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radiation therapy oncologic emergencies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904736/lung-cancer-specialists-opinions-on-treatment-for-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-multidisciplinary-survey
#1
Austin Lammers, Timur Mitin, Drew Moghanaki, Charles R Thomas, Robert Timmerman, Sara E Golden, Sujata Thakurta, Rafal Dziadziuszko, Christopher G Slatore
Purpose: The current standard of care for surgically eligible stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical resection, but emerging data suggest that stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is potentially as effective as surgery. However, specialist views of the current evidence about SBRT and how they would incorporate a randomized controlled trial (RCT) into practice is unclear. We sought to understand specialist opinions about evidence regarding treatment of stage I NSCLC and how this translates into practice and clinical trial implementation...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891526/merkel-cell-carcinoma-version-1-2018-nccn-clinical-practice-guidelines-in-oncology
#2
Christopher K Bichakjian, Thomas Olencki, Sumaira Z Aasi, Murad Alam, James S Andersen, Rachel Blitzblau, Glen M Bowen, Carlo M Contreras, Gregory A Daniels, Roy Decker, Jeffrey M Farma, Kris Fisher, Brian Gastman, Karthik Ghosh, Roy C Grekin, Kenneth Grossman, Alan L Ho, Karl D Lewis, Manisha Loss, Daniel D Lydiatt, Jane Messina, Kishwer S Nehal, Paul Nghiem, Igor Puzanov, Chrysalyne D Schmults, Ashok R Shaha, Valencia Thomas, Yaohui G Xu, John A Zic, Karin G Hoffmann, Anita M Engh
This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) focuses on areas impacted by recently emerging data, including sections describing MCC risk factors, diagnosis, workup, follow-up, and management of advanced disease with radiation and systemic therapy. Included in these sections are discussion of the new recommendations for use of Merkel cell polyomavirus as a biomarker and new recommendations for use of checkpoint immunotherapies to treat metastatic or unresectable disease. The next update of the complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for MCC will include more detailed information about elements of pathology and addresses additional aspects of management of MCC, including surgical management of the primary tumor and draining nodal basin, radiation therapy as primary treatment, and management of recurrence...
June 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859793/toxicity-tolerability-and-compliance-of-concurrent-capecitabine-or-5-fluorouracil-in-radical-management-of-anal-cancer-with-single-dose-mitomycin-c-and-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-evaluation-of-a-national-cohort
#3
Christopher M Jones, Richard Adams, Amy Downing, Rob Glynne-Jones, Mark Harrison, Maria Hawkins, David Sebag-Montefiore, Duncan C Gilbert, Rebecca Muirhead
PURPOSE: Chemoradiation therapy (CRT) with mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is established as the standard of care for the radical treatment of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC). The use of the oral fluoropyrimidine-derivative capecitabine is emerging as an alternative to 5-FU despite limited evidence of its tolerability and toxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A national cohort evaluation of ASCC management within the United Kingdom National Health Service was undertaken from February to July 2015...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808637/endoscopic-endonasal-approaches-for-the-management-of-cranial-base-malignancies-histologically-guided-treatment-and-clinical-outcomes
#4
Kyle Vankoevering, Daniel M Prevedello, Ricardu L Carrau
Malignancies of the skull base represent a highly diverse and challenging set of pathologies which exhibit a wide array of oncologic behavior. In recent decades, a number of important advances in treatment technique have evolved to improve oncologic outcomes and reduce morbidity in the treatment of these aggressive cancers. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become the gold standard in radiotherapy owing to its precision planning and reduced morbidity. However heavy ion particle radiation (proton therapy, carbon ion, etc...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787423/autoimmune-granulomatous-inflammation-of-lacrimal-glands-and-axonal-neuritis-following-treatment-with-ipilimumab-and-radiation-therapy
#5
Ecaterina Ileana Dumbrava, Veronica Smith, Rasha Alfattal, Adel K El-Naggar, Marta Penas-Prado, Apostolia M Tsimberidou
Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), anti PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) and PD-L1 (programmed cell death protein-ligand 1) monoclonal antibodies are emerging as standard oncology treatments in various tumor types. The indications will expand as immunotherapies are being investigated in various tumors with promising results. Currently, there is inadequate identification of predictive biomarkers of response or toxicity. Unique response patterns include pseudoprogression and delayed response...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726358/how-advances-in-imaging-will-affect-precision-radiation-oncology
#6
David A Jaffray, Shiva Das, Paula M Jacobs, Robert Jeraj, Philippe Lambin
Radiation oncology is 1 of the most structured disciplines in medicine. It is of a highly technical nature with reliance on robotic systems to deliver intervention, engagement of diverse expertise, and early adoption of digital approaches to optimize and execute the application of this highly effective cancer treatment. As a localized intervention, the dependence on sensitive, specific, and accurate imaging to define the extent of disease, its heterogeneity, and adjacency to normal tissues directly affects the therapeutic ratio...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726357/using-big-data-analytics-to-advance-precision-radiation-oncology
#7
Todd R McNutt, Stanley H Benedict, Daniel A Low, Kevin Moore, Ilya Shpitser, Wei Jiang, Pranav Lakshminarayanan, Zhi Cheng, Peijin Han, Xuan Hui, Minoru Nakatsugawa, Junghoon Lee, Joseph A Moore, Scott P Robertson, Veeraj Shah, Russ Taylor, Harry Quon, John Wong, Theodore DeWeese
Big clinical data analytics as a primary component of precision medicine is discussed, identifying where these emerging tools fit in the spectrum of genomics and radiomics research. A learning health system (LHS) is conceptualized that uses clinically acquired data with machine learning to advance the initiatives of precision medicine. The LHS is comprehensive and can be used for clinical decision support, discovery, and hypothesis derivation. These developing uses can positively impact the ultimate management and therapeutic course for patients...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696530/prognostic-value-of-the-glasgow-prognostic-score-for-glioblastoma-multiforme-patients-treated-with-radiotherapy-and-temozolomide
#8
Erkan Topkan, Ugur Selek, Yurday Ozdemir, Berna A Yildirim, Ozan C Guler, Fuat Ciner, Huseyin Mertsoylu, Kadir Tufan
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), the combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin, in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent plus adjuvant temozolomide (GPS). METHODS: Data of newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with partial brain RT and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped into three according to the GPS criteria: GPS-0: CRP < 10 mg/L and albumin > 35 g/L; GPS-1: CRP < 10 mg/L and albumin < 35 g/L or CRP > 10 mg/L and albumin > 35 g/L; and GPS-2: CRP > 10 mg/L and albumin < 35 g/L...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694234/expanding-the-therapeutic-index-of-radiation-therapy-by-normal-tissue-protection
#9
Pierre Montay-Gruel, Lydia Meziani, Chakradhar Yakkala, Marie-Catherine Vozenin
Normal tissue damages induced by radiation therapy remain dose-limiting factors in Radiation Oncology and this is still true despite recent advances in treatment planning and delivery of image-guided radiation therapy. Additionally, as the number of long-term cancer survivors increases, unacceptable complications emerge and dramatically reduce the patients' quality of life. This means that patients and clinicians expect discovery of new options for the therapeutic management of radiation-induced complications...
April 25, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650894/-chemoradiotherapy-the-standard-treatment-at-present
#10
Sadamoto Zenda
Chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy has been widely used in clinical practice because the additional benefit on radiotherapy alone had shown. Head and neck cancer: CDDP concurrent with radiotherapy has been a standard treatment for 15years both in definitive setting and postoperative setting. Esophageal cancer: 5-FU/CDDP is the best partner for radiotherapy and appropriate radiation dose has been discussed. Anal cancer: Radical concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5-FU and mitomycin C(MMC)remains the standard of care for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593892/combining-radiation-plus-immunotherapy-to-improve-systemic-immune-response
#11
REVIEW
Taylor R Cushman, Daniel Gomez, Rachit Kumar, Anna Likacheva, Joe Y Chang, Alex P Cadena, Sebastien Paris, James W Welsh
Over the past decade, the fields of oncology have made great strides in therapies. The development of new therapeutics and increased understanding of the role of the immune system in the development and treatment of cancer has led to increased collaboration between oncologic fields. Recent technologic advancements in radiation therapy (RT), including stereotactic beam radiation therapy (SBRT), have improved local control and offer an alternative to surgery for the control of oligometastatic disease. Immunotherapy has proven a promising therapeutic in the treatment of metastatic disease but treatment resistance remains a significant obstacle in the majority of patients...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588624/stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-in-the-management-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-clinical-impact-and-patient-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Elysia K Donovan, Anand Swaminath
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a new technology in radiotherapy delivery, allowing for potentially curative treatment in many patients previously felt not to be candidates for radical surgical resection of stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several studies have demonstrated very high local control rates using SBRT, and more recent data have suggested overall survival may approach that of surgery in operable patients. However, SBRT is not without unique toxicities, and the balance of toxicity, and effect on patient-reported quality of life need to be considered with respect to oncologic outcomes...
2018: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574334/immuno-oncology-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancers-news-from-clinical-trials-emerging-predictive-factors-and-unmet-needs
#13
REVIEW
Stefano Cavalieri, Licia Rivoltini, Cristiana Bergamini, Laura D Locati, Lisa Licitra, Paolo Bossi
According to the new determinants of cancer immunity, head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) has to be considered as an immunogenic tumor for the relatively high number of somatic mutations giving rise to neoantigens recognized by T cell. HNSCC develop at a significant rate despite the antitumoral immune response indicating the existence of effective escape mechanisms. The lack of antigen presentation or co-stimulatory molecules required and immunosuppressive phenomena established by the tumor or the host microenvironment impair immune-mediated recognition and cancer control...
April 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530457/patient-characteristics-and-costs-in-recurrent-or-refractory-head-and-neck-cancer-retrospective-analysis-of-a-community-oncology-database
#14
Maxine D Fisher, Ancilla W Fernandes, Temitope O Olufade, Paul J Miller, Mark S Walker, Moon Fenton
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to describe patient characteristics, health resource utilization (HRU), and costs associated with treating recurrent or refractory head and neck cancer (HNC) among patients with disease progression in the community oncology setting. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted by using data from the Vector Oncology Data Warehouse. Patients had been diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic (stage III-IVc) HNC between January 1, 2007, and October 1, 2015...
April 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458568/nanoformulations-for-targeted-drug-delivery-to-prostate-cancer-an-overview
#15
Soundararajan Hema, Selvarathinam Thambiraj, Dhesingh Ravi Shankaran
Cancer is the second leading causes of death worldwide and it is one of the fatal diseases that kill millions of people every year. It is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cells and loss of apoptosis that generates an abnormal mass of cells or tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in men and the risk is higher over the age of 55-65. Currently, PCa is the second most common cancer, which causes death in men has a high prevalence with relatively lower cancer mortality risk compared to lung and colon cancer...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435166/acquired-resistance-to-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-may-be-linked-with-the-decreased-sensitivity-to-x-ray-irradiation
#16
Maxim Sorokin, Roman Kholodenko, Anna Grekhova, Maria Suntsova, Margarita Pustovalova, Natalia Vorobyeva, Irina Kholodenko, Galina Malakhova, Andrew Garazha, Artem Nedoluzhko, Raif Vasilov, Elena Poddubskaya, Olga Kovalchuk, Leila Adamyan, Vladimir Prassolov, Daria Allina, Denis Kuzmin, Kirill Ignatev, Andreyan Osipov, Anton Buzdin
Acquired resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy is one of the major obstacles decreasing efficiency of treatment of the oncologic diseases. In this study, on the two cell lines (ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 and neuroblastoma NGP-127), we modeled acquired resistance to five target anticancer drugs. The cells were grown on gradually increasing concentrations of the clinically relevant tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) Sorafenib, Pazopanib and Sunitinib, and rapalogs Everolimus and Temsirolimus, for 20 weeks...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429920/impact-of-a-clinical-pathway-tool-on-appropriate-palliative-radiation-therapy-for-bone-metastases
#17
Lisa S Rotenstein, Alexander O Kerman, Joseph Killoran, Tracy A Balboni, Monica S Krishnan, Allison Taylor, Neil E Martin
PURPOSE: Clinical pathways increase compliance with treatment guidelines, improve outcomes, and reduce costs. Guidelines recommend single fraction radiation therapy (SFRT) for palliation of uncomplicated bone metastases, but implementation is variable. We examined the effects of a pathway tool on SFRT rates in an academic radiation oncology practice. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using published literature, clinical guidelines, and expert input, we designed a clinical pathway for bone metastases radiation therapy displayed on a Web-based electronic interface...
December 8, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356235/contribution-of-intraoperative-radiotherapy-iort-for-therapeutic-de-escalation-in-early-breast-cancer-report-of-a-single-institution-s-experience
#18
Julien Barrou, Agnes Tallet, Monique Cohen, Marie Bannier, Max Buttarelli, Laurence Gonzague, Camille Jauffret, Eric Lambaudie, Sandrine Rua, Margueritte Tyran, Leonel Varela, Gilles Houvenaeghel
The spread of systematic screening and the emergence of oncoplastic techniques allow more breast conservative treatment associating lumpectomy and external beam radiation therapy. In order to furthermore facilitate the patient's treatment, intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been developed. The oncological safety of this technique has been studied, and is considered acceptable. Many questions remain unsolved in regard of the toxicity of this procedure as well as the patient's selection criteria. In this study, we present the first results and complications rate of patients treated by IORT in a single French institution...
January 22, 2018: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353656/systematic-review-of-normal-tissue-complication-models-relevant-to-standard-fractionation-radiation-therapy-of-the-head-and-neck-region-published-after-the-quantec-reports
#19
REVIEW
N Patrik Brodin, Rafi Kabarriti, Madhur K Garg, Chandan Guha, Wolfgang A Tomé
There has recently been an increasing interest in model-based evaluation and comparison of different treatment options in radiation oncology studies. This is partly driven by the considerable technical advancements in radiation therapy of the last decade, leaving radiation oncologists with a multitude of options to consider. In lieu of randomized trials comparing all of these different treatment options for varying indications, which is unfeasible, treatment evaluations based on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models offer a practical alternative...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173257/training-canadian-surgeons-in-oncoplastic-breast-surgery-where-do-we-stand
#20
Eman Khayat, Muriel Brackstone, Jessica Maxwell, Renee Hanrahan, Jeannie Richardson, Marianna Kapala, Angel Arnaout
Breast-conserving surgery with adjuvant radiation therapy is widely accepted as a universal standard of care for women with early-stage breast cancer. Oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery (OPS) techniques have emerged in recent years, facilitating the achievement of better cosmetic results while adhering to good oncological principles. Compared with the rest of the international community, Canada has been fairly slow in its clinical uptake of OPS. This commentary discusses how Canada can increase its capacity for OPS...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
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