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radiation therapy oncologic emergencies

Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
M Roskies, E Kay-Rivest, M A Mascarella, K Sultanem, A Mlynarek, M Hier
BACKGROUND: A commonly employed treatment for advanced staged oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is concurrent radiation and chemotherapy with cisplatin as the gold standard. Carboplatin is reported to have the same radiopotentiation properties and a superior side effect profile; however, its use in head and neck cancer has been limited due to the paucity of data and reported hematologic side effects. In this study, we describe our institution's experience with carboplatin, paclitaxel and radiation in the treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma over a 10 year period...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Jason R Cuomo, Gyanendra K Sharma, Preston D Conger, Neal L Weintraub
Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors who have undergone mediastinal radiation therapy (RT). Cardiovascular complications include effusive or constrictive pericarditis, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, and coronary/vascular disease. These are pathophysiologically distinct disease entities whose prevalence varies depending on the timing and extent of radiation exposure to the heart and great vessels. Although refinements in RT dosimetry and shielding will inevitably limit future cases of RICVD, the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, including those treated with older higher-dose RT regimens, will ensure a steady flow of afflicted patients for the foreseeable future...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Daniele Bordoni, Pierfrancesco Cadenelli, Giuseppe Falco, Nicola Rocco, Paola Manna, Ariel Tessone, Matteo Ornelli, Cesare Magalotti
INTRODUCTION: So called "extreme oncoplastic surgery" is emerging as a new promising concept in breast cancer surgery allowing successful breast conservation in selected patients with multicentric tumors. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the case of a 48-year-old woman presenting with a multicentric breast cancer and successfully treated with an oncoplastic technique consisting in three radical lumpectomies followed by breast reshaping and simultaneous contralateral symmetrization...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Christopher D Corso, Ranjit S Bindra
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive intracranial tumor characterized by local and distant brain relapse despite aggressive therapy. Current standard treatment includes surgical resection followed by radiation with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide as part of a combined modality approach. In this review, the historical basis for the current standard treatment is discussed as well as other recent combined modality successes and failures. An overview of emerging combined modality therapies for GBM is presented including immunotherapy, and rationally designed radiosensitizers...
October 2016: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
J C Faivre, J F Py, G Vogin, G Martinage, J Salleron, P Royer, N Grandgirard, D Pasquier, S Thureau
Analgesic external beam radiation therapy is a standard of care for patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases and/or prevention of bone complications. In case of fracture risk, radiation therapy is performed after surgery in a consolidation of an analgesic purpose and stabilizing osteosynthesis. Radiotherapy is mandatory after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Spinal cord compression - the only emergency in radiation therapy - is indicated postoperatively either exclusively for non surgical indication...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Vladimir Avkshtol, Yanqun Dong, Shelly B Hayes, Mark A Hallman, Robert A Price, Mark L Sobczak, Eric M Horwitz, Nicholas G Zaorsky
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6-15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks) is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods...
2016: Research and Reports in Urology
Wendy J Bottinor, Christopher K Migliore, Carrie A Lenneman, Marcus F Stoddard
Patients with cancer can present with difficult management issues, as the medicine can sometimes cause sequelae destructive to healthy tissue. As this population lives longer, cardiotoxic effects are beginning to emerge, but the early recognition of this signal can prove difficult, with too late a recognition leading to lifelong cardiac impairment and dysfunction. Cardio-oncology can bridge this difficulty, and echocardiography and its newer imaging abilities are proving efficacious in this population. This article will address common sequelae of cardiotoxic treatment regimens and offer recommendations for echocardiographic surveillance...
October 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Manuela Fiuza, Leonor Ribeiro, Andreia Magalhães, Ana Rita Sousa, Miguel Nobre Menezes, Marília Jorge, Luís Costa, Fausto José Pinto
Considerable advances in cancer therapies in recent decades have reshaped the prognosis of cancer patients. There are now estimated to be over 20 million cancer survivors in the USA and Europe, numbers unimaginable a few years ago. However, this increase in survival, along with the aging of the patient population, has been accompanied by a rise in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly when there is a previous history of heart disease. The incidence of cardiotoxicity continues to grow, which can compromise the effectiveness of cancer therapy...
September 2016: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
H Rocha, L Khouri, M C Lopes, J Dias, B Ferreira
PURPOSE: Treatment outcome prediction is an important emerging topic in oncologic care. To support radiation oncologists on their decisions, with individualized, tailored treatment regimens increasingly becoming the standard of care, accurate tools to predict tumour response to treatment are needed. The goal of this work is to identify the most determinant factor(s) for treatment response aiming to develop prediction models that robustly estimate tumour response to radiation therapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer...
June 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Sandip Basu, Abass Alavi
It is imperative that the thrust of clinical practice in the ensuing years would be to develop personalized management model for various disorders. PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) based molecular functional imaging has been increasingly utilized for assessment of tumor and other nonmalignant disorders and has the ability to explore disease phenotype on an individual basis and address critical clinical decision making questions related to practice of personalized medicine. Hence, it is essential to make a concerted systematic effort to explore and define the appropriate place of PET-CT in personalized clinical practice in each of malignancies, which would strengthen the concept further...
July 2016: PET Clinics
Olga Golubnitschaja, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Helena Stricker, Daniela Trog, Hans H Schild, Leonard Berliner
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary and metastatic liver malignancies represent a highly heterogeneous patient pool characterised by some of the shortest life expectancies amongst oncology patients. Investigation and better understanding of liver malignancies is an emerging field which requires high-quality multidisciplinary research and collaboration. METHODS: A study of 158 patients with primary hepatic carcinomas and secondary liver metastases, altogether 15 cancer types of different origin, who underwent selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with Yttrium(90) or transarterial chemoembolisation, was undertaken in an effort to detect distinguishing features with respect to activity profiles of both blood matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9)...
2016: BMC Cancer
Pınar Özgen Kiratli, Murat Tuncel, Zvi Bar-Sever
Nuclear medicine has an important role in the management of many cancers in pediatric age group with multiple imaging modalities and radiopharmaceuticals targeting various biological uptake mechanisms. 18-Flourodeoxyglucose is the radiotracer of choice especially in patients with sarcoma and lymphoma. (18)FDG-PET, for sarcoma and lymphomas, is proved to be superior to conventional imaging in staging and therapy response. Although studies are limited in pediatric population, (18)FDG-PET/CT has found its way through international guidelines...
July 2016: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Jolie Ringash, Richard Fisher, Lester Peters, Andy Trotti, Brian O'Sullivan, June Corry, Lizbeth Kenny, Walter Van Den Bogaert, Chris Wratten, Danny Rischin
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has a favorable prognosis. Current research de-escalates treatment, aiming to improve quality of life (QOL). Understanding the QOL experience with current standard treatment (chemoradiation therapy) provides context for emerging data. We report the impact of p16 status on QOL for patients with stage III or IV OPC undergoing chemoradiation therapy in an international phase 3 trial (TROG 02.02 [HeadSTART]). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A subgroup analysis by p16 status was conducted in patients with OPC treated in a phase 3 randomized trial...
March 23, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Rony Benson, Supriya Mallick, P K Julka, G K Rath
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for a large oncologic burden in the developing countries. In patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer multimodality treatment is warranted. Radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy has long been considered the standard for patients with disease involving the oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. However, addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy increases treatment related toxicity by many folds and compliance rates decrease. In this context a systemic therapy, which when used concurrent with radiation with favorable toxicity profile is of great importance for improving disease control in locally advanced HNSCC...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
Mark D Tyson, David F Penson, Matthew J Resnick
The primary goal of modern prostate cancer treatment paradigms is to optimize the balance of predicted benefits associated with prostate cancer treatment against the predicted harms of therapy. However, given the limitations in the existing evidence as well as the significant tradeoffs posed by each treatment, there remain myriad challenges associated with individualized prostate cancer treatment decision-making. In this review, we summarize the existing comparative effectiveness evidence of treatments for localized prostate cancer with an emphasis on oncologic control...
April 28, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Mary Lou Siefert, Traci M Bonquist, Donna L Berry, Fangxin Hong
BACKGROUND: People with cancer experience symptoms related to the disease and treatments. Symptom distress has a negative impact on quality of life (QoL). Attending to symptoms and side effects of treatment promotes safe and effective delivery of therapies and may prevent or reduce emergency department visits (EDVs) and unplanned hospital admissions (HAs). There is limited evidence examining symptom-related EDVs or HAs (sx-EDV/HAs) and interventions in ambulatory oncology patients. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with sx-EDV/HAs in ambulatory oncology patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation...
May 2015: Journal of Community and Supportive Oncology
Ali Alkan, Tuğçe Kütük, Ebru Karcı, Arzu Yaşar, Ayşe Hiçsönmez, Güngör Utkan
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an important oncological emergency that is usually observed with hematological malignancies and rarely with solid tumors. It can be induced either by therapy or spontaneously. Radiotherapy-induced TLS has been rarely reported in the literature. Here we present a patient with a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia complicated with TLS during palliative radiotherapy.
September 5, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Marianne Sinn, Marcus Bahra, Timm Denecke, Sue Travis, Uwe Pelzer, Hanno Riess
Surgery remains the only chance of cure for pancreatic cancer, but only 15%-25% of patients present with resectable disease at the time of primary diagnosis. Important goals in clinical research must therefore be to allow early detection with suitable diagnostic procedures, to further broaden operation techniques and to determine the most effective perioperative treatment of either chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. More extensive operations involving extended pancreatectomy, portal vein resection and pancreatic resection in resectable pancreatic cancer with limited liver metastasis, performed in specialized centers seem to be the surgical procedures with a possible impact on survival...
March 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
T Di Valentin, T Asmis, J Asselah, F Aubin, N Aucoin, S Berry, J Biagi, C M Booth, R Burkes, N Coburn, B Colwell, C Cripps, L A Dawson, M Dorreen, D Frechette, R Goel, S Gray, N Hammad, D Jonker, P Kavan, J Maroun, S Nanji, D Roberge, B Samson, M Seal, W Shabana, M Simunovic, S Snow, M Tehfe, M Thirlwell, E Tsvetkova, M Vickers, T Vuong, R Goodwin
The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, 17-19 October 2013, marked the 10-year anniversary of this meeting that is attended by leaders in medical, radiation, and surgical oncology. The goal of the attendees is to improve the care of patients affected by gastrointestinal malignancies. Topics discussed during the conference included pancreatic cancer, rectal cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer.
February 2016: Current Oncology
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