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P A Robinson-Drummer, T Chakraborty, N A Heroux, J B Rosen, M E Stanton
The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a variant of contextual fear conditioning in which acquisition of the contextual representation and association of the retrieved contextual memory with an immediate foots-hock are separated by 24hrs. During the CPFE, learning- related expression patterns of the early growth response -1 gene (Egr-1) vary based on training phase and brain sub-region in adult and adolescent rats (Asok, Schreiber, Jablonski, Rosen, & Stanton, 2013; Shreiber et al., 2014; Chakraborty, Asok, Stanton, & Rosen, 2016)...
February 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Christine Andrews, Colleen Whatley, Meaghan Smith, Emily Caron Brayton, Suzanne Simone, Alison Volpe Holmes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neonatal hypothermia is common in low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g) and late-preterm infants (LPIs) (34 0/7-36 6/7 weeks' gestation). It can be a contributory factor for newborn admission to a NICU, resulting in maternal-infant separation and increased resource use. Our objective was to study the efficacy of a quality-improvement bundle of hypothermia preventive measures for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit. METHODS: We conducted plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles aimed at decreasing environmental hypothermia for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit with no other indications for NICU-level care...
February 14, 2018: Pediatrics
Takumi Kawasetsu, Takato Horii, Hisashi Ishihara, Minoru Asada
A significant challenge in robotics is providing a sense of touch to robots. Even though several types of flexible tactile sensors have been proposed, they still have various technical issues such as a large amount of deformation that fractures the sensing elements, a poor maintainability and a deterioration in the sensitivity caused by the presence of a thick and soft covering. As one solution for these issues, we proposed a flexible tactile sensor composed of a magnet, magnetic transducer and dual-layer elastomer, which consists of a magnetorheological and nonmagnetic elastomer sheet...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Weiwei Jin, Yulu Zhou, Ying Zhao, Qianqian Ma, Lichun Kong, Gangguo Zhu
A novel nickel-catalyzed remote arylation of alkenyl aldehydes triggered by radical alkylation with tertiary α-carbonyl alkyl bromides is described, thus producing a quaternary carbon center containing ketones in promising yields with broad functional group compatibility. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the combination of a 1,n-HAT (n = 5 or 6) from alkyl radicals to aldehyde C-H bonds with nickel catalysis may account for the realization of this reaction.
February 13, 2018: Organic Letters
Rıfat Emral, Tamer Tetiker, Ibrahim Sahin, Ramazan Sari, Ahmet Kaya, İlhan Yetkin, Sefika Uslu Cil, Neslihan Başcıl Tütüncü
BACKGROUND: Limited real-world data are currently available on hypoglycemia in diabetes patients. The International Operations Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (IO HAT) study was designed to estimate hypoglycemia in insulin-treated type I (T1DM) and type II (T2DM) diabetes mellitus patients from 9 countries. The data from Turkey cohort are presented here. METHODS: A non-interventional study to determine the hypoglycemia incidence, retrospectively and prospectively, in Turkish T1DM and T2DM patients using a 2-part self-assessment questionnaire...
February 13, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Khan Bahadar Khan, Amir A Khaliq, Abdul Jalil, Muhammad Shahid
The exploration of retinal vessel structure is colossally important on account of numerous diseases including stroke, Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and coronary heart diseases, which can damage the retinal vessel structure. The retinal vascular network is very hard to be extracted due to its spreading and diminishing geometry and contrast variation in an image. The proposed technique consists of unique parallel processes for denoising and extraction of blood vessels in retinal images. In the preprocessing section, an adaptive histogram equalization enhances dissimilarity between the vessels and the background and morphological top-hat filters are employed to eliminate macula and optic disc, etc...
2018: PloS One
Justin L Hatting, Sean D Moore, Antoinette P Malan
Invertebrate pests pose a significant threat to food security on the African continent. In response, South Africa has become one of the largest importers of chemical pesticides in sub-Saharan Africa, with several hundred active ingredients registered. To address the over-reliance on such chemicals, the South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) has eliminated or restricted several pesticides since the late 1970s. The recent launch of the South African National Bio-Economy Strategy and establishment of the South African Bioproducts Organisation (SABO), together with new guidelines for registration of biopesticides in 2015, also support this endeavour...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Mara Breen
Word durations convey many types of linguistic information, including intrinsic lexical features like length and frequency and contextual features like syntactic and semantic structure. The current study was designed to investigate whether hierarchical metric structure and rhyme predictability account for durational variation over and above other features in productions of a rhyming, metrically-regular children's book: The Cat in the Hat (Dr. Seuss, 1957). One-syllable word durations and inter-onset intervals were modeled as functions of segment number, lexical frequency, word class, syntactic structure, repetition, and font emphasis...
February 6, 2018: Cognition
Ning Zhang, Martin Zoltner, Ka-Fai Leung, Paul Scullion, Sebastian Hutchinson, Ricardo C Del Pino, Isabel M Vincent, Yong-Kang Zhang, Yvonne R Freund, Michael R K Alley, Robert T Jacobs, Kevin D Read, Michael P Barrett, David Horn, Mark C Field
Recent development of benzoxaborole-based chemistry gave rise to a collection of compounds with great potential in targeting diverse infectious diseases, including human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), a devastating neglected tropical disease. However, further medicinal development is largely restricted by a lack of insight into mechanism of action (MoA) in pathogenic kinetoplastids. We adopted a multidisciplinary approach, combining a high-throughput forward genetic screen with functional group focused chemical biological, structural biology and biochemical analyses, to tackle the complex MoAs of benzoxaboroles in Trypanosoma brucei...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Catherine A McCarty, Michael J Fuchs, Allan Lamb, Pat Conway
SIGNIFICANCE: The American Academy of Ophthalmology currently recommends against routine genetic testing for complex diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD.) The results of this study demonstrate that patients are very interested in predictive genetic testing for AMD, find the information useful, and make behavioral changes as a result of the information. PURPOSE: The goal of this project was to conduct a pilot AMD genomic medicine study. METHODS: Eligible patients were aged 50 to 65 years with no personal history of AMD...
February 8, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Joon Seok Lee, Joon Hyun Kwon, Jeong Woo Lee, Kang Young Choi, Ho Yun Chung, Byung Chae Cho, Jung Dug Yang
BACKGROUND: The final stage of breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer is nipple reconstruction. However, a consistent and reliable method resulting in the most ideal aesthetic results has yet to be clarified. This study analysed the long-term outcomes of nipple reconstruction using Rapiplug. METHODS: Forty-one patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy between January 2014 and February 2017 were enrolled. Nipple reconstruction was performed with C-V flap and Hammond flap, and hat-shaped Rapiplug was implanted at the flap core...
February 8, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Katy Carlson, Jesse A Harris
This paper explores the processing of sentences with a much less coordinator (I don't own a pink hat, much less a red one). This understudied ellipsis sentence, one of several focus-sensitive coordination structures, imposes syntactic and semantic conditions on the relationship between the correlate (a pink hat) and remnant (a red one). We present the case of zero-adjective contrast, in which an NP remnant introduces an adjective without an overt counterpart in the correlate (I don't own a hat, much less a red one)...
2018: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Bharti Jaiswal, Ashish Gupta
Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that binds to specific DNA sequences known as hormone response elements located upstream of their target genes. Transcriptional activity of NRs can be modulated by binding of the compatible ligand and transient interaction with cellular coregulators functioning either as coactivators or as corepressors. Many coactivator proteins possess intrinsic histone acetyl transferase (HAT) activity that catalyzes the acetylation of specific lysine residues in histone tails and loosens the histone-DNA interaction thereby facilitating access of transcriptional factors to the regulatory sequences of the DNA...
February 6, 2018: Endocrinology
Tao Zhang, Jin Meng, Xinli Liu, Xutao Zhang, Xiaojun Peng, Zhongyi Cheng, Feng Zhang
ING5 belongs to the Inhibitor of Growth (ING) candidate tumor suppressor family. Previously, we have shown that ING5 inhibits invasiveness of lung cancer cells by downregulating EMT-inducing genes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the study was to use integrated approach involving SILAC labeling and mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to quantify dynamic changes of acetylation regulated by ING5 in lung cancer cells. Here, we have found that ING5 has a profound influence on protein lysine acetylation with 163 acetylation peptides on 122 proteins significantly upregulated and 100 acetylation peptides on 72 proteins downregulated by ING5 overexpression...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Huadie Liu, Jianshuang Li, Di Lu, Jie Li, Minmin Liu, Yuanzheng He, Bart O Williams, Jiada Li, Tao Yang
Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process having an important influence in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Thus, sumoylation-modulating chemicals might be used to control MSC differentiation for skeletal tissue engineering. In this work, we studied how the differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) is affected by ginkgolic acid (GA), a potent sumoylation inhibitor also reported to inhibit histone acetylation transferase (HAT). Our results show that GA promoted the differentiation of mBMSCs into adipocytes when cultured in osteogenic medium...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jan Klimas, Huiru Dong, Nadia Fairbairn, Eugenia Socías, Rolando Barrios, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness of injectable diacetylmorphine (i.e., heroin) for individuals with treatment-refractory opioid use disorder. Despite this evidence, and the increasing toll of opioid-associated morbidity and mortality, it remains controversial in some settings. To investigate the possible contribution of heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) to HIV treatment-related outcomes, we sought to estimate the proportion and characteristics of HIV-positive people who inject opioids that might be eligible for HAT in Vancouver, Canada...
February 7, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Larissa Glugoski, Lucia Giuliano-Caetano, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Marcelo R Vicari, Viviane Nogaroto
Co-located 5S rDNA genes and interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) revealed the involvement of multiple 5S rDNA clusters in chromosome rearrangements of Loricariidae. Interstitial (TTAGGG)n vestiges, in addition to telomeric sites, can coincide with locations of chromosomal rearrangements, and they are considered to be hotspots for chromosome breaks. This study aimed the molecular characterization of 5S rDNA in two Rineloricaria latirostris populations and examination of roles of 5S rDNA in breakpoint sites and its in situ localization...
January 31, 2018: Gene
Padon Chuentragool, Marvin Parasram, Yi Shi, Vladimir Gevorgyan
A novel method for desaturation of aliphatic amines into enamines, allylic-, and homoallylic amines has been de-veloped. This general protocol operates via putative aryl hy-brid Pd-radical intermediates, which combine the signature features of radical chemistry, a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) process, and transition metal chemistry, a selective β-hydride elimination step, to achieve efficient and selective desaturation of amines. These hybrid Pd-radical intermediates are efficiently generated under mild photoin-duced conditions, and are capable of 1,n-HAT (n=5-7) event at C(sp3)-H sites...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Fernanda Bajanca, Laurence Vandel
Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) control transcription during myogenesis. HDACs promote chromatin condensation, inhibiting gene transcription in muscle progenitor cells until myoblast differentiation is triggered and HDACs are released. HATs, namely CBP/p300, activate myogenic regulatory and elongation factors promoting myogenesis. HDAC inhibitors are known to improve regeneration in dystrophic muscles through follistatin upregulation. However, the potential of directly modulating HATs remains unexplored...
December 21, 2017: PLoS Currents
Rashid Alobaidi, Natalie Anton, Dominic Cave, Elham Khodayari Moez, Ari R Joffe
AIM: To determine potentially modifiable predictors of early outcomes after liver transplantation in children of age < 3 years. METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review including all consecutive children of age less than 3-years-old having had a liver transplant done at the Western Canadian referral center from June 2005 to June 2015. Pre-specified potential predictor variables and primary and secondary outcomes were recorded using standard definitions and a case report form...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
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