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Augusto R Elías-Boneta, Milagros J Toro, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, Arvind Babu Rajendra-Santosh, Michael Brache, James R Collins C
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of gingival inflammation in a group of adults from Kingston, Jamaica; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; and San Juan, Puerto Rico. METHODS: In this representative cross-sectional study, participants completed medical and oral health questionnaires and received an oral clinical examination by trained and calibrated examiners. Clinical assessments included: gingival health (modified Löe-Silness index), visible plaque and presence of calculus...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Rui Figueiredo, Mario L V Martina, David B Stephenson, Benjamin D Youngman
There is a pressing need for simple and reliable risk transfer mechanisms that can pay out quickly after natural disasters without delays caused by loss estimation, and the need for long historical claims records. One such approach, known as parametric insurance, pays out when a key hazard variable exceeds a predetermined threshold. However, this approach to catastrophe risk, based on making deterministic binary predictions of loss occurrence, is susceptible to basis risk (mismatch between payouts and realized losses)...
June 13, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Alexander Tinius, Anthony P Russell, Heather A Jamniczky, Jason S Anderson
Ecological niche partitioning of Anolis lizards of the Greater Antillean islands has been the focus of many comparative studies, and much is known about external morphological convergence that characterizes anole ecomorphs. Their internal anatomy, however, has rarely been explored in an ecomorphological context, and it remains unknown to what degree skeletal morphology tracks the diversity and ecological adaptation of these lizards. Herein, we employ CT scanning techniques to visualise the skeleton of the pelvic girdle in situ, and 3D geometric morphometrics to compare the form of the ilium, ischium, and pubis within and between ecomorphs...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Maria Barreix, Kelli Barbour, Affette McCaw-Binns, Doris Chou, Max Petzold, Gathari N Gichuhi, Luis Gadama, Frank Taulo, Özge Tunçalp, Lale Say
OBJECTIVE: To field test a standardized instrument to measure nonsevere morbidity among antenatal and postpartum women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jamaica, Kenya, and Malawi (2015-2016). Women presenting for antenatal care (ANC) or postpartum care (PPC) were recruited if they were at least 28 weeks into pregnancy or 6 weeks after delivery. They were interviewed and examined by a doctor, midwife, or nurse. Data were collected and securely stored electronically on a WHO server...
May 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Taneisha T Wilson, Jean Williams-Johnson, Maxine Gossel-Williams, Elizabeth M Goldberg, Rainford Wilks, Shuvra Dasgupta, Georgiana M Gordon-Strachan, Eric W Williams, Philip D Levy
BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure (BP) is common among emergency department (ED) patients. While some data exist on the association between ED BP and hypertension (HTN) in the USA, little is known about this relationship in Afro-Caribbean nations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated systolic BP in the ED and a previous diagnosis of HTN, accounting for potential factors that could contribute to poor HTN control among those with a previous diagnosis: socioeconomic status, health-seeking behavior, underlying HTN illness beliefs, medication adherence, and perceived adherence self-efficacy...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
R Willis, M Smikle, O Heslop, N Bodonaik, M Thame, U Kumar, M Aung, A Kellier, S Drysdale, V Leon
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal serotypes circulating in any population vary over time and between countries and impacts the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in Jamaica. METHODS: Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n= 349) along with demographic and clinical information were collected from patients presenting at the 4 major hospitals in Jamaica over a 2-year period...
May 16, 2018: Human Antibodies
P M Mannucci
INTRODUCTION: In the second decade of the third millennium there have been dramatic developments pertaining to the availability of highly innovative drugs for hemophilia care, notwithstanding a satisfactory previous scenario. AIM: I am going to emphasize the role of 2 main categories of players: scientist physicians who produced important translational research and the pharmaceutical industry, who developed, produced and made commercially available so many improved treatment weapons stemming from the translational research of the forementioned scientist physicians...
May 29, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Cagla Giray, Gail M Ferguson
We explore the quantity (frequency) and quality (priority, atmosphere, structure) of family mealtimes and associations with nutritional and emotional health in Jamaica. Urban adolescents (N = 330, M = 13.8 years, SD = 1.8, 64% girls) and their mothers (M = 41.4 years, SD = 7.8) completed questionnaires. On average, mothers reported having family meals 3-4 times/week and mealtime quality, but not quantity, was associated with health. Actor-partner independence modeling predicting unhealthy eating revealed that adolescents ate more unhealthily if their mothers watched more TV during meals (and vice versa: partner effect), and for high SES adolescents if their mothers had more difficulty finding time for family meals (and vice versa: interaction)...
May 24, 2018: Appetite
Locksley L McV Messam, Philip H Kass, Bruno B Chomel, Lynette A Hart
We conducted a veterinary clinic-based retrospective cohort study aimed at identifying child-, dog-, and home-environment factors associated with dog bites to children aged 5-15 years old living in the same home as a dog in Kingston, Jamaica (236) and San Francisco, USA (61). Secondarily, we wished to compare these factors to risk factors for dog bites to the general public. Participant information was collected via interviewer-administered questionnaire using proxy respondents. Data were analyzed using log-binomial regression to estimate relative risks and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each exposure-dog bite relationship...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Louise Lie, Laquita Brown, Terrence E Forrester, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Pascal Bovet, Estelle V Lambert, Brian T Layden, Amy Luke, Lara R Dugas
The greatest burden of cardiovascular disease is now carried by developing countries with cardiometabolic conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity and inflammation believed to be the driving force behind this epidemic. Dietary fiber is known to have protective effects against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Considering the emerging prevalence of these cardiometabolic disease states across the epidemiologic transition, the objective of this study is to explore these associations of dietary fiber with cardiometabolic risk factors in four countries across the epidemiologic transition...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
Althea C G Neblett, Tracey N Gibson, Carlos T Escoffery
There has been significant improvement in medical diagnostic technology, but discrepancy rates between clinical and postmortem diagnoses remain relatively high. This study aimed to identify misdiagnoses and missed (unexpected) findings documented during complete coroner's autopsies performed for trauma at the University of the West Indies (UWI) and evaluate their influence on patient outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all coroner's autopsies performed for trauma, between 2003 and 2012, at the UWI...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Andrew Condappa, Maxine Gossell-Williams, William Aiken
Conjugated oestrogen is one of the more affordable secondary hormonal options available for castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in Jamaica. The present study was conducted to examine the disease response in Jamaican men with CRPC treated with conjugated oestrogen. This study retrospectively reviewed the medical notes of patients who attended the urologic clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013 and a private urology clinic from 2 November 2005 to 3 June 2015 to identify patients diagnosed with CRPC treated with conjugated oestrogen (Premarin ®) as secondary therapy...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Jeffrey Perl, Eric McArthur, Vivian S Tan, Danielle M Nash, Amit X Garg, Ziv Harel, Alvin H Li, Manish M Sood, Joel G Ray, Ron Wald
Background The epidemiology of ESRD requiring maintenance dialysis (ESRD-D) in large, diverse immigrant populations is unclear. Methods We estimated ESRD-D prevalence and incidence among immigrants in Ontario, Canada. Adults residing in Ontario in 2014 were categorized as long-term Canadian residents or immigrants according to administrative health and immigration datasets. We determined ESRD-D prevalence among these adults and calculated age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) comparing immigrants to long-term residents...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Carmen H Logie, Ying Wang, Natania L Marcus, Kandasi Levermore, Nicolette Jones, Tyrone Ellis, Annecka Marshall, Peter A Newman
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica, where same sex practices are criminalized, is among the Caribbean's highest. Sexual stigma, the devaluation, mistreatment and reduced power afforded to sexual minorities, is a distal driver of HIV vulnerabilities. The mechanisms accounting for associations between sexual stigma and condom use outcomes are underexplored. We examined pathways from sexual stigma to condom use and condom breakage and/or slippage among MSM in Jamaica...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
M Anderson, M K Tulloch-Reid
Objective To determine the challenges, coping strategies and needs of urban and rural Jamaican caregivers of adolescents with diabetes, and suggest ways to assist coping. Methods This qualitative study comprised four focus groups (two urban and two rural) with a total of nineteen caregivers of adolescents with diabetes. Thematic analysis was conducted on the data. Results The main challenges caregivers faced were keeping their children healthy, managing conflict with their children, and financial concerns. They met these challenges with problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Illness
Wendel D Abel, Steve Weaver, Tana Ricketts Roomes, Chinwendu F Agu, Patrice Whitehorne Smith, Daniel C Oshi, Joy Harrison, Kristen Smith, Gabrielle Mitchell, Ashley Belinfante, Tania Rae, Sarah N Oshi
Objective: Alcohol is one of the most commonly consumed substances in Jamaica, despite the many health problems associated with excessive alcohol use. The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for alcohol binge drinking among Jamaicans, and determine if there were significant gender differences in the associations between identified risk factors and frequent binge drinking. Methods: Data collected from the 2016 National Household Survey Jamaica were analysed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using SPSS...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Steve Weaver, Daniel C Oshi, Wendel D Abel, Tania Rae, Sarah N Oshi, Patrice Whitehorne Smith, Tana Ricketts Roomes, Chinwendu F Agu
Background: Religion sometimes shapes behaviours and experiences of its members including alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of religious affiliation on alcohol consumption in Jamaica since they are predominantly Christians. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we analysed data from National Household Survey 2,016 of 4,623 participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS. Results: Out of the 4,623 participants, majority 3,244 (70...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Chinwendu F Agu, Steve Weaver, Wendel D Abel, Tania Rae, Sarah N Oshi, Patrice Whitehorne Smith, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Tana Ricketts Roomes, Ijeoma Meka, Daniel C Oshi
Background: The prevalence of cigarette smoking is high among adolescents in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Age of initiation of cigarette smoking varies among adolescents. A number of factors has been reported to influence early age of initiation of cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to determine if parental smoking status was associated with early age of onset of cigarette smoking among Jamaican adolescents. Methods: Data from the Jamaican National School Survey (NSS) conducted in 2013 were analysed...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Sarah N Oshi, Wendel D Abel, Chinwendu F Agu, Joachim C Omeje, Patrice Whitehorne Smith, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Tana Ricketts Roomes, Ijeoma A Meka, Steve Weaver, Tania Rae, Daniel C Oshi
The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between Jamaican secondary students’ alcohol drinking habits and their family structure. Methods: Data collected from a nationally representative survey of 3,365 students were analysed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Results: Out of the 3,365 students, 1,044 (31.0%) were from single-parent families. Single-parent families, married-parent families and common law-parent families were significantly associated with lifetime use of alcohol (AOR= 1...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Sarah N Oshi, Wendel D Abel, Tana Ricketts Roomes, Ijeoma A Meka, Joy Harrison, Steve Weaver, Chinwendu F Agu, Patrice Whitehorne Smith, Joachim C Omeje, Tania Rae, Daniel C Oshi
Background: Alcohol consumption among young people is a major public health problem world-wide and in Jamaica. A number of factors have been reported to affect alcohol use among high school students. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perception of the harmfulness of alcohol on alcohol use among secondary school students in Jamaica. Methods: Data collected from a nationally representative sample of 3,365 students were analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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