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Engram review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521127/synaptic-plasticity-engrams-and-network-oscillations-in-amygdala-circuits-for-storage-and-retrieval-of-emotional-memories
#1
REVIEW
Marco Bocchio, Sadegh Nabavi, Marco Capogna
The neuronal circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial for acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of associative emotional memories. Synaptic plasticity in BLA neurons is essential for associative emotional learning and is a candidate mechanism through which subsets of BLA neurons (commonly termed "engram") are recruited during learning and reactivated during memory retrieval. In parallel, synchronous oscillations in the theta and gamma bands between the BLA and interconnected structures have been shown to occur during consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469009/heroes-of-the-engram
#2
Sheena A Josselyn, Stefan Köhler, Paul W Frankland
In 1904, Richard Semon introduced the term "engram" to describe the neural substrate responsible for (or at least important in) storing and recalling memories (i.e., a memory trace). The recent introduction of a vast array of powerful new tools to probe and manipulate memory function at the cell and neuronal circuit level has spurred an explosion of interest in studying the engram. However, the present "engram renaissance" was not borne in isolation but rather builds on a long tradition of memory research. We believe it is important to acknowledge the debts our current generation of scientists owes to those scientists who have offered key ideas, persevered through failed experiments and made important discoveries before us...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465166/sleeping-on-the-motor-engram-the-multifaceted-nature-of-sleep-related-motor-memory-consolidation
#3
REVIEW
Bradley R King, Kerstin Hoedlmoser, Franziska Hirschauer, Nina Dolfen, Genevieve Albouy
For the past two decades, it has generally been accepted that sleep benefits motor memory consolidation processes. This notion, however, has been challenged by recent studies and thus the sleep and motor memory story is equivocal. Currently, and in contrast to the declarative memory domain, a comprehensive overview and synthesis of the effects of post-learning sleep on the behavioral and neural correlates of motor memory consolidation is not available. We therefore provide an extensive review of the literature in order to highlight that sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation depends upon multiple boundary conditions, including particular features of the motor task, the recruitment of relevant neural substrates (and the hippocampus in particular), as well as the specific architecture of the intervening sleep period (specifically, sleep spindle and slow wave activity)...
April 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439228/from-engrams-to-pathologies-of-the-brain
#4
REVIEW
Christine A Denny, Evan Lebois, Steve Ramirez
Memories are the experiential threads that tie our past to the present. The biological realization of a memory is termed an engram-the enduring biochemical and physiological processes that enable learning and retrieval. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of engram research that suggests we are closing in on boundary conditions for what qualifies as the physical manifestation of memory. In this review, we provide a brief history of engram research, followed by an overview of the many rodent models available to probe memory with intersectional strategies that have yielded unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution over defined sets of cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601979/how-does-the-sparse-memory-engram-neurons-encode-the-memory-of-a-spatial-temporal-event
#5
REVIEW
Ji-Song Guan, Jun Jiang, Hong Xie, Kai-Yuan Liu
Episodic memory in human brain is not a fixed 2-D picture but a highly dynamic movie serial, integrating information at both the temporal and the spatial domains. Recent studies in neuroscience reveal that memory storage and recall are closely related to the activities in discrete memory engram (trace) neurons within the dentate gyrus region of hippocampus and the layer 2/3 of neocortex. More strikingly, optogenetic reactivation of those memory trace neurons is able to trigger the recall of naturally encoded memory...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122991/which-neurons-will-be-the-engram-activated-neurons-and-or-more-excitable-neurons
#6
REVIEW
Ji-Il Kim, Hye-Yeon Cho, Jin-Hee Han, Bong-Kiun Kaang
During past decades, the formation and storage principle of memory have received much attention in the neuroscience field. Although some studies have attempted to demonstrate the nature of the engram, elucidating the memory engram allocation mechanism was not possible because of the limitations of existing methods, which cannot specifically modulate the candidate neuronal population. Recently, the development of new techniques, which offer ways to mark and control specific populations of neurons, may accelerate solving this issue...
April 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26289572/finding-the-engram
#7
REVIEW
Sheena A Josselyn, Stefan Köhler, Paul W Frankland
Many attempts have been made to localize the physical trace of a memory, or engram, in the brain. However, until recently, engrams have remained largely elusive. In this Review, we develop four defining criteria that enable us to critically assess the recent progress that has been made towards finding the engram. Recent 'capture' studies use novel approaches to tag populations of neurons that are active during memory encoding, thereby allowing these engram-associated neurons to be manipulated at later times...
September 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25958756/-toward-an-explanation-for-the-mnemonic-effects-of-glucocorticoids
#8
REVIEW
Freddy Jeanneteau
If the engram of long-term memory is encoded by structural changes of neuronal circuits, they are expected to be present at distant time points after learning, to be specific of circuits activated by learning, and sensitive to behavioral contingencies. In this review we present new concepts that emerged from in vivo imaging studies that tracked the structural bases of the memory trace. A fine balance of spine formation and spine elimination needed for behavioral adaptation to new experience is regulated by glucocorticoids, which are secreted in synchrony with circadian rhythms and in response to stress...
April 2015: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25957206/-memory-engram-of-brain-circuit
#9
REVIEW
Hiroto Kojima, Tetsuya Sakaguchi, Yuji Ikegaya
How are memories stored in the brain and retrieved on demand? This is a frequently asked question. Indeed, we acquire new memories daily and remember old ones. However, how we can memorize one-time experiences is yet to be investigated. Here, we review possible mechanisms by which memories are maintained in neural networks.
May 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25459663/birdsong-memory-and-the-brain-in-search-of-the-template
#10
REVIEW
Johan J Bolhuis, Sanne Moorman
In his pioneering research on the neural mechanisms of filial imprinting, Gabriel Horn has gone a long way to fulfilling Karl Lashley's dream of finding the 'engram' or memory trace in the brain. Here we review recent research into the engram(s) of song learning in songbirds, particularly zebra finches. When juvenile songbirds learn their songs from a tutor, they form and alter a central representation of the tutor song, known as the 'template'. Secondary auditory regions in the caudal medial pallium are likely to contain the neural substrate for the representation of tutor song, but the roles of the different regions remain to be elucidated...
March 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25280908/in-search-of-a-recognition-memory-engram
#11
REVIEW
M W Brown, P J Banks
A large body of data from human and animal studies using psychological, recording, imaging, and lesion techniques indicates that recognition memory involves at least two separable processes: familiarity discrimination and recollection. Familiarity discrimination for individual visual stimuli seems to be effected by a system centred on the perirhinal cortex of the temporal lobe. The fundamental change that encodes prior occurrence within the perirhinal cortex is a reduction in the responses of neurones when a stimulus is repeated...
March 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25200178/electrifying-the-motor-engram-effects-of-tdcs-on-motor-learning-and-control
#12
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry, Reza Shadmehr
Learning to control our movements is accompanied by neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e., the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: (1) Firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, (2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and (3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns...
November 2014: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24478647/identification-and-optogenetic-manipulation-of-memory-engrams-in-the-hippocampus
#13
REVIEW
Steve Ramirez, Susumu Tonegawa, Xu Liu
With the accumulation of our knowledge about how memories are formed, consolidated, retrieved, and updated, neuroscience is now reaching a point where discrete memories can be identified and manipulated at rapid timescales. Here, we start with historical studies that lead to the modern memory engram theory. Then, we will review recent advances in memory engram research that combine transgenic and optogenetic approaches to reveal the underlying neuronal substrates sufficient for activating mnemonic processes...
2013: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24298167/the-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory-hypothesis-encoding-storage-and-persistence
#14
REVIEW
Tomonori Takeuchi, Adrian J Duszkiewicz, Richard G M Morris
The synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis asserts that activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is induced at appropriate synapses during memory formation and is both necessary and sufficient for the encoding and trace storage of the type of memory mediated by the brain area in which it is observed. Criteria for establishing the necessity and sufficiency of such plasticity in mediating trace storage have been identified and are here reviewed in relation to new work using some of the diverse techniques of contemporary neuroscience...
January 5, 2014: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23908616/neural-pathways-mediating-cross-education-of-motor-function
#15
Kathy L Ruddy, Richard G Carson
Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to enhancements in the performance of the opposite, untrained limb. Despite interest in this phenomenon having been sustained for more than a century, a comprehensive explanation of the mediating neural mechanisms remains elusive. With new evidence emerging that cross education may have therapeutic utility, the need to provide a principled evidential basis upon which to design interventions becomes ever more pressing. Generally, mechanistic accounts of cross education align with one of two explanatory frameworks...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23355389/lifetime-memories-from-persistently-supple-synapses
#16
Aryeh Routtenberg
It is here proposed that the evanescent network derived from malleable or supple synapses is the substrate for long-lasting memory. The subjective sense of memory permanence is not derived, as suggested by Bain and others, from the stabilization of synaptic structure which gives rise to consolidated distributed networks. This generally held wisdom that synapses are activated and ultimately stabilized to reflect the long-lasting substrate of memory is reinforced by increased interest in the importance of sparse coding in memory consolidation...
March 2013: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22999350/catching-the-engram-strategies-to-examine-the-memory-trace
#17
REVIEW
Masanori Sakaguchi, Yasunori Hayashi
Memories are stored within neuronal ensembles in the brain. Modern genetic techniques can be used to not only visualize specific neuronal ensembles that encode memories (e.g., fear, craving) but also to selectively manipulate those neurons. These techniques are now being expanded for the study of various types of memory. In this review, we will summarize the genetic methods used to visualize and manipulate neurons involved in the representation of memory engrams. The methods will help clarify how memory is encoded, stored and processed in the brain...
2012: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21507544/cerebellar-induced-apraxic-agraphia-a-review-and-three-new-cases
#18
REVIEW
Hyo Jung De Smet, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Philippe F Paquier, Peter P De Deyn, Peter Mariën
Apraxic agraphia is a writing disorder due to a loss or lack of access to motor engrams that program the movements necessary to produce letters. Clinical and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the neural network responsible for writing includes the superior parietal region and the dorsolateral and medial premotor cortex. Recent studies of two cases with atypical lesion localisations in the left thalamus and the right cerebellum support the hypothesis that the written language network is larger than previously assumed...
August 2011: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20569648/continuing-the-search-for-the-engram-examining-the-mechanism-of-fear-memories
#19
REVIEW
Sheena A Josselyn
The goal of my research is to gain insight using rodent models into the fundamental molecular, cellular and systems that make up the base of memory formation. My work focuses on fear memories. Aberrant fear and/or anxiety may be at the heart of many psychiatric disorders. In this article, I review the results of my research group; these results show that particular neurons in the lateral amygdala, a brain region important for fear, are specifically involved in particular fear memories. We started by showing that the transcription factor CREB (cAMP/Ca(2+) response element binding protein) plays a key role in the formation of fear memories...
July 2010: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19012072/genes-and-circuits-for-olfactory-associated-long-term-memory-in-drosophila
#20
REVIEW
Chia-Lin Wu, Ann-Shyn Chiang
One of the formidable challenges in modern neuroscience is to identify the physical basis of long-term memory (LTM) storage−the engram. Cellular and molecular experiments have suggested that the engram for a particular behavioral task is encoded as changes in synaptic structure and function, yet distributed in an unknown fashion across an ill-defined neural circuit or network. Accumulating genetic and circuitry information has provided some clues toward resolving this engram puzzle.This review will focus on recent discoveries of genes and circuits involved in the formation of olfactory-associated LTM in Drosophila...
2008: Journal of Neurogenetics
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