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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448086/effects-of-running-wheel-activity-and-dietary-hmb-and-%C3%AE-alanine-co-supplementation-on-muscle-quality-in-aged-male-rats
#1
D W Russ, C Acksel, K W McCorkle, N K Edens, S M Garvey
OBJECTIVE: Loss of skeletal muscle function is linked to increased risk for loss of health and independence in older adults. Dietary interventions that can enhance aging muscle function, alone or in combination with exercise, may offer an effective way to reduce these risks. The goal of this study was to evaluate the muscular effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and beta-alanine (β-Ala) co-supplementation in aged Sprague-Dawley rats with voluntary access to running wheels (RW)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443029/superior-effects-of-eccentric-to-concentric-knee-extensor-resistance-training-on-physical-fitness-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipid-profiles-of-elderly-men
#2
Trevor Chung-Ching Chen, Wei-Chin Tseng, Guan-Ling Huang, Hsin-Lian Chen, Kuo-Wei Tseng, Kazunori Nosaka
It has been reported that eccentric training of knee extensors is effective for improving blood insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles to a greater extent than concentric training in young women. However, it is not known whether this is also the case for elderly individuals. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that eccentric training of the knee extensors would improve physical function and health parameters (e.g., blood lipid profiles) of older adults better than concentric training. Healthy elderly men (60-76 years) were assigned to either eccentric training or concentric training group (n = 13/group), and performed 30-60 eccentric or concentric contractions of knee extensors once a week...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439212/effect-of-thyme-extract-supplementation-on-lipid-peroxidation-antioxidant-capacity-pgc-1%C3%AE-content-and-endurance-exercise-performance-in-rats
#3
Mostafa Khani, Pezhman Motamedi, Mohammad Reza Dehkhoda, Saeed Dabagh Nikukheslat, Pouran Karimi
BACKGROUND: Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436720/efficacy-and-safety-of-statins-and-exercise-combination-therapy-compared-to-statin-monotherapy-in-patients-with-dyslipidaemia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Ya-Jun Gui, Cai-Xiu Liao, Qiong Liu, Yuan Guo, Tao Yang, Jing-Yuan Chen, Ya-Ting Wang, Jia-Hui Hu, Dan-Yan Xu
Background Statin treatment in association with physical exercise can substantially reduce mortality in dyslipidaemic individuals. However, the available data to compare the efficacy and safety of statins and exercise combination therapy with statin monotherapy are limited. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library from database inception until December 2016. We included randomised and non-randomised studies that compared the efficacy and safety of statins and exercise combination therapy with statin monotherapy in patients with dyslipidaemia...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436105/exercise-decreases-marrow-adipose-tissue-though-%C3%A3-oxidation-in-obese-running-mice
#5
Maya Styner, Gabriel M Pagnotti, Cody McGrath, Xin Wu, Buer Sen, Gunes Uzer, Zhihui Xie, Xiaopeng Zong, Martin A Styner, Clinton T Rubin, Janet Rubin
The relationship between marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone health is poorly understood. We used running exercise to ask whether obesity-associated-MAT can be attenuated via exercise and whether this correlates with gains in bone quantity and quality. C57BL/6 mice were divided into diet-induced obesity (DIO n = 14) vs. low-fat diet (LFD n = 14). After 3 months, 16-week-old mice were allocated to an exercise intervention (LFD-E, DIO-E) or a control group (LFD, DIO) for 6 week (4 groups, n = 7/group)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#6
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429194/photobiomodulation-therapy-associated-with-treadmill-training-in-the-oxidative-stress-in-a-collagen-induced-arthritis-model
#7
Solange Almeida Dos Santos, Marcia Ataize Dos Santos Vieira, Maira Cécilia Brandão Simões, Andrey Jorge Serra, Ernesto Cesar Leal-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by chronic and systemic inflammation, which leads to the destruction of the cartilage and bone and affects tissues in multiple joints. Oxidative stress has been implicated with regards to involvement in various disease conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative, respiratory, cardiovascular, and RA diseases. In vivo experimental studies using photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) have shown positive effects in reducing lipid peroxidation and in increasing antioxidant activity...
April 21, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425939/fructose-consumption-in-the-development-of-obesity-and-the-effects-of-different-protocols-of-physical-exercise-on-the-hepatic-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Rodrigo Martins Pereira, José Diego Botezelli, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Rania A Mekary, Dennys Esper Cintra, José Rodrigo Pauli, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, Leandro Pereira de Moura
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes, and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419000/exercise-induced-autophagy-in-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Sung Kook Chun, Sooyeon Lee, Ming-Jim Yang, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Jae-Sung Kim
Hepatic steatosis prevails each year. Autophagy is integral in mitochondrial quality control and lipid homeostasis in the liver. No pharmacological strategies are currently available to reduce hepatic steatosis, but exercise has been known to improve clinical outcomes of chronic liver disease, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent studies suggest that exercise may improve NAFLD through enhancing autophagy.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414064/obesity-in-coronary-heart-disease-an-unaddressed-behavioral-risk-factor
#10
Philip A Ades, Patrick D Savage
Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD). Over 80% of patients with CHD are overweight or obese. While obesity is often considered a relatively "minor" CHD risk factor, weight loss is a broadly effective risk-factor intervention. Weight loss can profoundly influence a number of "major" risk factors including: hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite its prominence as a risk factor most cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs do not have a specific, targeted intervention to assist patients with weight loss...
April 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404813/cycling-our-way-to-fit-fat
#11
REVIEW
Logan K Townsend, Carly M Knuth, David C Wright
Adipose tissue is increasingly being recognized as a key regulator of whole body carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In conditions of obesity and insulin resistance mitochondrial content in this tissue is reduced, while treatment with insulin sensitizing drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) increase mitochondrial content. It has been known for decades that exercise increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and now several laboratories have shown similar effects in adipose tissue. To date the specific mechanisms mediating this effect have not been fully identified...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403174/exercise-in-vivo-marks-human-myotubes-in-vitro-training-induced-increase-in-lipid-metabolism
#12
Jenny Lund, Arild C Rustan, Nils G Løvsletten, Jonathan M Mudry, Torgrim M Langleite, Yuan Z Feng, Camilla Stensrud, Mari G Brubak, Christian A Drevon, Kåre I Birkeland, Kristoffer J Kolnes, Egil I Johansen, Daniel S Tangen, Hans K Stadheim, Hanne L Gulseth, Anna Krook, Eili T Kase, Jørgen Jensen, G Hege Thoresen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical activity has preventive as well as therapeutic benefits for overweight subjects. In this study we aimed to examine effects of in vivo exercise on in vitro metabolic adaptations by studying energy metabolism in cultured myotubes isolated from biopsies taken before and after 12 weeks of extensive endurance and strength training, from healthy sedentary normal weight and overweight men. METHODS: Healthy sedentary men, aged 40-62 years, with normal weight (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2) or overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399076/effects-of-a-10-day-intensive-health-promotion-program-combining-diet-and-physical-activity-on-body-composition-physical-fitness-and-blood-factors-of-young-adults-a-randomized-pilot-study
#13
Kyoung Soon Lee, Jae Koo Lee, Young Ran Yeun
BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group...
April 11, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398943/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-risk-of-fatty-liver-the-young-finns-study
#14
Kristiina S Pälve, Katja Pahkala, Emmi Suomela, Heikki Aatola, Janne Hulkkonen, Markus Juonala, Terho Lehtimäki, Tapani Rönnemaa, Jorma S A Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Risto Telama, Tuija Tammelin, Olli T Raitakari
PURPOSE: Fatty liver is an expanding health concern associated with metabolic disturbances and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies in animals have shown associations between fatty liver and cardiorespiratory fitness but limited data exist in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the links between cardiorespiratory fitness and fatty liver in a population based sample of adults. METHODS: Participants were 463 adults (48% males) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398573/skeletal-muscle-pgc1%C3%AE-1-nucleosome-position-and-260nt-dna-methylation-determine-exercise-response-and-prevent-ectopic-lipid-accumulation-in-men
#15
Sudip Bajpeyi, Jeffrey D Covington, Erin M Taylor, Laura K Stewart, Jose E Galgani, Tara M Henagan
Endurance exercise has been shown to improve lipid oxidation and increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle: two features that have shown dependence on increased expression of the PPAR gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC1α). It is also hypothesized that exercise related alterations in PGC1α expression occur through epigenetic regulation of nucleosome positioning in association with differential DNA methylation status within the PCG1α promoter. Here we show that when primary human myotubes from obese, type 2 diabetics are exposed to lipolytic stimulus (PFI) in vitro, nucleosome occupancy surrounding the -260 nucleotide (nt) region, a known regulatory DNA methylation site, is reduced...
April 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386795/-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-response-to-exercise-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#16
I Turinese, P Marinelli, M Bonini, M Rossetti, G Statuto, T Filardi, A Paris, A Lenzi, S Morano, P Palange
PURPOSE: Physical activity is an effective therapeutic tool for cardiovascular risk prevention. However, exercise aerobic capacity of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) has not been thoroughly investigated. Aim of the present study is to evaluate exercise aerobic capacity in patients with T1DM compared to a normal control population. METHODS: This observational study included 17 T1DM patients and 17 matched healthy volunteers. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was conducted on an electronically-braked cycle ergometer...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386566/irisin-a-potential-link-between-physical-exercise-and-metabolism-an-observational-study-in-differently-trained-subjects-from-elite-athletes-to-sedentary-people
#17
Stefano Benedini, Elena Dozio, Pietro Luigi Invernizzi, Elena Vianello, Giuseppe Banfi, Ileana Terruzzi, Livio Luzi, Massimiliano Marco Corsi Romanelli
We compared irisin levels among groups of differently trained healthy individuals to explore the role of irisin as a physiological linker between exercise and metabolic health. Irisin and biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in 70 healthy volunteers stratified for sport performance level into four groups: (1) 20 elite athletes of national level, (2) 20 subelite athletes of local level, (3) 20 recreational athletes, and (4) 10 sedentary subjects. All biochemical parameters were within the ranges of normality...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385599/intramyocellular-lipid-content-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-responses-following-a-single-bout-of-resistance-type-exercise-differ-between-young-and-older-men
#18
Kostas Tsintzas, Francis B Stephens, Tim Snijders, Benjamin T Wall, Scott Cooper, Joanne Mallinson, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
The aim of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and the expression of genes associated with IMCL turnover, fat metabolism, and inflammation during recovery from an acute bout of resistance type exercise in old versus young men. Seven healthy young (23±2years, 77.2±2.9kg) and seven healthy older (72±1years, 79.3±4.9kg) males performed a single bout of resistance exercise involving 6 sets of 10 repetitions of leg press and 6 sets of 10 repetitions of leg extension at 75% one-repetition maximum (1-RM)...
April 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377392/effects-of-testosterone-and-evoked-resistance-exercise-after-spinal-cord-injury-terex-sci-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Ashraf S Gorgey, Refka E Khalil, Ranjodh Gill, Laura C O'Brien, Timothy Lavis, Teodoro Castillo, David X Cifu, Jeannie Savas, Rehan Khan, Christopher Cardozo, Edward J Lesnefsky, David R Gater, Robert A Adler
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at a lifelong risk of obesity and chronic metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Within a few weeks of injury, there is a significant decline in whole body fat-free mass, particularly lower extremity skeletal muscle mass, and subsequent increase in fat mass (FM). This is accompanied by a decrease in anabolic hormones including testosterone. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to increase skeletal muscle mass and improve metabolic profile...
April 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368329/vitamin-a-oral-supplementation-induces-oxidative-stress-and-suppresses-il-10-and-hsp70-in-skeletal-muscle-of-trained-rats
#20
Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Carolina Saibro Girardi, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Alice Kunzler, Juciano Gasparotto, Thallita Kelly Rabelo, Cristiane Matté, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
Exercise training intensity is the major variant that influences the relationship between exercise, redox balance, and immune response. Supplement intake is a common practice for oxidative stress prevention; the effects of vitamin A (VA) on exercise training are not yet described, even though this molecule exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the role of VA supplementation on redox and immune responses of adult Wistar rats subjected to swimming training. Animals were divided into four groups: sedentary, sedentary + VA, exercise training, and exercise training + VA...
April 2, 2017: Nutrients
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