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R Zivieri, N Pacini, G Finocchio, M Carpentieri
In living systems, it is crucial to study the exchange of entropy that plays a fundamental role in the understanding of irreversible chemical reactions. However, there are not yet works able to describe in a systematic way the rate of entropy production associated to irreversible processes. Hence, here we develop a theoretical model to compute the rate of entropy in the minimum living system. In particular, we apply the model to the most interesting and relevant case of metabolic network, the glucose catabolism in normal and cancer cells...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Frank Czul, Emmanuel Coronel, Jean A Donet
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive fibro-inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by irreversible fibrosis of the gland with eventual failure of exocrine and endocrine functions and hallmark features of abdominal pain, malabsorption, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus and pancreatic calcifications. In many patients this disease results from a complex mix of environmental (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and occupational chemicals), genetic factors and a few patients with hereditary or autoimmune disease...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Patricia Jungmann, Pedro Pires, Edward Araujo Júnior
Fetal infection by the Zika virus has been implicated in the exceptional rise in the number of microcephalic newborns recorded by the end of 2015 in Brazil. The mechanism by which this teratogenic effect is produced in the developing brain has not been fully established. Very early in the outbreak, we addressed this question by evaluating available initial data from a gestational and postnatal clinical investigation in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the subtractive dysmorphic brain malformations observed in Zika-related microcephaly are primarily due to the massive induction of apoptosis of neuroprogenitor cells...
September 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Osvaldo Manuel Tiscornia, Gustavo Alberto Negri, Graciela Otero, Fabiana Norma López Mingorance, Hipólito Waisman, Patricia Graciela Tiscornia-Wasserman
prevents, in pancreocytes, the evolving of a "supramaximalecbolic-stimulation" process. The PP involvement as a modulating agent of pancreon's reactivity is reflected by the progressive increment of its plasma values in the first week of an evolving AP episode. In the AP associated to a large meal, an overpowering of the pancreon's brake might have a pivotal role. In experimental and clinical chronic alcoholism, a vagal neuropathy of the Pavlov inhibitory fibers that, as a consequence, impairs the pancreon's brake through a depression of PP secretion is at the basis of an enhanced reactivity of the duodeno-pancreatic reflexes...
June 2015: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
Priscila Da Silva Figueiredo Celestino Gomes, Nicolas Panel, Elodie Laine, Pedro Geraldo Pascutti, Eric Solary, Luba Tchertanov
The colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) and the stem cell factor receptor KIT, type III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), are important mediators of signal transduction. The normal functions of these receptors can be compromised by gain-of-function mutations associated with different physiopatological impacts. Whereas KIT D816V/H mutation is a well-characterized oncogenic event and principal cause of systemic mastocytosis, the homologous CSF-1R D802V has not been identified in human cancers. The KIT D816V oncogenic mutation triggers resistance to the RTK inhibitor Imatinib used as first line treatment against chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal tumors...
2014: PloS One
Rosa Maria Bruno, Alessia Di Giulio, Giampaolo Bernini, Agostino Virdis, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Stefano Taddei
Hypertension is universally considered the most detrimental among cardiovascular risk factors. Despite the overwhelming evidence of benefits deriving from lowering blood pressure, its control among the hypertensive population is still unsatisfactory. Resistant hypertension has a non negligible prevalence among hypertensive patients, and it is associated with a worse cardiovascular prognosis. There is need of new therapeutic approaches for reducing cardiovascular risk in this population. Sympathetic nervous system is known to play a major role in development and maintenance of essential hypertension, thus in the past decades several efforts have been made to counteract its overactivation...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Serena Del Turco, Elisabetta Bianchini, Rita Bucalo, Giuseppina Basta, Rosa Maria Bruno, Rosa Sicari
Endothelial dysfunction is an early alteration in the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular risk factors induce endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and by new proatherogenic, proinflammatory and prothrombotic properties. It is evident as the study of the endothelium could play a key role in the cardiovascular research and can be an useful tool for risk stratification in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. An ideal approach for the comprehensive evaluation on endothelial physiopathology would take into account and integrate informations about endothelial biology (activation, injury and regenerative capacity) and endothelial function, so to be correlated with clinical data...
March 2012: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
F Londero, C A Leo, F Cattin, V Cherchi, G L Adani, G Terrosu, V Bresadola
Patients with GERD and atypical symptoms represent a particular category with a less clear definition of the physiopatological mechanisms and thereby need a precise attention toward the indication to surgery. The less good response to surgery therefore requires a careful evaluation and selection of patients with atypical symptoms.
March 2011: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
G Liccardi, A Salzillo, A Piccolo, I De Napoli, G D'Amato
It is well known that patients suffering from bronchial asthma undergoing to surgical procedures requiring general anaesthesia (GA) or the administration of water soluble radiographic contrast media (RCM) experience a risk of potentially severe bronchospasm. Nevertheless, little attention has been devoted on the possible preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of this potentially life-threatening event. It has been shown that the most important risk factor for bronchospasm during GA induction and/or the use of RCM is represented by a high degree of bronchial hyperreactivity with airway instability not adequately controlled by long-term anti-inflammatory treatment...
October 2010: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
R Cesareo, C Napoletano, M Iozzino, B De Rosa, G Iarussi, M Scona, F Romitelli
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared osteoporosis "social disease". The present revision of the literature will focus on the recent acquisitions in bone pathophysiology and the efforts in the formulation of new molecules able to change successfully the course of the disease. Osteocyte cell is now thought to be the main biomechanical transducer of bones, able to release sclerostin that produces inhibition on osteosynthesis and on the other hand to release substances like nitrid oxide and prostaglandins that provide a stimulus to osteosynthesis through direct or indirect activation of osteoblasts...
September 2009: Minerva Endocrinologica
Darija Kisić Tepavcević, Tatjana Pekmezović, Jelena Drulović
BACKGROUND/AIM: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of central nervous system. The main physiopatological feature of MS is demyelination. Multiple sclerosis is one of three most common causes of severe disability in youngest people. In patients with MS, apart from complete psychophysical status and objective neurologic status, a subjective perception of symptoms and signs, known as quality of life, must be considered, too. The aim of this study was to estimate a health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to investigate the correlations between scores of HRQoL and selected demographic and clinical parameters...
August 2009: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
Nicolas Béziaud, Guillemette Laval, Sylvie Rostaing
Pain management for a patient in palliative care requires a multi-functional approach that entails the physical, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions. It is based on a deep understanding of the pain physiopatology and its accurate assessment to optimize the treatment. This article provides guidelines to manage nociceptive and neuropathic pains, along with tips in case of refractory pains. It gives detailed instructions relative to the use of strong opiods taking advantage of the availability of new types of galenics...
June 20, 2009: La Revue du Praticien
Andrea Rognoni, Marzia Bertolazzi, Sergio Maccio', Danilo Reale, Riccardo Proietti, Giorgio Rognoni
UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tako - tsubo like syndrome (also named left ventricular apical ballooning) is an unusual cardiomyopathy with an high incidence in Japanese population of female sex, following an emotional stress. The clinical features (typical chest pain), and the electrocardiographic changes (negative T wave and persistent ST elevation in anterior leads), are suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction; nevertheless the coronary angiography show coronary arteries without lesions and the ventriculography show specific segmental dysfunction...
2009: Cases Journal
C Ambrósio, P Abreu, M Alexandre, A Malcata
Extraarticular features are usually found in rheumatological diseases sometimes with no correlation with the disease's activity in that moment. Lymphoedema is one of these manifestations and it's defined as a tissue fluid accumulation with gradual onset of swelling of a limb. Because it is an unusual finding, the physiopatological explanation of this feature is still difficult to understand. We describe a case report of lymphoedema on left upper arm, in a patient with systemic juvenile arthritis, with no identified cause and with no associated systemic signs or symptoms...
October 2008: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Daniela Romualdi, Laura De Marinis, Giuseppe Campagna, Caterina Proto, Antonio Lanzone, Maurizio Guido
OBJECTIVE: Insulin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and leptin interact in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Most of these signals are altered in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by a high prevalence of obesity. The present study was conducted to evaluate ghrelin-NPY and ghrelin-leptin interplays in relation to insulin secretion in obese PCOS subjects. DESIGN: Pilot prospective study. PATIENTS: Seven obese PCOS women and seven age-weight matched controls...
October 2008: Clinical Endocrinology
C Serrano, A Valero, C Picado
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-sensitivity is a frequent condition in patients with chronic urticaria and/or asthma. The physiopatologic process underlying respiratory and cutaneous reactions probably involves an increased production of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor, has been proposed as the main alternative to control pain and inflammatory diseases in these patients. However, a small percentage of patients with NSAID-induced skin reactions does not even tolerate COX-2 selective inhibitors...
2005: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Massimo Gunelli, Mariano Barberini, Silvia Bruni, Lia Laghi, Alberto Mazzanti, Loredana Fabbri, Patrizia Maria Baldini, Alessandra Scaramucci, Roberto Ragazzoni, Pietro Muretto, Giorgio Maniscalco
The authors describe a case of sistemic argyria. They suggest a common physiopatologic mechanism with Wilson disease and they consider the utilization of penicillamine as a ligand for the silver, since there are not other available valid treatments.
March 2005: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Antonio Gaddi, Arrigo F G Cicero, Egidio J Pedro
Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the categories of drugs most frequently used by elderly people, and maybe the most self-prescribed drugs. Both coronary events, and stroke, can be prevented by daily aspirin assumption. Other NSAIDs, except selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs), seem to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events, but a definitive judgement is yet impossible. Moreover, these drugs cause more than 100,000 serious gastric adverse events each year in the US, and the risk increases exponentially in the elderly...
May 2004: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Maria do Carmo Pinho Franco, Dorothy Nigro, Zuleica B Fortes, Rita C A Tostes, Maria Helena C Carvalho, Sandra Regina Rodrigues Lucas, Guiomar Nascimento Gomes, Terezila Machado Coimbra, Frida Zaladek Gil
A large number of clinical and experimental studies supports the hypothesis that intrauterine undernutrition is an important determinant of hypertension, coronary heart disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the adult offspring. In this review, the renal and vascular repercussions of maternal undernutrition are emphasized, and the physiopatologic mechanisms discussed. The origin of hypertension is detailed based upon the findings of kidney functional parameters and endothelium function studies. A working model linking hypertension to intrauterine undernutrition is proposed...
November 1, 2003: Cardiovascular Research
Ivanor V Meira-Lima, Homero Vallada
The studies of genetic epidemiology provides consistent evidence of genetic factors having a major role on the risk for the bipolar affective disorder, although, vulnerability genes have not yet been identified in unequivocal form. The authors show that phospholipids play an important role in the cellular signalling processes, besides this, some studies with mood-stabilisers neurochemistry suggest that these drugs act in the phospholipase regulated signalling views. They conclude that analysis of gene variants that code enzymes of the phospholipids metabolism as potential susceptibility genes can extend the knowledge concerning the risk factors and the physiopatological mechanisms underling this mood disturbance...
March 2003: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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