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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194625/trypanosomiasis-challenge-estimation-using-the-diminazene-aceturate-berenil-index-in-zebu-in-gabon
#1
Brieuc G A Cossic, Brice Adjahoutonon, Pierre Gloaguen, Gui Lov Dibanganga, Gael Maganga, Pascal Leroy, Ewan T MacLeod, Kim Picozzi
A longitudinal study was conducted within a cattle ranch in Gabon to determine the diminazene aceturate (Berenil) index (DAI) in a group of Zebu, raised under low tsetse density; this measure providing an assessment of trypanosomiasis risk. The objective was to evaluate the trypanosomiasis pressure thus informing trypanosomiasis control methods and cattle management. Twenty female adult Zebu were monitored for 24 weeks during the dry season. Blood samples were collected on a weekly basis and subjected to parasitological and haematological analysis (n = 480), using the buffy-coat method and the packed cell volume value (PCV), respectively, infected animals were treated with a single intramuscular injection of diminazene aceturate (8 mg/kg)...
February 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193658/in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-activity-of-diamidines-against-trypanosoma-congolense-and-trypanosoma-vivax
#2
Kirsten Gillingwater, Christina Kunz, Christiane Braghiroli, David W Boykin, Richard R Tidwell, Reto Brun
African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is caused by the tsetse-transmitted protozoans, Trypanosoma congolense and T. vivax, leading to huge agricultural losses throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Three drugs are available to treat Nagana in cattle (diminazene diaceturate, homidium- and isometamidium chloride). With increasing reports of drug-resistant populations, new molecules should be investigated as potential candidates to combat Nagana. Dicationic compounds have demonstrated excellent efficacy against different kinetoplastid parasites...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162093/evaluating-the-impact-of-targeting-livestock-for-the-prevention-of-human-and-animal-trypanosomiasis-at-village-level-in-districts-newly-affected-with-t-b-rhodesiense-in-uganda
#3
Louise Hamill, Kim Picozzi, Jenna Fyfe, Beatrix von Wissmann, Sally Wastling, Nicola Wardrop, Richard Selby, Christine Amongi Acup, Kevin L Bardosh, Dennis Muhanguzi, John D Kabasa, Charles Waiswa, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Uganda has suffered from a series of epidemics of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), a tsetse transmitted disease, also known as sleeping sickness. The area affected by acute Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense HAT (rHAT) has been expanding, driven by importation of infected cattle into regions previously free of the disease. These regions are also affected by African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) demanding a strategy for integrated disease control. METHODS: In 2008, the Public Private Partnership, Stamp Out Sleeping Sickness (SOS) administered a single dose of trypanocide to 31 486 head of cattle in 29 parishes in Dokolo and Kaberamaido districts...
February 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145221/molecular-identification-of-trypanosome-species-in-trypanotolerant-cattle-from-the-south-of-gabon
#4
Gaël Darren Maganga, Jacques-François Mavoungou, Nadine N'dilimabaka, Ivan Cyr Moussadji Kinga, Bertrand Mvé-Ondo, Illich Manfred Mombo, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Brieuc Cossic, Clency Sylde Mikala Okouyi, Alain Souza, Eric Maurice Leroy, Brice Kumulungui, Benjamin Ollomo
The aim of this study was to provide information on trypanosome species infecting trypanotolerant cattle from southern Gabon. The study was conducted on 224 trypanotolerant cattle from three regions located in southern Gabon, using ITS1 primer-based PCR. Seventy-two (32%) N'dama cattle were found polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive with trypanosomes. The overall prevalence of trypanosomosis was 57% (63/110), 4% (4/100), and 36% (5/14) in the Gala section of the Nyanga ranch, the Miyama ranch, and Ossiele, respectively...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125726/a-receptor-s-tale-an-eon-in-the-life-of-a-trypanosome-receptor
#5
REVIEW
Matthew K Higgins, Harriet Lane-Serff, Paula MacGregor, Mark Carrington
African trypanosomes have complex life cycles comprising at least ten developmental forms, variously adapted to different niches in their tsetse fly vector and their mammalian hosts. Unlike many other protozoan pathogens, they are always extracellular and have evolved intricate surface coats that allow them to obtain nutrients while also protecting them from the immune defenses of either insects or mammals. The acquisition of macromolecular nutrients requires receptors that function within the context of these surface coats...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121493/atp-driven-and-ampk-independent-autophagy-in-an-early-branching-eukaryotic-parasite
#6
Feng-Jun Li, Zhi-Shen Xu, Andy D S Soo, Zhao-Rong Lun, Cynthia Y He
Autophagy is a catabolic cellular process required to maintain protein synthesis, energy production and other essential activities in starved cells. While the exact nutrient sensor(s) is yet to be identified, deprivation of amino acids, glucose, growth factor and other nutrients can serve as metabolic stimuli to initiate autophagy in higher eukaryotes. In the early-branching unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which can proliferate as procyclic form (PCF) in the tsetse fly or as bloodstream form (BSF) in animal hosts, autophagy is robustly triggered by amino acid deficiency but not by glucose depletion...
January 25, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117003/a-brief-review-of-drug-discovery-research-for-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#7
Danica R Cullen, Mauro Mocerino
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), a neglected disease endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, is usually fatal if left untreated. It is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is spread by the tsetse fly. The drugs currently available to treat HAT are few, and limited in efficacy. Furthermore, resistance towards these drugs is beginning to grow. In the last 25 years only one advance has been made into HAT treatment and consequently, there is an increasing need for new drugs to be sought that are able to effectively treat this disease...
January 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114403/proline-metabolism-is-essential-for-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-survival-in-the-tsetse-vector
#8
Brian S Mantilla, Letícia Marchese, Aitor Casas-Sánchez, Naomi A Dyer, Nicholas Ejeh, Marc Biran, Frédéric Bringaud, Michael J Lehane, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Ariel M Silber
Adaptation to different nutritional environments is essential for life cycle completion by all Trypanosoma brucei sub-species. In the tsetse fly vector, L-proline is among the most abundant amino acids and is mainly used by the fly for lactation and to fuel flight muscle. The procyclic (insect) stage of T. b. brucei uses L-proline as its main carbon source, relying on an efficient catabolic pathway to convert it to glutamate, and then to succinate, acetate and alanine as the main secreted end products. Here we investigated the essentiality of an undisrupted proline catabolic pathway in T...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079523/symbiont-induced-odorant-binding-proteins-mediate-insect-host-hematopoiesis
#9
Joshua B Benoit, Aurélien Vigneron, Nichole A Broderick, Yineng Wu, Jennifer S Sun, John R Carlson, Serap Aksoy, Brian L Weiss
Symbiotic bacteria assist in maintaining homeostasis of the animal immune system. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie symbiont-mediated host immunity are largely unknown. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house maternally transmitted symbionts that regulate the development and function of their host's immune system. Herein we demonstrate that the obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia, up-regulates expression of odorant binding protein six in the gut of intrauterine tsetse larvae. This process is necessary and sufficient to induce systemic expression of the hematopoietic RUNX transcription factor lozenge and the subsequent production of crystal cells, which actuate the melanotic immune response in adult tsetse...
January 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079522/protection-from-within
#10
Florent Masson, Bruno Lemaitre
The development of the tsetse fly immune system relies on a cue from an endosymbiotic bacterium called Wigglesworthia.
January 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069065/exploring-the-potential-of-using-cattle-for-malaria-vector-surveillance-and-control-a-pilot-study-in-western-kenya
#11
Margaret M Njoroge, Inaki Tirados, Steven W Lindsay, Glyn A Vale, Stephen J Torr, Ulrike Fillinger
BACKGROUND: Malaria vector mosquitoes with exophilic and zoophilic tendencies, or with a high acceptance of alternative blood meal sources when preferred human blood-hosts are unavailable, may help maintain low but constant malaria transmission in areas where indoor vector control has been scaled up. This residual transmission might be addressed by targeting vectors outside the house. Here we investigated the potential of insecticide-treated cattle, as routinely used for control of tsetse and ticks in East Africa, for mosquito control...
January 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056016/predicting-the-impact-of-intervention-strategies-for-sleeping-sickness-in-two-high-endemicity-health-zones-of-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#12
Kat S Rock, Steve J Torr, Crispin Lumbala, Matt J Keeling
Two goals have been set for Gambian human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), the first is to achieve elimination as a public health problem in 90% of foci by 2020, and the second is to achieve zero transmission globally by 2030. It remains unclear if certain HAT hotspots could achieve elimination as a public health problem by 2020 and, of greater concern, it appears that current interventions to control HAT in these areas may not be sufficient to achieve zero transmission by 2030. A mathematical model of disease dynamics was used to assess the potential impact of changing the intervention strategy in two high-endemicity health zones of Kwilu province, Democratic Republic of Congo...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040271/effects-of-climate-change-on-the-occurrence-and-distribution-of-livestock-diseases
#13
B Bett, P Kiunga, J Gachohi, C Sindato, D Mbotha, T Robinson, J Lindahl, D Grace
The planet's mean air and ocean temperatures have been rising over the last century because of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These changes have substantial effects on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. We describe direct and indirect processes linking climate change and infectious diseases in livestock with reference to specific case studies. Some of the studies are used to show a positive association between temperature and expansion of the geographical ranges of arthropod vectors (e.g. Culicoides imicola, which transmits bluetongue virus) while others are used to illustrate an opposite trend (e...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027324/insecticide-and-repellent-mixture-pour-on-protects-cattle-against-animal-trypanosomosis
#14
Geoffrey Gimonneau, Yaya Alioum, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini, Andre Zoli, Bylah Cene, Hassane Adakal, Jérémy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. The latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two prospective surveys were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of a pour-on formulation composed of cypermetrhin, chlorpyrifos, piperonyl butoxid and citronella (Vectoclor, CEVA Santé Animal)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027299/past-and-ongoing-tsetse-and-animal-trypanosomiasis-control-operations-in-five-african-countries-a-systematic-review
#15
Anne Meyer, Hannah R Holt, Richard Selby, Javier Guitian
BACKGROUND: Control operations targeting Animal African Trypanosomiasis and its primary vector, the tsetse, were covering approximately 128,000 km2 of Africa in 2001, which is a mere 1.3% of the tsetse infested area. Although extensive trypanosomiasis and tsetse (T&T) control operations have been running since the beginning of the 20th century, Animal African Trypanosomiasis is still a major constraint of livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review of the existing literature describing T&T control programmes conducted in a selection of five African countries, namely Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Uganda and Zambia, between 1980 and 2015...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007483/bovine-trypanosomosis-and-vector-density-in-omo-ghibe-tsetse-belt-south-ethiopia
#16
Rahmeto Abebe, Solomon Gute, Ijigu Simon
African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock from anemia, loss of condition, emaciation and death in untreated cases. It is one of the major constraints to improved livestock production and productivity in Ethiopia. Entomological and parasitological surveys were conducted in the Omo-Ghibe tsetse belt of south Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and the apparent tsetse density (AD), and identify the potential risk factors...
March 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006007/improving-the-diet-for-the-rearing-of-glossina-brevipalpis-newstead-and-glossina-austeni-newstead-blood-source-and-collection-processing-feeding-procedures
#17
Chantel J De Beer, Gert J Venter, Marc J B Vreysen
One of the challenges to maintain tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) colonies is the sustainable supply of high quality blood meals. The effect of using anticoagulants during collection of the blood, the addition of phagostimulants to the blood meals as well as using mixtures of bovine and porcine blood in different proportions for feeding on colony productivity was assessed. Defibrinated bovine blood was found to be suitable to maintain both the Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead colonies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002435/transcriptome-profiling-of-trypanosoma-brucei-development-in-the-tsetse-fly-vector-glossina-morsitans
#18
Amy F Savage, Nikolay G Kolev, Joseph B Franklin, Aurelien Vigneron, Serap Aksoy, Christian Tschudi
African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals, have a complex digenetic life cycle between a mammalian host and an insect vector, the blood-feeding tsetse fly. Although the importance of the insect vector to transmit the disease was first realized over a century ago, many aspects of trypanosome development in tsetse have not progressed beyond a morphological analysis, mainly due to considerable challenges to obtain sufficient material for molecular studies. Here, we used high-throughput RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to profile Trypanosoma brucei transcript levels in three distinct tissues of the tsetse fly, namely the midgut, proventriculus and salivary glands...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918578/correction-genome-wide-comparative-analysis-of-chemosensory-gene-families-in-five-tsetse-fly-species
#19
Rosaline Macharia, Paul Mireji, Edwin Murungi, Grace Murilla, Alan Christoffels, Serap Aksoy, Daniel Masiga
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004421.].
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884172/spatial-distribution-and-trypanosome-infection-of-tsetse-flies-in-the-sleeping-sickness-focus-of-zimbabwe-in-hurungwe-district
#20
William Shereni, Neil E Anderson, Learnmore Nyakupinda, Giuliano Cecchi
BACKGROUND: In Zimbabwe, cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are caused by the unicellular protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, sub-species T. b. rhodesiense. They are reported from the tsetse-infested area in the northern part of the country, broadly corresponding to the valley of the Zambezi River. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes, in particular T. congolense and T. vivax, also cause morbidity and mortality in livestock, thus generating poverty and food insecurity. Two species of tsetse fly, Glossina morsistans morsitans and G...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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