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Substance abuse elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444740/associations-between-modifiable-lifestyle-factors-and-multidimensional-cognitive-health-among-community-dwelling-old-adults-stratified-by-educational-level
#1
Manqiong Yuan, Jia Chen, Yaofeng Han, Xingliang Wei, Zirong Ye, Liangwen Zhang, Y Alicia Hong, Ya Fang
BACKGROUND: Cognition is multidimensional, and each domain plays a unique and crucial part in successful daily life engagement. However, less attention has been paid to multi-domain cognitive health for the elderly, and the role of lifestyle factors in each domain remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,230 older adults aged 60+ years in Xiamen, China, in 2016. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to measure general cognition and six specific sub-domains...
February 15, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431142/do-eps-change-their-clinical-behaviour-in-the-hallway-or-when-a-companion-is-present-a-cross-sectional-survey
#2
Hanni Stoklosa, Meredith Scannell, Zheng Ma, Bernard Rosner, Ashley Hughes, J Stephen Bohan
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine whether emergency physicians (EPs) felt their standard patient evaluation practice was modified by two non-private clinical encounters: hallway encounters and encounters during which a companion was present. METHODS: We administered an iteratively developed cross-sectional survey at an annual national professional meeting. We used logistic regression to compare relationships among non-private clinical encounters and predictors of interest...
February 3, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317223/cluster-analysis-of-vulnerable-groups-in-acute-tbi-rehabilitation
#3
Erkut N Kucukboyaci, Coralynn Long, Michelle Smith, Joseph F Rath, Tamara Bushnik
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the complex relationship between various social indicators that contribute to socioeconomic status and healthcare barriers. DESIGN: Cluster analysis of historical patient data obtained from inpatient visits. SETTING: Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation unit in a large, urban university hospital PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients receiving acute inpatient care, predominantly for closed head injury. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined the membership of TBI patients in various "vulnerable group" (VG) clusters (e...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221697/prevalence-of-mental-health-disorders-in-elderly-u-s-military-veterans-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#4
Victoria Williamson, Sharon A M Stevelink, Karla Greenberg, Neil Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: Older veterans may be vulnerable to mental health problems. Meta-analytic and systematic review methods sought to determine the prevalence rate of mental health disorders in older military veterans (≥65 years). METHODS: Eleven studies were eligible, and meta-analyses of veteran depression, substance abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, dementia, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia were conducted. RESULTS: Although conducted exclusively with U...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195125/effects-of-continuation-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-quality-of-life-in-elderly-depressed-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
W Vaughn McCall, Sarah H Lisanby, Peter B Rosenquist, Mary Dooley, Mustafa M Husain, Rebecca G Knapp, Georgios Petrides, Matthew V Rudorfer, Robert C Young, Shawn M McClintock, Martina Mueller, Joan Prudic, Robert M Greenberg, Richard D Weiner, Samuel H Bailine, Nagy A Youssef, Laryssa McCloud, Charles H Kellner
We examined whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) plus medications ("STABLE + PHARM" group) had superior HRQOL compared with medications alone ("PHARM" group) as continuation strategy after successful acute right unilateral ECT for major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) would be higher during continuation treatment in the "STABLE + PHARM" group versus the "PHARM" group. The overall study design was called "Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly" (PRIDE)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951741/lone-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-isolated-chest-wall-malignancy
#6
Joseph Allencherril, Sebastian Bruera, Ronan Allencherril, Richard J Hamill
Herein we describe the case of an elderly diabetic gentleman presenting with a two-week history of dyspnea and nonproductive cough, found to have a large left anterolateral chest wall mass. Further characterization through computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed a soft tissue mass in the left anterior lower hemithorax found to be hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The liver, spleen, and pancreas were unremarkable. Diagnostic labs were unremarkable. The patient had no history of hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or illicit substance use...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910830/consensus-guidelines-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-neuropsychopharmacology-update-2017
#7
C Hiemke, N Bergemann, H W Clement, A Conca, J Deckert, K Domschke, G Eckermann, K Egberts, M Gerlach, C Greiner, G Gründer, E Haen, U Havemann-Reinecke, G Hefner, R Helmer, G Janssen, E Jaquenoud, G Laux, T Messer, R Mössner, M J Müller, M Paulzen, B Pfuhlmann, P Riederer, A Saria, B Schoppek, G Schoretsanitis, M Schwarz, M Silva Gracia, B Stegmann, W Steimer, J C Stingl, M Uhr, S Ulrich, S Unterecker, R Waschgler, G Zernig, G Zurek, P Baumann
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the quantification and interpretation of drug concentrations in blood to optimize pharmacotherapy. It considers the interindividual variability of pharmacokinetics and thus enables personalized pharmacotherapy. In psychiatry and neurology, patient populations that may particularly benefit from TDM are children and adolescents, pregnant women, elderly patients, individuals with intellectual disabilities, patients with substance abuse disorders, forensic psychiatric patients or patients with known or suspected pharmacokinetic abnormalities...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658883/artificial-neural-network-ann-model-to-predict-depression-among-geriatric-population-at-a-slum-in-kolkata-india
#8
Arkaprabha Sau, Ishita Bhakta
INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity among the geriatric population. Although, the aging brain is more vulnerable to depression, it cannot be considered as physiological and an inevitable part of ageing. Various sociodemographic and morbidity factors are responsible for the depression among them. Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model depression can be predicted from various sociodemographic variables and co morbid conditions even at community level by the grass root level health care workers...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639299/understanding-suicide-across-the-lifespan-a-united-states-perspective-of-suicide-risk-factors-assessment-management
#9
Ian H Steele, Natasha Thrower, Paul Noroian, Fabian M Saleh
Suicide is a troubling, preventable phenomenon. Prior to attempts, individuals often seek help, prompting practitioners to perform risk assessments that ideally use evidence-based risk management strategies. A literature review was performed using Harvard Countway Library of Medicine, Google Scholar, PubMed. Key words used were "Forensic Science," "Suicide Risk Management," "Pediatric Suicide Risk Factors," "Adult Suicide Risk Factors," "Geriatric Suicide Risk Factors," "Suicide Risk Assessment." Parameters limited articles to studies/reviews completed in the past twenty years in the United States...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567302/prevalence-of-substance-abuse-and-socio-economic-differences-in-substance-abuse-in-an-australian-community-dwelling-elderly-sample
#10
Wendy Li, Nerina Caltabiano
A sample of 324 55-90-year-old Australian adults participated in a survey on elderly substance abuse using the Clinical Assessment Scales for the Elderly. Overall, males had a higher prevalence rate of substance abuse than females. Significant differences in substance abuse mean scores were found for gender, age, income, community involvement, and retirement. The findings also reveal that being a female, involved in community groups, being a retiree, and being a non-baby boomer are protective factors of substance abuse...
January 2017: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550953/perinatal-risk-and-protective-factors-for-pediatric-abusive-head-trauma-a-multicenter-case-control-study
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
Patrick Kelly, John M D Thompson, Jean Koh, Shanthi Ameratunga, Timothy Jelleyman, Teuila M Percival, Hinemoa Elder, Edwin A Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: To estimate associations between factors recorded in pregnancy and the first week of life and subsequent abusive head trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective case-control study of perinatal records from 142 cases of abusive head trauma and 550 controls, matched by date and hospital of birth from 1991 to 2010. Multiple logistic regression assessed the relationship between perinatal exposures and abusive head trauma. RESULTS: The risk of abusive head trauma decreased with increasing maternal age (OR, 0...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534281/elder-mistreatment-perpetrators-with-substance-abuse-and-or-mental-health-conditions-results-from-the-national-elder-mistreatment-study
#12
Travis Labrum, Phyllis L Solomon
A large portion of persons who commit elder mistreatment have long been known to have indicators of substance abuse and/or mental health conditions (SAMHC). However, few studies have specifically examined elder mistreatment by persons with SAMHC, preventing the development of specialized intervention strategies. Using results from the National Elder Mistreatment Study, the current article examines victim, perpetrator, and interaction characteristics between cases of emotional and physical elder mistreatment in which the perpetrator is reported to have vs...
May 23, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476551/emergency-department-visits-involving-benzodiazepines-and-non-benzodiazepine-receptor-agonists
#13
Christopher N Kaufmann, Adam P Spira, G Caleb Alexander, Lainie Rutkow, Ramin Mojtabai
OBJECTIVE: Sedative-hypnotic medications (e.g., Benzodiazepines [BZDs] and non-benzodiazepine receptor agonists [nBZRAs]) are associated with adverse events, especially in the elderly, that may require emergency department (ED) treatment. This study assessed outcomes from ED visits attributed to BZDs and/or nBZRAs, and variations in these associations by age group. METHODS: Data came from the 2004-2011 waves of the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Visits were categorized as involving: (1) BZDs-only, (2) nBZRAs-only, (3) combination of BZDs and nBZRAs, or (4) any other sedative-hypnotic medication...
October 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410002/comparing-behavioral-health-models-for-reducing-risky-drinking-among-older-male-veterans
#14
Nikki R Wooten, Abbas S Tavakoli, Marlene B Al-Barwani, Naomi A Thomas, Hrishikesh Chakraborty, Anna M Scheyett, Kelly M Kaminski, Alyssia C Woods, Sue E Levkoff
BACKGROUND: Screening older veterans in Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) primary care clinics for risky drinking facilitates early identification and referral to treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study compared two behavioral health models, integrated care (a standardized brief alcohol intervention co-located in primary care clinics) and enhanced referral care (referral to specialty mental health or substance abuse clinics), for reducing risky drinking among older male VAMC primary care patients...
September 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329841/using-latent-class-analysis-to-identify-profiles-of-elder-abuse-perpetrators
#15
Marguerite DeLiema, Jeanine Yonashiro-Cho, Zach D Gassoumis, Yongjie Yon, Ken J Conrad
Objectives: Research suggests that abuser risk factors differ across elder mistreatment types, but abuse interventions are not individualized. To move away from assumptions of perpetrator homogeneity and to inform intervention approaches, this study classifies abusers into subtypes according to their behavior profiles. Method: Data are from the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment administered to victims by Adult Protective Service (APS) in Illinois. Latent class analysis was used to categorize abusers (N = 336) using victim and caseworker reports on abusers' harmful and supportive behaviors and characteristics...
March 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224957/-medicines-and-elderly-patients-abuse-dependency-or-attraction
#16
Pascal Menecier, Laure Menecier-Ossia
Psychotropic medicines represent, after alcohol, the second class of substances most susceptible to abuse by elderly people. It can be particularly difficult for caregivers to understand such behaviour as these are prescription-only medicines. This misuse is partly a result of older people tending to trivialise and overrate pharmaceutical drugs, ignoring the potential of non-medicinal methods and psychotherapeutic treatments. The boundaries between prescribed use, overuse, self-medication, excessive use, dependency or addiction to prescription drugs are blurred in older people...
January 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779448/the-conceptualization-of-mistreatment-by-older-american-indians
#17
Lori L Jervis, William Sconzert-Hall, The Shielding American Indian Elders Project Team
The problem of how to conceptualize elder mistreatment goes back several decades, and is especially important for ethnic minority populations, who may have perspectives that differ from the dominant society. This community-based participatory research study, which examined perceptions of mistreatment by family among 100 urban and rural older American Indians, permits a rare glimpse into how Native elders themselves understand this issue. Here, good treatment was conceptualized in terms of being taken care of, having one's needs met, and being respected...
January 2017: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739073/narratives-of-self-neglect-patterns-of-traumatic-personal-experiences-and-maladaptive-behaviors-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#18
Cynthia Lien, Tony Rosen, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Robert C Abrams, Maria Pavlou, Mark S Lachs
OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. SETTING: A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506228/acute-precipitants-of-physical-elder-abuse-qualitative-analysis-of-legal-records-from-highly-adjudicated-cases
#19
Tony Rosen, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Veronica M LoFaso, Sunday Clark, Neal E Flomenbaum, Risa Breckman, Arlene Markarian, Catherine Riffin, Mark S Lachs, Karl Pillemer
Elder abuse is a common phenomenon with potentially devastating consequences for older adults. Although researchers have begun to identify predisposing risk factors for elder abuse victims and abusers, little is known about the acute precipitants that lead to escalation to physical violence. We analyzed legal records from highly adjudicated cases to describe these acute precipitants for physical elder abuse. In collaboration with a large, urban district attorney's office, we qualitatively evaluated legal records from 87 successfully prosecuted physical elder abuse cases from 2003 to 2015...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431046/a-national-study-of-american-indian-and-alaska-native-substance-abuse-treatment-provider-and-program-characteristics
#20
Traci Rieckmann, Laurie A Moore, Calvin D Croy, Douglas K Novins, Gregory Aarons
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities...
September 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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