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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343494/uncovering-genomic-regions-associated-with-trypanosoma-infections-in-wild-populations-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes
#1
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Xiaoqing Yu, Aurélien Vigneron, Kuang-Yao Lee, Mo Li, Brian L Weiss, Hongyu Zhao, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome...
January 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339220/a-new-chimeric-triple-reporter-fusion-protein-as-a-tool-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-to-monitor-the-development-of-african-trypanosomes-and-leishmania-parasites
#2
Estefania Calvo Alvarez, Christelle Cren-Travaillé, Aline Crouzols, Brice Rotureau
Trypanosomiases and leishmaniases, caused by a group of related protist parasites, are Neglected Tropical Diseases currently threatening >500 million people worldwide. Reporter proteins have revolutionised the research on infectious diseases and have opened up new advances in the understanding of trypanosomatid-borne diseases in terms of both biology, pathogenesis and drug development. Here, we describe the generation and some applications of a new chimeric triple reporter fusion protein combining the red-shifted firefly luciferase PpyREH9 and the tdTomato red fluorescent protein, fused by the TY1 tag...
January 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287598/molecular-screening-of-tsetse-flies-and-cattle-reveal-different-trypanosoma-species-including-t-grayi-and-t-theileri-in-northern-cameroon
#3
Sen Claudine Henriette Ngomtcho, Judith Sophie Weber, Elisabeth Ngo Bum, Thaddeus Terlumun Gbem, Sørge Kelm, Mbunkah Daniel Achukwi
BACKGROUND: African trypanosomes are mainly transmitted through the bite of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). The present study investigated the occurrence of pathogenic trypanosomes in tsetse flies and cattle in tsetse fly-infested areas of Northern Cameroon. RESULTS: Trypanosomes were identified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, both by size estimation and sequencing of PCR products. Apparent density indices recorded in Gamba and Dodeo were 3...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284545/morphometric-diagnosis-of-glossina-palpalis-diptera-glossinidae-population-structure-in-ghana
#4
Faith Ebhodaghe, Maxwell Kelvin Billah, Delphina Adabie-Gomez, Adam Yahaya
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify isolated population(s) of Glossina palpalis in Ghana using geometric morphometrics to evaluate variations in wing-shape and size between populations of the fly from three regions. RESULTS: Wing shape of G. palpalis tsetse flies from the Northern, Western and Eastern Regions varied significantly between each other. Populations from the Northern and Western Regions varied the most (Mahalanobis Distance = 54.20). The least variation was noticed between populations from the Western and Eastern Regions (MD = 1...
December 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281634/competitiveness-and-survival-of-two-strains-of-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis-in-an-urban-area-of-senegal
#5
Mireille Djimangali Bassène, Momar Talla Seck, Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Assane Gueye Fall, Baba Sall, Marc J B Vreysen, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Jérémy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: In the Niayes area, located in the west of Senegal, only one tsetse species, Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) was present. The Government of Senegal initiated and implemented an elimination programme in this area that included a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The G. p. gambiensis strain (BKF) mass-reared at the Centre International de Recherche-Développement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES) in Burkina Faso was used for the SIT component...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277605/the-kinetic-properties-of-hexokinases-in-african-trypanosomes-of-the-subgenus-trypanozoon-match-the-blood-glucose-levels-of-mammal-hosts
#6
S Andrea Moreno, Gabriela V Cantos
We hypothesize that the hexokinases of trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon match the blood glucose levels of hosts. We studied the kinetic properties of purified hexokinase in T. equiperdum (specific activity=302U/mg), and compare with other members of Trypanozoon. With ATP (Km=104.7μM) as phosphate donor, hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose (Km=24.9μM) and mannose (Km=8.8μM). With respect to glucose, mannose and inorganic pyrophosphate respectively are a competitive, and a mixed inhibitor of hexokinase...
December 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261481/genetic-structure-of-trypanosoma-congolense-forest-type-circulating-in-domestic-animals-and-tsetse-flies-in-the-south-west-region-of-cameroon
#7
Pythagore Soubgwi Fogue, Flobert Njiokou, Gustave Simo
Despite the economic impact of trypanosome infections, few investigations have been undertaken on the population genetics and transmission dynamics of animal trypanosomes. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma congolense "forest type", with the ultimate goal of understanding its transmission dynamics between tsetse flies and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected from pigs, sheep, goats and dogs in five villages in Fontem, South-West region of Cameroon...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260004/comparative-genomics-identifies-male-accessory-gland-proteins-in-five-glossina-species
#8
Muna F Abry, Kelvin M Kimenyi, Daniel Masiga, Benard W Kulohoma
Accessory gland proteins (ACPs) are important reproductive proteins produced by the male accessory glands (MAGs) of most insect species. These proteins are essential for male insect fertility, and are transferred alongside semen to females during copulation. ACPs are poorly characterized in Glossina species (tsetse fly), the principal vector of the parasite that causes life-threatening Human African Trypanosomiasis and Animal trypanosomiasis in endemic regions in Africa. The tsetse fly has a peculiar reproductive cycle because of the absence of oviposition...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258576/tsetse-fly-glossina-pallidipes-midgut-responses-to-trypanosoma-brucei-challenge
#9
Rosemary Bateta, Jingwen Wang, Yineng Wu, Brian L Weiss, Wesley C Warren, Grace A Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Paul O Mireji
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the prominent vector of African trypanosome parasites (Trypanosoma spp.) in sub-Saharan Africa, and Glossina pallidipes is the most widely distributed species in Kenya. This species displays strong resistance to infection by parasites, which are typically eliminated in the midgut shortly after acquisition from the mammalian host. Although extensive molecular information on immunity for the related species Glossina morsitans morsitans exists, similar information is scarce for G...
December 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248414/effects-of-vector-control-on-the-population-structure-of-tsetse-glossina-fuscipes-fuscipes-in-western-kenya
#10
Njelembo J Mbewe, Rajinder K Saini, Baldwyn Torto, Janet Irungu, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian Pirk
Displacement rates of tsetse affect performance of targets during vector control. Fly size, one of the indicators of population structure usually obtained from wing measurement, is among the determinants of displacement rates. Although recovery of tsetse in previous intervention areas has been widely reported, the population structure of tsetse that recover is rarely evaluated despite being associated with displacements rates. Previously, intervention trials had reduced tsetse densities by over 90% from >3 flies/trap/day to <1fly/trap/day on Big Chamaunga and Manga islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya...
December 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246241/a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-use-and-misuse-of-trypanocides-in-selected-pastoral-and-agropastoral-areas-of-eastern-and-northeastern-tanzania
#11
Anna F Ngumbi, Richard S Silayo
BACKGROUND: Tsetse-borne African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) greatly influences livestock distribution and significantly slows livestock productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. While a number of control methods targeting the vector tsetse are in field application, treatment with the few available trypanocides continues to be the most widely applied control method. Unfortunately, improper and frequent use of these few available drugs, accelerated by poor veterinary service delivery, promotes trypanosome drug resistance, the magnitude of which has not been delineated...
December 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197735/novel-triazine-dimers-with-potent-antitrypanosomal-activity
#12
Muthusamy Venkatraj, Irene G Salado, Jan Heeres, Jurgen Joossens, Paul J Lewi, Guy Caljon, Louis Maes, Pieter Van der Veken, Koen Augustyns
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of the 'Glossina' insect, commonly known as the tsetse fly. This disease affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa. Untreated, it is usually fatal. Currently, safe and effective treatments against this disease are lacking. Phenotypic screening of triazine non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (monomers) resulted in potent and selective antitrypanosomal compounds...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190455/structural-features-of-the-salivary-gland-hypertrophy-virus-of-the-tsetse-fly-revealed-by-cryo-electron-microscopy-and-tomography
#13
Igor Orlov, Robert Drillien, Danièle Spehner, Max Bergoin, Adly M M Abd-Alla, Bruno P Klaholz
Glossina palipides salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) infects tsetse flies, which are vectors for African trypanosomosis. This virus represents a major challenge in insect mass rearing and has hampered the implementation of the sterile insect technique programs in the Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency. GpSGHV virions consist of long rod-shaped particles over 9000Å in length, but little is known about their detailed structural organization. We show by cryo electron microscopy and cryo electron tomography that the GpSGHV virion has a unique, non-icosahedral helical structure...
November 27, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185140/community-based-tsetse-fly-control-minimizes-the-effect-of-trypanosomosis-on-livestock-in-metekel-zone-ethiopia
#14
Gebrerufael Girmay, Bezna Arega, Dirk Berkvens, Solomon Z Altaye, Gadisa Muleta
Tsetse-related trypanosomosis threatens integrated crop-livestock production system in Ethiopia. Metekel zone is among the tsetse-infested areas in Ethiopia. Community-based tsetse fly and trypanosomosis control using targets was conducted from June 2011 to May 2012 in the zone. In coordination with the control project, a questionnaire survey was administered to assess the economic importance of the tsetse fly and trypanosomosis control conducted in the Zone. On average, there were 3 livestock deaths/household before control and this was decreased to 0...
November 29, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178951/african-animal-trypanosomiasis-as-a-constraint-to-livestock-health-and-production-in-karamoja-region-a-detailed-qualitative-and-quantitative-assessment
#15
Dennis Muhanguzi, Albert Mugenyi, Godfrey Bigirwa, Maureen Kamusiime, Ann Kitibwa, Grace Gloria Akurut, Sylvester Ochwo, Wilson Amanyire, Samuel George Okech, Jan Hattendorf, Robert Tweyongyere
BACKGROUND: Nagana (African Animal Trypanosomiasis-AAT) and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) constrain livestock production in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. To this realisation, Uganda government set up an African trypanosomiasis (AT) control unit, which among other activities generates national tsetse control priority maps using apparent tsetse density data. Such maps underestimate mechanically transmitted AAT and thus ought to be refined using actual AT prevalence data. We therefore set out to generate up-to-date cattle and donkey trypanosomiasis prevalence data as well as find out the constraints to livestock production in Karamoja region in a bid to re-define AT control priority in this region...
November 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170590/people-patches-and-parasites-the-case-of-trypanosomiasis-in-zimbabwe
#16
Ian Scoones, V Dzingirai, N Anderson, E MacLeod, L Mangwanya, F Matawa, A Murwira, L Nyakupinda, W Shereni, S C Welburn
Understanding the socio-ecology of disease requires careful attention to the role of patches within disease landscapes. Such patches, and the interfaces between different socio-epidemiological systems, we argue, have important implications for disease control. We conducted an interdisciplinary study over three years to investigate the spatial dynamics of human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe. We used a habitat niche model to identify changes in suitable habitat for tsetse fly vectors over time, and this is related to local villagers' understandings of where flies are found...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155830/molecular-characterization-of-tsetse-s-proboscis-and-its-response-to-trypanosoma-congolense-infection
#17
Erick O Awuoche, Brian L Weiss, Aurélien Vigneron, Paul O Mireji, Emre Aksoy, Benson Nyambega, Geoffrey M Attardo, Yineng Wu, Michelle O'Neill, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) transmit parasitic African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma spp.), including Trypanosoma congolense, which causes animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT). AAT detrimentally affects agricultural activities in sub-Saharan Africa and has negative impacts on the livelihood and nutrient availability for the affected communities. After tsetse ingests an infectious blood meal, T. congolense sequentially colonizes the fly's gut and proboscis (PB) organs before being transmitted to new mammalian hosts during subsequent feedings...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114487/prevalence-of-trypanosome-infection-in-tsetse-flies-from-oji-river-and-emene-axis-of-enugu-state-nigeria-a-preliminary-report
#18
Kenechukwu Chibuike Onyekwelu, Fidelis Ebele Ejezie, Anthonius Anayochukwu Eze, Joy Ebele Ikekpeazu, Richard Chukwunonye Ezeh, Godknows Chizurumoke Edeh
Introduction: Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by blood-sucking tsetse fly. Trypanosomes remain a constant threat to the lives of humans and animals throughout large regions of Africa. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the presence, prevalence, and species of trypanosome parasite in tsetse flies caught in two areas of no previous documented history of trypanosome infection. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 63 and 77 nonterenal tsetse flies were collected from Oji River and Emene areas of Enugu State Nigeria, respectively...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110677/using-meta-quality-to-assess-the-utility-of-volunteered-geographic-information-for-science
#19
Shaun A Langley, Joseph P Messina, Nathan Moore
BACKGROUND: Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has strong potential to be increasingly valuable to scientists in collaboration with non-scientists. The abundance of mobile phones and other wireless forms of communication open up significant opportunities for the public to get involved in scientific research. As these devices and activities become more abundant, questions of uncertainty and error in volunteer data are emerging as critical components for using volunteer-sourced spatial data...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097642/bovine-trypanosomiasis-in-tsetse-free-pastoral-zone-of-the-far-north-region-cameroon
#20
P F Suh, F Njiokou, A Mamoudou, T M Ahmadou, A Mouhaman, R Garabed
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The Far-North region of Cameroon has been considered free of tsetse and trypanosomiasis for the past three decades. But recent reports by pastoralists indicate its reappearance in the region. This study was aimed to confirm the existence of cattle trypanosomiasis and determine its prevalence, and to establish pastoralists knowledge and practice (KP) of the disease in Ndiyam Shinwa pastoral zone of Cameroon. METHODS: A total of 118 herds were surveyed for a descriptive, cross-sectional study in Ndiyam Shinwa pastoral zone from May to November 2014...
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
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