitor of hexokinase...
December 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Pythagore Soubgwi Fogue, Flobert Njiokou, Gustave Simo
Despite the economic impact of trypanosome infections, few investigations have been undertaken on the population genetics and transmission dynamics of animal trypanosomes. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma congolense "forest type", with the ultimate goal of understanding its transmission dynamics between tsetse flies and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected from pigs, sheep, goats and dogs in five villages in Fontem, South-West region of Cameroon...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Muna F Abry, Kelvin M Kimenyi, Daniel Masiga, Benard W Kulohoma
Accessory gland proteins (ACPs) are important reproductive proteins produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs) of most insect species. These proteins are essential for male insect fertility, and are transferred alongside semen to females during copulation. ACPs are poorly characterized in Glossina species (tsetse fly), the principal vector of the parasite that causes life-threatening Human African Trypanosomiasis and Animal trypanosomiasis in endemic regions in Africa. The tsetse fly has a peculiar reproductive cycle because of the absence of oviposition...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
Rosemary Bateta, Jingwen Wang, Yineng Wu, Brian L Weiss, Wesley C Warren, Grace A Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Paul O Mireji
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the prominent vector of African trypanosome parasites (Trypanosoma spp.) in sub-Saharan Africa, and Glossina pallidipes is the most widely distributed species in Kenya. This species displays strong resistance to infection by parasites, which are typically eliminated in the midgut shortly after acquisition from the mammalian host. Although extensive molecular information on immunity for the related species Glossina morsitans morsitans exists, similar information is scarce for G...
December 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Njelembo J Mbewe, Rajinder K Saini, Baldwyn Torto, Janet Irungu, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian Pirk
Displacement rates of tsetse affect performance of targets during vector control. Fly size, one of the indicators of population structure usually obtained from wing measurement, is among the determinants of displacement rates. Although recovery of tsetse in previous intervention areas has been widely reported, the population structure of tsetse that recover is rarely evaluated despite being associated with displacements rates. Previously, intervention trials had reduced tsetse densities by over 90% from >3 flies/trap/day to <1fly/trap/day on Big Chamaunga and Manga islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya...
December 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
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