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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621524/harnessing-the-power-of-nanotechnology-for-enhanced-radiation-therapy
#1
Shreya Goel, Dalong Ni, Weibo Cai
Radiotherapy has emerged as one of the first lines of treatment in oncology. The past few decades have seen dramatic changes in the delivery of radiation therapy, with dose fractionation and treatment planning being the major focuses of research. Although effective, such empirical approaches are hardly optimal, and instances of patient mortality and tumor relapse are not rare. In this Perspective, we review the emerging technologies for optimization of radiosensitization, hypoxia modulation, and combinatorial therapeutic regimes for improved treatment outcomes in preclinical tumor models, with a focus on nanotechnology-mediated approaches...
June 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561672/pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-improving-prevention-and-survivorship
#2
Davendra P S Sohal, Field F Willingham, Massimo Falconi, Kara L Raphael, Stefano Crippa
Pancreatic cancer is a growing problem in oncology, given slowly rising incidence and continued suboptimal outcomes. A concerted effort to reverse this tide will require prevention, early diagnosis, and improved systemic therapy for curable disease. We focus on these aspects in detail in this study. Hereditary pancreatic cancer is an underappreciated area. With the growing use of genomics (both somatic and germline) in cancer care, there is increasing recognition of hereditary pancreatic cancer cases: around 10% of all pancreatic cancer may be related to familial syndromes, such as familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Lynch syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546377/respiratory-care-considerations-in-the-childhood-cancer-patient
#3
Lama Elbahlawan, K Jason Rains, Dennis C Stokes
This article reviews the common pulmonary complications seen in the pediatric oncology population and our approach to diagnosis, management, and therapy considerations in this specialized population, including patients receiving chemotherapy, radiation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although infections cause the most significant complications in this population, non-infectious complications, including acute lung injury from chemotherapy or radiation, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, bronchiolitis obliterans, and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, also occur commonly...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507888/spine-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-indications-outcomes-and-points-of-caution
#4
Chia-Lin Tseng, Wietse Eppinga, Raphaele Charest-Morin, Hany Soliman, Sten Myrehaug, Pejman Jabehdar Maralani, Mikki Campbell, Young K Lee, Charles Fisher, Michael G Fehlings, Eric L Chang, Simon S Lo, Arjun Sahgal
STUDY DESIGN: A broad narrative review. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to provide a technical review of spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) planning and delivery, indications for treatment, outcomes, complications, and the challenges of response assessment. The surgical approach to spinal metastases is discussed with an overview of emerging minimally invasive techniques. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted on the techniques, outcomes, and developments in SBRT and surgery for spinal metastases...
April 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475571/is-autoimmunity-the-achilles-heel-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
Carl H June, Jeremy T Warshauer, Jeffrey A Bluestone
The emergence of immuno-oncology as the first broadly successful strategy for metastatic cancer will require clinicians to integrate this new pillar of medicine with chemotherapy, radiation, and targeted small-molecule compounds. Of equal importance is gaining an understanding of the limitations and toxicities of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy was initially perceived to be a relatively less toxic approach to cancer treatment than other available therapies-and surely it is, when compared to those. However, as the use of immunotherapy becomes more common, especially as first- and second-line treatments, immunotoxicity and autoimmunity are emerging as the Achilles' heel of immunotherapy...
May 5, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474324/role-of-imaging-in-cardio-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Erick Avelar, Caitlin R Strickland, Guido Rosito
Recent advances in cancer treatment and research have greatly improved survival rates for patients with cancer. However, many of these cancer survivors are developing cardiac disease-most commonly heart failure as a result of this treatment. Certain chemotherapeutic agents, including anthracyclines and trastuzumab, have been linked to cardiotoxicity-induced cardiomyopathy in cancer patients. It has been reported as early as during infusion and as late as several years following treatment. Radiation therapy, particularly to the left breast, has also been linked to cardiac disease...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443099/a-century-of-radiation-therapy-and-adaptive-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Dörthe Schaue
The coming of age for immunotherapy (IT) as a genuine treatment option for cancer patients through the development of new and effective agents, in particular immune checkpoint inhibitors, has led to a huge renaissance of an old idea, namely to harness the power of the immune system to that of radiation therapy (RT). It is not an overstatement to say that the combination of RT with IT has provided a new conceptual platform that has re-energized the field of radiation oncology as a whole. One only has to look at the immense rise in sessions at professional conferences and in grant applications dealing with this topic to see its emergence as a force, while the number of published reviews on the topic is staggering...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441375/primary-adrenal-angiosarcoma-a-rare-and-potentially-misdiagnosed-tumor
#8
Ariel Grajales-Cruz, Francis Baco-Viera, Ernesto Rive-Mora, Carlos Ramirez-Tanchez, David Tasso, Norma Arroyo-Portela, Elizabeth Calderon, Ilean Joan Padua-Octaviani, William Caceres-Perkins
A man aged 69 years presented with acute right flank pain secondary to a hemorrhagic large adrenal tumor. En bloc resection was performed to repair the inferior vena cava. Immunoperoxidase levels in the tumor were positive for factor VIII and CD31 and negative for S100, protein Melan-A, CD34, synaptophysin, chromogranin, desmin, muscle specific actin, ETFA (EMA), KRT20 (CK20), CDX2, TTF1, LNPEP (PLAP), inhibin, ?-fetoprotein, CD30, hepatocyte paraffin, and aberrant expression of cytokeratin 7 and pankeratin...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410011/propensity-score-analysis-of-radical-cystectomy-versus-bladder-sparing-trimodal-therapy-in-the-setting-of-a-multidisciplinary-bladder-cancer-clinic
#9
Girish S Kulkarni, Thomas Hermanns, Yanliang Wei, Bimal Bhindi, Raj Satkunasivam, Paul Athanasopoulos, Peter J Bostrom, Cynthia Kuk, Kathy Li, Arnoud J Templeton, Srikala S Sridhar, Theodorus H van der Kwast, Peter Chung, Robert G Bristow, Michael Milosevic, Padraig Warde, Neil E Fleshner, Michael A S Jewett, Shaheena Bashir, Alexandre R Zlotta
Purpose Multidisciplinary management improves complex treatment decision making in cancer care, but its impact for bladder cancer (BC) has not been documented. Although radical cystectomy (RC) currently is viewed as the standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), radiotherapy-based, bladder-sparing trimodal therapy (TMT) that combines transurethral resection of bladder tumor, chemotherapy for radiation sensitization, and external beam radiotherapy has emerged as a valid treatment option. In the absence of randomized studies, this study compared the oncologic outcomes between patients treated with RC or TMT by using a propensity score matched-cohort analysis...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393711/emerging-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-cancer-pain-a-review-of-patent-literature-in-2014
#10
R N Brooke Anderson, Samuel Lee, Alaa Abd-Elsayed
BACKGROUND: Pain in oncology patients may be related to underlying disease process, as well as a side effect of chemotherapy and radiation. More than half of all patients with a diagnosis of cancer experience pain, which is often poorly controlled. As such, the treatment of pain in oncology patients demonstrates a significant need to develop new treatment options. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes 35 patents on the treatment of pain among cancer patients. METHOD: A thorough literature review of all patents filed in 2014 was conducted using PubMed and http://ep...
April 6, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366572/development-of-a-quality-and-safety-competency-curriculum-for-radiation-oncology-residency-an-international-delphi-study
#11
Jenna Adleman, Caitlin Gillan, Amanda Caissie, Carol-Anne Davis, Brian Liszewski, Andrea McNiven, Meredith Giuliani
PURPOSE: To develop an entry-to-practice quality and safety competency profile for radiation oncology residency. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A comprehensive list of potential quality and safety competency items was generated from public and professional resources and interprofessional focus groups. Redundant or out-of-scope items were eliminated through investigator consensus. Remaining items were subjected to an international 2-round modified Delphi process involving experts in radiation oncology, radiation therapy, and medical physics...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350950/spine-oncology-metastatic-spine-tumors
#12
David Choi, Mark Bilsky, Michael Fehlings, Charles Fisher, Ziya Gokaslan
Surgery for spinal metastases remains the mainstay treatment for pain, instability, and neurological deterioration due to tumor infiltration of the spine. However, several new therapies are emerging which may improve outcomes further, and in some cases even replace the need for surgery. We now have a better understanding of which factors influence survival and quality of life after surgery, and this underpins the development and application of new treatments, and assessment of outcome.Depending on genetic subtyping of tumors, novel immunotherapies and chemotherapies may be very effective in prolonging quality of life...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325244/perspectives-on-patient-access-to-radiation-oncology-services-in-south-america
#13
REVIEW
Beatriz Amendola, Aldo Quarneti, Arthur Accioly Rosa, Gustavo Sarria, Marco Amendola
Cancer represents a fast-growing challenge worldwide, and is being recognized as an emerging and critical issue in low- and middle-income countries, such most of South America. This subcontinent is unique for its geography, culture, and ethnical diversity. Most of its countries have large expanses of jungle and desert where underserved population groups including indigenous (native Indians), represent a challenge for cancer care. Many indigent patients have no access to preventive care nor early diagnosis. This results in late presentations with advanced disease and frequently incurable cancer...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274491/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-oligo-metastatic-liver-disease-influence-of-pre-treatment-chemotherapy-and-histology-on-local-tumor-control
#14
R J Klement, M Guckenberger, H Alheid, M Allgäuer, G Becker, O Blanck, J Boda-Heggemann, T Brunner, M Duma, S Gerum, D Habermehl, G Hildebrandt, V Lewitzki, C Ostheimer, A Papachristofilou, C Petersen, T Schneider, R Semrau, S Wachter, N Andratschke
INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is applied in the oligometastatic setting to treat liver metastases. However, factors influencing tumor control probability (TCP) other than radiation dose have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we set out to investigate such factors with a focus on the influence of histology and chemotherapy prior to SBRT using a large multi-center database from the German Society of Radiation Oncology. METHODS: 452 SBRT treatments in 363 patients were analyzed after collection of patient, tumor and treatment data in a multi-center database...
May 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257912/warfarin-associated-venous-limb-gangrene-in-cancer-related-dvt-case-report
#15
Vladimir Cojocari, Dumitru Casian, Eugen Gutu
INTRODUCTION: Warfarin anticoagulation of oncologic patients with DVT may paradoxically progress to phlegmasia cerulea dolens and limb gangrene, due to cancer-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation. This case report, written in line with the SCARE criteria, endorses venous thrombectomy in selected patients to attempt limb salvage. A young woman's warfarin associated acute ileofemoral phlegmasia that developed over cervical cancer radiation therapy induced DVT, was successfully resolved by clot removal...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240522/coping-strategies-and-experiences-in-women-with-a-primary-breast-cancer-diagnosis
#16
Sepideh Hajian, Esmat Mehrabi, Masoomeh Simbar, Mohammad Houshyari
Background: Women with breast cancer experience problems in multiple aspects of their lives, but applying effective strategies can result in enhancing their quality of life and their psychosocial adaptation to the disease. However, there is little information about the strategies that women use to cope with complications associated with their experiences following a breast cancer diagnosis. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of coping behavior and the main strategies that women use in dealing with a breast cancer diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211218/the-integration-of-mri-in-radiation-therapy-collaboration-of-radiographers-and-radiation-therapists
#17
Robba Rai, Shivani Kumar, Vikneswary Batumalai, Doaa Elwadia, Lucy Ohanessian, Ewa Juresic, Lynette Cassapi, Shalini K Vinod, Lois Holloway, Paul J Keall, Gary P Liney
The increased utilisation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation therapy (RT) has led to the implementation of MRI simulators for RT treatment planning and influenced the development of MRI-guided treatment systems. There is extensive literature on the advantages of MRI for tumour volume and organ-at-risk delineation compared to computed tomography. MRI provides both anatomical and functional information for RT treatment planning (RTP) as well as quantitative information to assess tumour response for adaptive treatment...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156606/role-of-emergent-palliative-radiation-therapy-in-the-care-of-patients-with-cancer
#18
Michael Zhang, Steve E Braunstein, Shannon E Fogh
201 Background: Radiation therapy (RT) provides an important role in the palliative care of patients with cancer. For patients with metastatic spinal cord compression not amenable to surgery, the value of timely palliative RT is well established; however, the value of the rapid application of RT for other chief complaints is less clear. The importance of palliative care service (PCS) involvement in patients treated with RT is becoming increasingly recognized and rapidly instituted RT could compromise this involvement...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152762/ro-ils-radiation-oncology-incident-learning-system-data-trends-2014-2015
#19
Eric C Ford, Nadine L Eads, Ksenija Kapetanovic, Cindy Tomlinson
59 Background: Incident learning is one of the most effective ways to improve quality care. To facilitate patient safety improvement at a national level, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) launched RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System in June 2014. RO-ILS mission is to facilitate safer and higher quality care through a shared learning environment that is secure and non-punitive. METHODS: To ensure the security and protection of data, ASTRO contracted with Clarity PSO, a federally-certified patient safety organization that operates under the auspices of the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142149/cancer-stem-cells-in-prostate-cancer-implications-for-targeted-therapy
#20
Ricardo Leão, Célia Domingos, Arnaldo Figueiredo, Robert Hamilton, Uri Tabori, Pedro Castelo-Branco
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the developed world. Conventional anti-PCa therapies include surgery, radiation, hormonal ablation, and chemotherapy. Despite increasing efforts, these therapies are not effective for patients with advanced and/or metastatic disease. In most cases, cancer therapies fail due to an incomplete depletion of tumor cells, resulting in tumor relapse. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis is an emerging model that explains many of the molecular characteristics of oncological disease as well as the tendency of cancers to relapse, metastasize, and develop resistance to conventional therapies...
February 1, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
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