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Thomas Hopper, Marcia S Meixler
Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3...
2016: PloS One
José María Parisi, José Luis Castro, María Celina Luque, Marta Spinetto, Patricia Saidón, James Fitzgerald
Objective To describe the benefits obtained through South-South and triangular cooperation as a potential tool for strengthening medicine quality control in official medicines control laboratories (OMCLs) of the Region of the Americas. Methods Descriptive study of the project for strengthening drug quality control in OMCLs of the Caribbean community (CARICOM). Results Staff members of Argentina's National Administration for Drugs, Food, and Medical Technology (ANMAT) provided training to professionals from Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Shashar Moshe, Jamaica Siwak, Umit Tapan, Shin Yin Lee, Rosana D Meyer, Paige Parrack, Josenia Tan, Fatemeh Khatami, Jean Francis, Qing Zhao, Kevan Hartshorn, Vijaya B Kolachalama, Nader Rahimi, Vipul Chitalia
Despite the loss of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) in a majority of colorectal cancers (CRC), not all CRCs bear hallmarks of Wnt activation, such as nuclear β-catenin. This underscores the presence of other Wnt regulators that are important to define, given the pathogenic and prognostic roles of nuclear β-catenin in human CRC. Herein, we investigated the effect of Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) on nuclear β-catenin, which is an oncoprotein upregulated in CRC due to loss-of-function APC or gain-of-function CTNNB1 mutations...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Marleise McBean Graham, Jascinth Lindo, Venise D Bryan, Steve Weaver
The aim of this study is to determine the levels of stress among students in the Jamaican clinical setting and describe the perceived contributing factors to this stress. This cross-sectional study of 106secondyear students enrolled at 2 schools of nursing in Jamaica used a 30-item self-administered questionnaire to gather data on levels of stress and contributing factors. Participants were asked to rate the levels of stress experienced (scale: 0-5, where 5 was highest). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences® Version 19 for Windows®...
September 2016: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Keon West
Jamaica has developed an international reputation for severe anti-gay prejudice. However, in the past few years, between 2012 and 2015, intensified waves of activism have increased the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Jamaicans, and supported their social and legal inclusion in Jamaican society. This research investigated the effects of that activism by taking advantage of two large, representative surveys of Jamaicans' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: one in 2012 and one in 2015...
November 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Angela E Rankine-Mullings, Courtney R Little, Marvin E Reid, Deanne P Soares, Carolyn Taylor-Bryan, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Susan E Stuber, Asha V Badaloo, Karen Aldred, Margaret E Wisdom-Phipps, Teresa Latham, Russell E Ware
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown...
September 12, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
K King-Robinson, M G Lee, D Whittle, M Mills, B Hanchard, S Shah
Objectives: This study determined the prevalence and clinical features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) over a six-year period in a patient population. Methods: Patients diagnosed with fatty liver disease by ultrasound and/ or liver biopsy between June 2006 to June 2012 at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica were reviewed. Results: There were 384 cases of fatty liver disease identified and 230 patients were included in the study...
December 28, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Silvia Stringhini, Terrence E Forrester, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Estelle V Lambert, Bharathi Viswanathan, Walter Riesen, Wolfgang Korte, Naomi Levitt, Liping Tong, Lara R Dugas, David Shoham, Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu, Amy Luke, Pascal Bovet
BACKGROUND: Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCD-RFs) may differ in populations at different stages of the epidemiological transition. We assessed the social patterning of NCD-RFs in a study including populations with different levels of socioeconomic development. METHODS: Data on SES, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose were available from the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS), with about 500 participants aged 25-45 in each of five sites (Ghana, South Africa, Jamaica, Seychelles, United States)...
September 9, 2016: BMC Public Health
Phylicia Ricketts, Niladri Basu, Horace Fletcher, Mitko Voutchkov, Bharat Bassaw
BACKGROUND: Fish is an essential and traditional element in the diet of most Caribbean people. However it also contains methylmercury which can have severe effects on fetal neurodevelopment. The objective of this study was to assess the fish intake of a selected group of pregnant women from Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago and evaluate prenatal mercury exposure, using the placenta as a biomarker. METHOD: Food frequency questionnaires and placental samples were obtained from participating parturients at the time of delivery at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica (N = 100, from November 2012 to March 2013) and the Mt Hope Women's hospital in St Joseph, Trinidad & Tobago (N = 30, in June 2015)...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Nicolette Jones, Kandasi Levermore, Ava Neil, Tyrone Ellis, Nicolette Bryan, Sheldon Harker, Annecka Marshall, Peter A Newman
Transgender women are overrepresented in the Caribbean HIV epidemic. The study objective was to examine correlates of HIV infection and HIV testing among transgender women in Jamaica. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with HIV testing and HIV infection. Among 137 transgender women [mean age 24.0; standard deviation (SD) 5.5], three-quarters (n = 103, 75.7%) had received an HIV test...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Steven Davenport, Bryce Pardo
BACKGROUND: After decades of internal discussion, the Government of Jamaica recently amended its laws to create a regulated and licensed cannabis industry for medical and scientific purposes. The new law also decriminalizes personal possession and use of cannabis; allows cannabis to be used by individuals for religious, medical, scientific and therapeutic purposes; and permits home cultivation of up to five plants. METHODS: We first describe the statutory changes under the Dangerous Drugs (Amendment) Act of 2015 and compare it with other jurisdictions...
September 2, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kimarie Brown, Pauline Anderson-Johnson, Andrea Norman McPherson
Graduate students perceive their education as highly stressful, have consistently rated their stress levels as above average and have consistently scored above average on stress scales. The consequences of stress include negative academic outcomes, reduction in cognitive ability, impaired coping and incompletion of graduate studies. Stress is also associated with physical and psychological symptoms such as altered appetite, sleep pattern disturbances and headache. A descriptive correlational design was used to determine the perceived levels and sources of academic-related stress among students enrolled in a Master of Science in Nursing (MScN) degree programme at school of nursing in urban section of Jamaica...
September 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Julia N White, Jamaica Corker
Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs...
August 11, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
James Macinko, Frederico C Guanais, Pricila Mullachery, Geronimo Jimenez
The rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions occurring in Latin America and the Caribbean have led to high levels of noncommunicable diseases in the region. In addition to reduced risk factors for chronic conditions, a strong health system for managing chronic conditions is vital. This study assessed the extent to which populations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries receive high-quality primary care, and it examined the relationship between experiences with care and perceptions of health system performance...
August 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Nancy Edwards, Dan Kaseje, Eulalia Kahwa, Hester C Klopper, Judy Mill, June Webber, Susan Roelofs, Jean Harrowing
BACKGROUND: The enormous impact of HIV on communities and health services in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean has especially affected nurses, who comprise the largest proportion of the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Strengthening action-based leadership for and by nurses is a means to improve the uptake of evidence-informed practices for HIV care. METHODS: A prospective quasi-experimental study in Jamaica, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa examined the impact of establishing multi-stakeholder leadership hubs on evidence-informed HIV care practices...
2016: Implementation Science: IS
Douladel Willie-Tyndale, Desmalee Holder-Nevins, Kathryn Mitchell-Fearon, Kenneth James, Hazel Laws, Norman K Waldron, Denise Eldemire-Shearer
Social participation is critical for maintaining independence and facilitating active ageing. The aim of this paper is to describe participation in social activities among older adults in Jamaica and to identify independently associated socio-demographic and health characteristics. We analysed data from a nationally representative, community-based survey of 2943 persons 60 years and older. Sixty-three percent of older adults attended religious services and 60 % were visited by friends at least once per month in the 12 months preceding the survey...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
Jascinth Lindo, Rosain Stennett, Kayon Stephenson-Wilson, Kerry Ann Barrett, Donna Bunnaman, Pauline Anderson-Johnson, Veronica Waugh-Brown, Yvonne Wint
PURPOSE: Nursing documentation provides an important indicator of the quality of care provided for hospitalized patients. This study assessed the quality of nursing documentation on medical wards at three hospitals in Jamaica. METHODS: This cross-sectional study audited a multilevel stratified sample of 245 patient records from three type B hospitals. An audit instrument which assessed nursing documentation of client history, biological data, client assessment, nursing standards, discharge planning, and teaching facilitated data collection...
September 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Cristina Anne Rheims
Neostasina gen. nov. is proposed to include the type species, Neostasina macleayi (Bryant, 1940) comb. nov., and four other described species: N. lucasi (Bryant, 1940) comb. nov. and N. saetosa (Bryant, 1948) comb. nov., transferred from Stasina Simon, 1877, N. bicolor (Banks, 1914) comb. nov., from Olios Walckenaer, 1837, and N. antiguensis (Bryant, 1923) comb. nov., from Pseudosparianthis Simon, 1887. Stasina portoricensis Petrunkevitch, 1930 and Olios darlingtoni Bryant, 1942 are considered junior synonyms of N...
2016: Zootaxa
Frank H Hennemann, Oskar V Conle, Daniel E Perez-Gelabert
The anareolate New World subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 is reviewed and keys to the six tribes currently included are presented; these are: Cladomorphini Bradley & Galil, 1977, Cladoxerini Karny, 1923, Cranidiini Günther, 1953, Pterinoxylini n. trib., Hesperophasmatini Bradley & Galil, 1977 and Haplopodini Günther, 1953 rev. stat.. New diagnoses are presented for all these tribes and possible relationships within Cladomorphinae are discusssed. Morphology of the genitalia and egg-structures indicate Cladomorphinae as presently treated to be polyphyletic...
2016: Zootaxa
Jiří Mlíkovský
The generic name Geotrygon was introduced by Gosse (1847: 316) for some doves from the island of Jamaica and has been subsequently used for the so-called quail-doves of Middle and South America (Baptista et al. 1997; Gibbs et al. 2001; Dickinson 2003; Dickinson & Remsen 2013). Johnson & Weckstein (2011) and Banks et al. (2013) indicated that this genus is polyphyletic. The application of a generic name is determined by its type species (Art. 42.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; ICZN 1999; hereafter the Code)...
2016: Zootaxa
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