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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780527/assessment-of-orientation-practices-for-ethics-consultation-at-harvard-medical-school-affiliated-hospitals
#1
Danish Zaidi, Jennifer C Kesselheim
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted to assess the quality of orientation practices for ethics advisory committees that conduct ethics consultation. This survey study focused on several Harvard teaching hospitals, exploring orientation quality and committee members' self-evaluation in the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) ethics consultation competencies. METHODS: We conducted a survey study that involved 116 members and 16 chairs of ethics advisory committees, respectively (52% and 62...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594590/the-past-present-and-future-of-nutrition-and-cancer-part-1-was-a-nutritional-association-acknowledged-a-century-ago
#2
T Colin Campbell
Professional interest in the association of diet and nutrition with cancer first appeared in the early 1800s, if not before. Yet, progress in understanding this association over the past two centuries has been exceedingly slow and confusing. Without addressing this confusion, progress in using diet and nutrition information to prevent and even to treat cancer, will remain uncertain. To better understand this issue, the present paper is the first of two to explore the history of the diet and cancer relationship prior to a 1982 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer...
July 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456418/transmitting-trauma-a-systematic-review-of-vicarious-racism-and-child-health
#3
N J Heard-Garris, M Cale, L Camaj, M C Hamati, T P Dominguez
Racism is a pervasive stressor. Although most research focuses on direct targets, racism can also have unintended victims. Because children's lives are inevitably linked to the experiences of other individuals, and they are in critical phases of development, they are especially vulnerable to such stressors. Despite the growing body of literature on children's direct exposure to racism, little is known about the relationship between vicarious racism (i.e. secondhand exposure to racism) and child health. To examine the state of this literature, we performed a systematic review and screened 1371 articles drawn from 7 databases, with 30 studies meeting inclusion criteria...
April 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452698/hepatitis-b-screening-vaccination-behaviors-in-a-community-based-sample-of-chinese-korean-americans-in-new-york-city
#4
Shijian Li, Shao-Chee Sim, Linda Lee, Henry J Pollack, Laura C Wyatt, Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Perry Pong, Simona C Kwon
OBJECTIVES: As Asian Americans are dis- proportionately affected by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), we explored predictors of HBV screening and vaccination among Chinese and Korean Americans. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from a com- munity-based sample of Chinese Americans (N = 502) and Korean Americans (N = 487) residing in the metropolitan New York City area during 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were stratified by Asian-American subgroup and sex to predict HBV screening (for the entire sam- ple) and HBV vaccination (among those not HBV positive)...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364374/improving-urban-minority-girls-health-via-community-summer-programming
#5
Amy M Bohnert, Carolyn R Bates, Amy M Heard, Kimberly A Burdette, Amanda K Ward, Rebecca L Silton, Lara R Dugas
Summertime has emerged as a high-risk period for weight gain among low-income minority youth who often experience a lack of resources when not attending school. Structured programming may be an effective means of reducing risk for obesity by improving obesogenic behaviors among these youth. The current multi-method study examined sedentary time, physical activity, and dietary intake among low-income urban minority girls in two contexts: an unstructured summertime setting and in the context of a structured 4-week community-based summer day camp program promoting physical activity...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344855/changes-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-knowledge-behavior-beliefs-self-efficacy-and-barriers-among-community-health-clinic-patients-after-a-health-literacy-intervention
#6
Connie L Arnold, Alfred Rademaker, Dachao Liu, Terry C Davis
OBJECTIVE: The objective in this pre- and post-survey assessment was to compare the effectiveness of a health literacy-directed intervention designed to increase knowledge, beliefs, barriers, self-efficacy and behavior associated with CRC screening with FOBT among patients cared for in predominantly rural community clinics and the change in these characteristics over the first 15 months after enrolling in a study designed to assess screening strategies. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2011, a quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in 8 predominantly rural Federally Qualified Health Centers...
February 2017: Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219598/physical-activity-among-organ-recipients-data-collected-from-the-latin-american-transplant-games
#7
A N Atamañuk, J P Ortiz Fragola, M Casonu, C Lirio, V Graziano, F Cicora
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications after transplantation are an important cause of non-transplant-related deaths. Depression and anxiety are not unusual among organ recipients. Physical activity reduces cardiovascular risk and promotes a sensation of well-being. The aims of the study were to examine how exercise affects psychological well-being sensation in organ recipients and to describe the physician's role in promoting and controlling safe sport training in transplanted patients...
March 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144579/microvascular-response-to-transfusion-in-elective-spine-surgery
#8
J Matthias Walz, Ottokar Stundner, Federico P Girardi, Bruce A Barton, Aimee R Koll-Desrosiers, Stephen O Heard, Stavros G Memtsoudis
AIM: To investigate the microvascular (skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation; SmO2) response to transfusion in patients undergoing elective complex spine surgery. METHODS: After IRB approval and written informed consent, 20 patients aged 18 to 85 years of age undergoing > 3 level anterior and posterior spine fusion surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were followed throughout the operative procedure, and for 12 h postoperatively. In addition to standard American Society of Anesthesiologists monitors, invasive measurements including central venous pressure, continual analysis of stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), and stroke volume variability (SVV) was performed...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065521/perceived-dual-method-responsibilities-by-relationship-type-among-african-american-male-adolescents
#9
Melissa Gilliam, Elisabeth Woodhams, Heather Sipsma, Brandon Hill
PURPOSE: To describe the extent to which African-American male adolescents perceive responsibility for contraception and condom use and to understand the perceived importance of dual method use for respondents in casual versus committed relationships. METHODS: Data were collected using surveys informed by formative focus group sessions. Participants included African-American male high-school students aged 14-19 years from the Chicago's South Side. Respondents were surveyed regarding contraceptive behavioral intentions and perceived importance of dual method use...
March 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915483/factors-associated-with-sterilization-among-hiv-positive-us-women-in-an-urban-outpatient-clinic
#10
V T Raziano, A N Smoots, L B Haddad, K M Wall
This cross-sectional study sought to determine factors associated with sterilization among HIV-positive US women. HIV-positive women aged 18-45 completed an Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) questionnaire. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression evaluated factors associated with sterilization. The median age of the 187 participants was 37, the majority had at least a high school education, and 88% were African American. Nearly a quarter (22%) of women had undergone sterilization at an average age of 25; of these women, 71% cited their HIV-positive status as an important factor in deciding to have a tubal ligation, 22% expressed desire for future children, 32% reported sterilization regret, and 20% reported feeling pressure to undergo sterilization...
May 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900593/factors-associated-with-hepatitis-b-knowledge-among-vietnamese-americans-a-population-based-survey
#11
Janet N Chu, Phuoc V Le, Chris J Kennedy, Stephen J McPhee, Ching Wong, Susan L Stewart, Tung T Nguyen
Vietnamese Americans have high rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but low rates of knowledge and screening. A population-based survey conducted in 2011 of Vietnamese Americans in two geographic areas (n = 1666) was analyzed. The outcome variables were having heard of HBV and a score summarizing knowledge of HBV transmission. Most respondents (86.0%) had heard of HBV. Correct knowledge of transmission ranged from 59.5% for sex, 68.1% for sharing toothbrushes, 78.6% for during birth, and 85.0% for sharing needles...
August 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898175/interventions-for-promoting-participation-in-shared-decision-making-for-children-with-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Imelda Coyne, Dónal P O'Mathúna, Faith Gibson, Linda Shields, Edith Leclercq, Greg Sheaf
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the Cochrane systematic review of shared decision-making (SMD) making published in 2013. Children's rights to have their views heard in matters that affect their lives are now well established since the publication of the UN Convention treaty (1989). Children with cancer generally prefer to be involved in decision-making and consider it important that they have the opportunity to take part in decision-making concerning their health care, even in end-of-life decisions...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779945/hpv-awareness-knowledge-and-vaccination-attitudes-among-church-going-african-american-women
#13
Sarah B Maness, Lorraine R Reitzel, Kellie L Watkins, Lorna H McNeill
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this exploratory study was to improve understanding of the sociodemographic correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness, knowledge, and vaccination attitudes in a convenience sample of church-going, African-American women and how knowledge about HPV-related cancers relates to vaccination attitudes for girls and boys. METHODS: Participants (N = 308) answered survey questions about HPV awareness, knowledge, and vaccination attitudes...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734247/diverse-families-experiences-with-hpv-vaccine-information-sources-a-community-based-participatory-approach
#14
Djin Lai, Julia Bodson, France A Davis, Doriena Lee, Fahina Tavake-Pasi, Edwin Napia, Jeannette Villalta, Valentine Mukundente, Ryan Mooney, Heather Coulter, Louisa A Stark, Ana C Sanchez-Birkhead, Deanna Kepka
Current sources of publicly available human papillomavirus (HPV) information may not adequately meet the needs of diverse families. This study sought to describe associations between sociodemographic and acculturation factors, and sources of HPV information among diverse parents and caregivers. Community organizations purposively recruited participants from African American, African refugee, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities for a 21-item survey (N = 228)...
April 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690559/apa-council-reports
#15
(no author information available yet)
At the fall component meetings of the American Psychiatric Association in Crystal City, Va., September 14-17, 2016, the APA councils heard reports from their components. Following are summaries of the activities of the councils and their components.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536928/using-community-feedback-to-improve-community-interventions-results-from-the-deep-south-network-for-cancer-control-project
#16
Theresa A Wynn, Sharon B Wyatt, Claudia M Hardy, Shundra S Walker, Tammi Floyd Thomas, Angela G Williams, Edward E Partridge
The Deep South Network for Cancer Control (DSNCC), initiated in 2000, is a dual-state, community-based participatory research infrastructure composed of academic and community partners committed to reducing cancer disparities among underserved African Americans in 12 designated counties of the Alabama Black Belt and the Mississippi Delta, 2 historically underserved areas of the country. Local residents trained as Community Health Advisors as Research Partners implemented a 3-tier community action plan (CAP) focused on promoting cancer screening, physical activity, and nutrition...
October 2016: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458724/international-evidence-based-medicine-survey-of-the-veterinary-profession-information-sources-used-by-veterinarians
#17
Selene J Huntley, Rachel S Dean, Andrew Massey, Marnie L Brennan
Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources) are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418473/current-procedural-terminology-history-structure-and-relationship-to-valuation-for-the-neuroradiologist
#18
T M Leslie-Mazwi, J A Bello, R Tu, G N Nicola, W D Donovan, R M Barr, J A Hirsch
The year 1965 was critical for US health care policy. In that year, Medicare was created as part of the Social Security Act under President Lyndon B. Johnson after several earlier attempts by Presidents Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman. In 1966, the American Medical Association first published a set of standard terms and descriptors to document medical procedures, known as Current Procedural Terminology, or CPT. Fifty years later, though providers have certainly heard the term "CPT code," most would benefit from an enhanced understanding of the historical basis, current structure, and relationship to valuation of Current Procedural Terminology...
July 14, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180391/highlighting-hospital-and-patient-concerns-this-election-year
#19
Tom Nickels
Campaign 2016 is in full swing, and the American Hospital Association is seizing the opportunity to make sure the concerns of patients and hospitals are heard. On the front burner: escalating drug prices.
March 2016: Hospitals & Health Networks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084759/tuning-in-and-catching-on-examining-the-relationship-between-pandemic-communication-and-awareness-and-knowledge-of-mers-in-the-usa
#20
Leesa Lin, Rachel F McCloud, Cabral A Bigman, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
Background: Large-scale influenza outbreaks over the last decade, such as SARS and H1N1, have brought to global attention the importance of emergency risk communication and prompted the international community to develop communication responses. Since pandemic outbreaks are relatively infrequent, there is a dearth of evidence addressing the following questions: (i) Have the resources invested in strategic and routine communication for past pandemic outbreaks yielded public health preparedness benefits? (ii) Have past efforts sensitized people to pay attention to new pandemic threats? The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) that was followed closely by major media outlets in the USA provides an opportunity to examine the relationship between exposure to public communication about epidemics and public awareness and knowledge about new risks...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Public Health
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