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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674856/a-new-species-of-turbanellidae-gastrotricha-macrodasyida-from-jamaica-with-a-key-to-species-of-paraturbanella
#1
Matteo Dal Zotto, Francesca Leasi, M Antonio Todaro
The study falls within the framework of a wider research programme aimed at investigating the gastrotrich diversity of the Tropical North-Western Atlantic (TNWA). A new macrodasyidan gastrotrich is described from fine-medium sand collected at Duncans Bay, Jamaica. The description is based on observations carried out on living specimens using differential interference contrast microscopy. Paraturbanella xaymacana sp. n. , the third gastrotrich taxon reported from Jamaica, is a mid-sized species, up to 564 μm long, with a feeble peribuccal swelling...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674148/seasonal-differences-in-trace-element-concentrations-and-distribution-in-spartina-alterniflora-root-tissue
#2
Huan Feng, Yu Qian, J Kirk Cochran, Qingzhi Zhu, Christina Heilbrun, Li Li, Wen Hu, Hanfei Yan, Xiaojing Huang, Mingyuan Ge, Evgeny Nazareski, Yong S Chu, Shinjae Yoo, Xuebin Zhang, Chang-Jun Liu
The present study uses nanometer-scale synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence to investigate season differences in concentrations and distributions of major (Ca, K, S and P) and trace elements (As, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn) in the root system of Spartina alterniflora collected from Jamaica Bay, New York, in April and September 2015. The root samples were cross-sectioned at a thickness of 10 μm. Selected areas in the root epidermis and endodermis were mapped with a sampling resolution of 100 and 200 nm, varying with the mapping areas...
April 13, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673041/the-causes-of-maternal-mortality-are-changing-and-preventable
#3
Mary J Stokes, Jeffrey P Wilkinson
McCaw-Binns' identified trends in maternal and late maternal mortality in Jamaica which mirror trends seen elsewhere. The WHO reported in 2016 that non-communicable diseases (NCD) were the leading cause of death for women (comprising 65% of deaths), with over 75% of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). (World Health Organization and UNICEF (2016) A systematic analysis of global causes of maternal deaths from 2003-2009 found one-quarter were due to indirect causes - primarily NCDs including heart disease, stroke, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease...
April 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658947/pulmonary-sequestration-associated-with-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation
#4
Zahira A De León-Ureña, Stanislaw Sadowinski-Pine, Lourdes Jamaica-Balderas, Jaime Penchyna-Grub
Introduction: Congenital pulmonary malformations are a rare cause of neonatal morbidity. Some of them have a common origin, which allows the identification of combined lesions. Its diagnosis can be made prenatally by ultrasound, with the limitation that this study is performed in specialized centers and depends on the expertise of the operator. The association of pulmonary sequestration and congenital malformation of the airway has been described in approximately 40-60 cases since its first description in 1949...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568999/hiv-risk-and-gender-in-jamaica-s-homeless-population
#5
Nicola Skyers, Sharlene Jarrett, Willi McFarland, Dahlia Cole, Uki Atkinson
Rigorous HIV-related data for the homeless population in Jamaica is limited. A cross-sectional survey using a venue-based sampling approach was conducted in 2015 to derive HIV prevalence and associated risk factors. Three hundred twenty-three homeless persons from the parishes of St. James, St. Ann, Kingston, and St. Andrew (the main urban centers) participated. HIV prevalence was 13.8%, with a difference in gender (males 11.6%, females 26.7%, P = .007). Sex work, multiple partnerships, incarceration, non-injecting drug use, and female rape were common among the participants...
March 22, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554107/antenatal-depressive-symptoms-in-jamaica-associated-with-limited-perceived-partner-and-other-social-support-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Omotayo Bernard, Roger C Gibson, Affette McCaw-Binns, Jody Reece, Charlene Coore-Desai, Sydonnie Shakespeare-Pellington, Maureen Samms-Vaughan
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression is associated with adverse maternal and infant well-being. However, compared to postpartum depression, it has been less frequently explored globally or in Jamaica. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, antenatal depressive symptoms among Jamaican women in order to inform policy and build interventions that could improve their management and reduce their negative consequences. METHODS: This secondary analysis of data from the second Jamaican Birth Cohort Study (JA-Kids Birth Cohort) included 3,517 women enrolled during pregnancy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549549/maternal-exposures-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-jamaican-children
#7
MacKinsey A Christian, Maureen Samms-Vaughan, MinJae Lee, Jan Bressler, Manouchehr Hessabi, Megan L Grove, Sydonnie Shakespeare-Pellington, Charlene Coore Desai, Jody-Ann Reece, Katherine A Loveland, Eric Boerwinkle, Mohammad H Rahbar
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. Many maternal exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding potentially interfere with neurodevelopment. Using data from two age- and sex-matched case-control studies in Jamaica (n = 298 pairs), results of conditional logistic regression analyses suggest that maternal exposures to fever or infection (matched odds ratio (MOR) = 3.12, 95% CI 1.74-5.60), physical trauma (MOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.01-4.05), and oil-based paints (MOR 1...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537183/integrating-early-child-development-and-violence-prevention-programs-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Yvette Efevbera, Dana C McCoy, Alice J Wuermli, Theresa S Betancourt
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in LMICs. The search yielded 5,244 unique records, of which N = 6 studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions were in Chile, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mexico, Mozambique, and Turkey...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521916/journeys-to-jamaica-a-healthy-dose-of-culture-competence-and-compassion
#9
Margaret Whelan, Ethel Ulrich, Joan Ginty, Denise Walsh
Nurse practitioner and doctor of nursing practice students gain cultural awareness and primary care experience on biannual medical mission trips to Jamaica. Faith-based Molloy College's partnership with professional medical volunteers enables students to apply clinical skills, express compassion, and gain interprofessional experience. Volunteers provide care and education for the high prevalence of noncommunicable conditions found in Jamaica. The program enjoys a positive relationship with Jamaica's Ministry of Health; a research study will assess impact on students and patients...
April 2018: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507743/effect-of-transporting-an-evidence-based-violence-prevention-intervention-to-jamaican-preschools-on-teacher-and-class-wide-child-behaviour-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#10
H Baker-Henningham, S Walker
Introduction: Based on extensive piloting work, we adapted the Incredible Years (IY) teacher-training programme to the Jamaican preschool setting and evaluated this adapted version through a cluster-randomised trial. Methods: Twenty-four community preschools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to intervention (12 schools, 37 teachers) or control (12 schools, 36 teachers). The intervention involved training teachers in classroom management through eight full-day training workshops and four individual 1-h in-class support sessions...
2018: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494636/causes-of-death-and-early-life-determinants-of-survival-in-homozygous-sickle-cell-disease-the-jamaican-cohort-study-from-birth
#11
Graham R Serjeant, Nicki Chin, Monika R Asnani, Beryl E Serjeant, Karlene P Mason, Ian R Hambleton, Jennifer M Knight-Madden
Globally, the majority of persons born with sickle cell disease do not have access to hydroxyurea or more expensive interventions. The objectives were to estimate the survival in homozygous sickle cell disease, unbiased by symptomatic selection and to ascertain the causes of death in a pre-hydroxyurea population. The utility of early life biomarkers and genetically determined phenotypes to predict survival was assessed. A cohort study based on neonatal diagnosis was undertaken at the Sickle Cell Unit, a specialist clinic delivering care to persons with sickle cell disease in Jamaica...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477150/association-between-single-parent-family-structure-and-age-of-sexual-debut-among-young-persons-in-jamaica
#12
Daniel C Oshi, Jordan Mckenzie, Martin Baxter, Royelle Robinson, Stephan Neil, Tayla Greene, Wayne Wright, Jeorghino Lodge
There is a high and increasing proportion of single-parent families in Jamaica. This has raised concerns about the potential impact of single-parent families on the social, cognitive and behavioural development of children, including their sexual relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between being raised in a single-parent family and age of sexual debut among young people in Jamaica. The study was cross-sectional in design, and based on a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study was conducted in July/September 2016...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476436/the-impact-of-quality-assurance-initiatives-and-workplace-policies-and-procedures-on-hiv-aids-related-stigma-experienced-by-patients-and-nurses-in-regions-with-high-prevalence-of-hiv-aids
#13
Sarah J Hewko, Greta G Cummings, Matthew Pietrosanu, Nancy Edwards
Stigma is commonly experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS and by those providing care to HIV/AIDS patients. Few intervention studies have explored the impact of workplace policies and/or quality improvement on stigma. We examine the contribution of health care workplace policies, procedures and quality assurance initiatives, and self- and peer-assessed individual nurse practices, to nurse-reported HIV/AIDS-stigma practices toward patients living with HIV/AIDS and nurses in health care settings. Our sample of survey respondents (n = 1157) included managers (n = 392) and registered/enrolled nurses (n = 765) from 29 facilities in 4 countries (South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Kenya)...
February 23, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476435/age-at-sexual-initiation-and-sexual-and-health-risk-behaviors-among-jamaican-adolescents-and-young-adults
#14
Sharlene Beckford Jarrett, Wadiya Udell, Sannia Sutherland, Willi McFarland, Marion Scott, Nicola Skyers
Current policies limit access to sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents younger than 16 years in Jamaica. Using data from a national survey, we explored the relationship between age at sexual initiation and subsequent sexual risk behaviors in a random sample of 837 Jamaican adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years. In the sample overall, 21.0% had not yet had sex. Among the 661 sexually active participants, the mean age at first sex was 14.7 years. High percentages of sexually active youth reported engaging in risk behaviors such as inconsistent condom use (58...
February 23, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468051/the-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-doctors-regarding-antibiotic-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-institution-in-the-caribbean
#15
Alison Nicholson, Ingrid Tennant, Livingston White, Camille-Ann Thoms-Rodriguez, Loraine Cook, Stephen Johnson, Tamara Thompson, Jasper Barnett, Lundie Richards
Background: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a serious threat that requires coordinated global intervention to prevent its spread. There is limited data from the English-speaking Caribbean. Methods: As part of a national programme to address antibiotic resistance in Jamaica, a survey of the knowledge, attitudes and antibiotic prescribing practices of Jamaican physicians was conducted using a 32-item self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the eight hundred physicians targeted, 87% responded...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457993/leptospira-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-the-caribbean-region-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Nicola Pratt, Sreekumari Rajeev
This systematic review summarises the data published on the Leptospira seroprevalence, serovar diversity and distribution among animal species in the Caribbean region. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and checklist, relevant articles were identified and data were extracted and recorded. The review provided Leptospira seroprevalence data from 16 Caribbean islands (Barbados, Trinidad, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, St. Kitts and Nevis, Jamaica, Antigua, Carriacou, Dominica, Guadalupe, Martinique, Monserrat, St...
February 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456896/factors-associated-with-elevated-blood-pressure-or-hypertension-in-afro-caribbean-youth-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Trevor S Ferguson, Novie O M Younger-Coleman, Marshall K Tulloch-Reid, Nadia R Bennett, Amanda E Rousseau, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Maureen E Samms-Vaughan, Deanna E Ashley, Rainford J Wilks
Background: Although several studies have identified risk factors for high blood pressure (BP), data from Afro-Caribbean populations are limited. Additionally, less is known about how putative risk factors operate in young adults and how social factors influence the risk of high BP. In this study, we estimated the relative risk for elevated BP or hypertension (EBP/HTN), defined as BP ≥ 120/80 mmHg, among young adults with putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Jamaica and evaluated whether relative risks differed by sex...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420443/factors-associated-with-syphilis-testing-and-a-history-of-syphilis-infection-among-a-sample-of-transgender-women-in-jamaica
#18
Carmen H Logie, Ying Wang, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Uzma Ahmed, Nicolette Jones, Ava Neil, Tyrone Ellis, Kandasi Levermore, Annecka Marshall, Peter A Newman
BACKGROUND: Globally, social inequalities contribute to elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rates among transgender women. High syphilis prevalence has been documented among transgender women in Latin America. Little is known, however, of syphilis testing uptake among transgender women in Jamaica, where homosexuality is criminalized. The study objective was to understand factors associated with opting-in for syphilis testing and a syphilis infection history among transgender women in Jamaica...
March 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419921/the-evolving-contribution-of-non-communicable-diseases-ncds-to-maternal-mortality-in-jamaica-1998-2015-a-population-based-study
#19
Affette M McCaw-Binns, Leroy V Campbell, Simone S Spence
OBJECTIVE: Describe trends in indirect cause-specific pregnancy-related mortality from 1998-2015. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of annual, national cross-sectional database of maternal and late maternal deaths, identified through active surveillance of deaths among women 10-50 years. SETTING: Jamaica, a middle-income Caribbean country. POPULATION: Maternal and late maternal deaths. METHODS: Descriptive trend analyses of demographic and cause-specific maternal and pregnancy-related mortality ratios undertaken comparing the periods 1998-2003, 2004-9 and 2010-15...
February 8, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412258/the-black-scourge-race-and-the-rockefeller-foundation-s-tuberculosis-commission-in-interwar-jamaica
#20
Henrice Altink
From 1927 to 1942, the Rockefeller Foundation ran a tuberculosis commission in Jamaica that researched the epidemiology of the disease, examined the efficacy of a vaccine with heat-killed tubercle bacilli, and offered basic treatment to tuberculosis sufferers. Drawing upon diaries and scientific writings by the staff employed by the commission, among other sources, this article explores the role that race played in the tuberculosis commission. It assesses how race shaped the research conducted by the commission, how it informed staff interactions and staff/patient relations, and the clash and/or confluence of "imported" and local racial ideas in the commission's work...
October 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
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