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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664152/evaluation-on-the-use-of-bias-factors-with-water-monitoring-data
#1
Paul L Mosquin, Jeremy Aldworth, Wenlin Chen
Aquatic exposure assessments using surface water quality monitoring data are often challenged by missing extreme concentrations if sampling frequency is less than daily. A bias factor method has been previously proposed to address this concern for peak concentrations, where a bias factor is a multiplicative quantity to upwardly adjust estimates so that the true value is exceeded 95% of the time. In other words, bias factors are statistically protective adjustments. We evaluate this method using a research dataset of 69 near-daily sampled site-years from the Atrazine Ecological Monitoring Program (AEMP), dividing the dataset into 23 reference and 46 validation site-years...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661185/madagascar-ground-gecko-genome-analysis-characterizes-asymmetric-fates-of-duplicated-genes
#2
Yuichiro Hara, Miki Takeuchi, Yuka Kageyama, Kaori Tatsumi, Masahiko Hibi, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Shigehiro Kuraku
BACKGROUND: Conventionally, comparison among amniotes - birds, mammals, and reptiles - has often been approached through analyses of mammals and, for comparison, birds. However, birds are morphologically and physiologically derived and, moreover, some parts of their genomes are recognized as difficult to sequence and/or assemble and are thus missing in genome assemblies. Therefore, sequencing the genomes of reptiles would aid comparative studies on amniotes by providing more comprehensive coverage to help understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning evolutionary changes...
April 16, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659586/supply-side-interventions-to-improve-health-findings-from-the-salud-mesoam%C3%A3-rica-initiative
#3
Ali H Mokdad, Erin B Palmisano, Paola Zúñiga-Brenes, Diego Ríos-Zertuche, Casey K Johanns, Alexandra Schaefer, Sima S Desai, Annie Haakenstad, Marielle C Gagnier, Claire R McNellan, Danny V Colombara, Sonia López Romero, Leolin Castillo, Benito Salvatierra, Bernardo Hernandez, Miguel Betancourt-Cravioto, Ricardo Mujica-Rosales, Ferdinando Regalia, Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Emma Iriarte
BACKGROUND: Results-based aid (RBA) is increasingly used to incentivize action in health. In Mesoamerica, the region consisting of southern Mexico and Central America, the RBA project known as the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) was designed to target disparities in maternal and child health, focusing on the poorest 20% of the population across the region. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were first collected in 365 intervention health facilities to establish a baseline of indicators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658023/biodistribution-studies-of-ultrasmall-silicon-nanoparticles-and-carbon-dots-in-experimental-rats-and-tumor-mice
#4
Nadia Licciardello, Sebastian Hunoldt, Ralf Bergmann, Garima Singh, Constantin Mamat, Angélique Faramus, John L Z Ddungu, Simone Silvestrini, Michele Maggini, Luisa De Cola, Holger Stephan
Ultrasmall clearable nanoparticles possess enormous potential as cancer imaging agents. In particular, biocompatible silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) and carbon quantum dots (CQDs) hold great potential in this regard. Their facile surface functionalization easily allows the introduction of different labels for in vivo imaging. However, to date, a thorough biodistribution study by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and a comparative study of Si vs. C particles of similar size are missing. In this contribution, ultrasmall (size <5 nm) Si NPs and CQDs were synthesized and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), absorption and steady-state emission spectroscopy...
April 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629925/reducing-maternal-mortality-and-severe-maternal-morbidity-the-role-of-critical-care
#5
Amir A Shamshirsaz, Gary A Dildy
Throughout most of the 20th century, the risk of maternal mortality in high resource countries decreased dramatically; however, this trend recently has stalled in the United States and appears to have reversed. Equally alarming is that for every reported maternal death, there are numerous severe maternal morbidities or near misses. Shifting maternal demographics (eg, obesity, advanced maternal age, multifetal pregnancies), with attendant significant medical comorbidities (eg, hypertension, diabetes, cardiac disease) and the increase in cesarean deliveries significantly contribute to increased maternal morbidity and mortality...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625022/l-gator-genetic-association-testing-for-a-longitudinally-measured-quantitative-trait-in-samples-with-related-individuals
#6
Xiaowei Wu, Mary Sara McPeek
In complex-trait mapping, when each subject has multiple measurements of a quantitative trait over time, power for detecting genetic association can be gained by the inclusion of all measurements and not just single time points or averages in the analysis. To increase power and control type 1 error, one should account for dependence among observations for a single individual as well as dependence between observations of related individuals if they are present in the sample. We propose L-GATOR, a retrospective, mixed-effects method for association mapping of longitudinally measured traits in samples with related individuals...
April 5, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623468/misses-and-near-misses-in-diagnosing-nodular-fasciitis-and-morphologically-related-reactive-myofibroblastic-proliferations-experience-of-a-referral-center-with-emphasis-on-frequency-of-usp6-gene-rearrangements
#7
Ramona Erber, Abbas Agaimy
Although harmless, reactive and benign neoplastic myo-/fibroblastic proliferations represent a diagnostic challenge in routine surgical pathology practice as reflected by their frequency among consultation cases. In addition to resembling each other, the prototypical nodular fasciitis (NF) and NF-like lesions can be mistaken for low-grade or aggressive sarcomas. USP6 translocation was reported recently as the molecular driver and potential diagnostic marker of NF. We reviewed 71 lesions with a diagnosis of NF (n = 48) or NF-like myofibroblastic proliferations (n = 23) and screened them for USP6 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
April 5, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623437/molecular-characterization-of-cosmopolitan-and-potentially-co-invasive-helminths-of-commensal-murid-rodents-in-gauteng-province-south-africa
#8
R S Julius, E V Schwan, C T Chimimba
Concurrent studies of helminth parasites of introduced and native rodent species are few and miss the opportunity to identify potential co-invasive parasite species. This study employed molecular tools to infer the phylogeny and elucidate the origin of potentially co-invasive parasites of commensal, murid rodents by assessing introduced Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus, Rattus tanezumi, and native Mastomys coucha in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Genotypes of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis recovered from R. norvegicus are nearly identical to those recovered from elsewhere in the world...
April 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617846/eresearch-in-acute-kidney-injury-a-primer-for-electronic-health-record-research
#9
Emily L Joyce, Dilhari R DeAlmeida, Dana Y Fuhrman, Priyanka Priyanka, John A Kellum
Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality as well as overall health care costs. eResearch, which integrates information technology and information management to optimize research strategies, provides a perfect platform for necessary ongoing AKI research. With the recent adoption of a widely accepted definition of AKI and near-universal use of electronic health records, eResearch is becoming an important tool in AKI research. Conducting eResearch in AKI should ideally be based on a relatively uniform methodology...
March 30, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603819/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-years-criteria-in-emergency-department-patients-evaluated-for-pulmonary-embolism
#10
Christopher Kabrhel, Astrid Van Hylckama Vlieg, Alona Muzikanski, Adam Singer, Gregory J Fermann, Samuel Francis, Alex Lim Kakeng, Ann Marie Chang, Nicholas Giordano, Blair Parry
BACKGROUND: It may be possible to safely rule out pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with low pre-test probability (PTP) using a higher than standard D-dimer threshold. The YEARS criteria, which includes three questions from the Wells PE Score to identify low PTP patients and a variable D-dimer threshold, was recently shown to decrease the need for imaging to rule out PE by 14% in a multicenter study in the Netherlands. However, the YEARS approach has not been studied in the United States...
March 31, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603807/factors-associated-with-undiagnosed-obstructive-sleep-apnea-among-hypertensive-patients-a-multisite-cross-sectional-study-in-taiwan
#11
Hsiu-Chin Hsu, Mei-Hsiang Lin, Ning-Hung Chen, Wan Jing Ho
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution and risk factors associated with undiagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) among hypertensive patients. BACKGROUND: OSA has been deemed a cardinal risk factor affecting cardiovascular event, the condition is still frequently overlooked clinically. The lack of advanced diagnosis often causes hypertensive patients with OSA to miss opportunities for preventing chronic diseases. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598877/dash-cam-videos-on-youtube%C3%A2-offer-insights-into-factors-related-to-moose-vehicle-collisions
#12
Roy V Rea, Chris J Johnson, Daniel A Aitken, Kenneth N Child, Gayle Hesse
To gain a better understanding of the dynamics of moose-vehicle collisions, we analyzed 96 videos of moose-vehicle interactions recorded by vehicle dash-mounted cameras (Dash Cams) that had been posted to the video-sharing website YouTube™. Our objective was to determine the effects of road conditions, season and weather, moose behavior, and driver response to actual collisions compared to near misses when the collision was avoided. We identified 11 variables that were consistently observable in each video and that we hypothesized would help to explain a collision or near miss...
March 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594103/chloride-ion-transport-by-the-e-coli-clc-cl-h-antiporter-a-combined-quantum-mechanical-and-molecular-mechanical-study
#13
Chun-Hung Wang, Adam W Duster, Baris O Aydintug, MacKenzie G Zarecki, Hai Lin
We performed steered molecular dynamics (SMD) and umbrella sampling simulations of Cl- ion migration through the transmembrane domain of a prototypical E. coli CLC Cl- /H+ antiporter by employing combined quantum-mechanical (QM) and molecular-mechanical (MM) calculations. The SMD simulations revealed interesting conformational changes of the protein. While no large-amplitude motions of the protein were observed during pore opening, the side chain rotation of the protonated external gating residue Glu148 was found to be critical for full access of the channel entrance by Cl- ...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590043/sustained-climate-warming-drives-declining-marine-biological-productivity
#14
J Keith Moore, Weiwei Fu, Francois Primeau, Gregory L Britten, Keith Lindsay, Matthew Long, Scott C Doney, Natalie Mahowald, Forrest Hoffman, James T Randerson
Climate change projections to the year 2100 may miss physical-biogeochemical feedbacks that emerge later from the cumulative effects of climate warming. In a coupled climate simulation to the year 2300, the westerly winds strengthen and shift poleward, surface waters warm, and sea ice disappears, leading to intense nutrient trapping in the Southern Ocean. The trapping drives a global-scale nutrient redistribution, with net transfer to the deep ocean. Ensuing surface nutrient reductions north of 30°S drive steady declines in primary production and carbon export (decreases of 24 and 41%, respectively, by 2300)...
March 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584761/the-first-mitochondrial-genomes-for-pyralinae-pyralidae-and-glaphyriinae-crambidae-with-phylogenetic-implications-of-pyraloidea
#15
Wenbo Zhu, Jun Yan, Jingrui Song, Ping You
In the present study, we report five complete and one nearly complete mitochondrial genomes of the Pyraloidea including the first representatives from the Pyralinae (Pyralidae) and Glaphyriinae (Crambidae). We also conduct a comparative analysis of mitogenomic features of this group. Our results show that Pyraloidea mitogenomes evolved under a common trend found in lepidopteran mitogenomes and share several typical genomic characters. The extra conserved blocks are identified in the Pyraloidea control region, and diverse missing codons formed another unique trait within Pyraloidea mitogenome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573677/vertical-air-temperature-gradients-under-the-shade-of-two-contrasting-urban-tree-species-during-different-types-of-summer-days
#16
Mohammad A Rahman, Astrid Moser, Anna Gold, Thomas Rötzer, Stephan Pauleit
Moderation of thermal energy balance through the canopies of urban trees is well known. However, a more functional and quantitative view of the heterogeneous urban environment and their influence on the below-canopy vertical air temperature gradients is largely missing. Throughout the summer 2016 we continuously measured air temperature at three different heights (at 1.5, 3 and 4.5m from the ground) under the canopies of two common but contrasting street tree species in respect of eco-physiology and morphology in Munich, Germany: Robinia pseudoacacia L...
March 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567385/-a-structured-case-analysis-from-the-critical-incident-reporting-system-of-the-german-medical-association-and-the-national-association-of-statutory-health-insurance-physicians
#17
Thomas Schrader, Laura Tetzlaff, Katharina Löwe, Cornelia Schröder, Eberhard Beck
BACKGROUND: Reporting systems for near misses are necessary to improve patient safety. In Germany, different systems are publicly available on both a national and regional level or as systems related to various medical domains. In contrast with the British Registry, our reporting systems still lack systematic evaluation. Using the Open-Task-Process Model (OPT model) one case of CIRSmedical (www.cirsmedical.de) was selected for a systematic analysis. METHOD: Case 148384 reports on a patient with a tentative diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with an oxygen saturation of 71 %...
March 19, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562768/using-hfacs-healthcare-to-identify-systemic-vulnerabilities-during-surgery
#18
Tara N Cohen, Sarah E Francis, Douglas A Wiegmann, Scott A Shappell, Bruce L Gewertz
The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System for Healthcare (HFACS-Healthcare) was used to classify surgical near miss events reported via a hospital's event reporting system over the course of 1 year. Two trained analysts identified causal factors within each event narrative and subsequently categorized the events using HFACS-Healthcare. Of 910 original events, 592 could be analyzed further using HFACS-Healthcare, resulting in the identification of 726 causal factors. Most issues (n = 436, 60.00%) involved preconditions for unsafe acts, followed by unsafe acts (n = 257, 35...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541758/venous-thromboembolism-prevention-in-emergency-general-surgery-a-review
#19
Patrick B Murphy, Kelly N Vogt, Brandyn D Lau, Jonathan Aboagye, Neil G Parry, Michael B Streiff, Elliott R Haut
Importance: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in US hospitals, and approximately 2.5% of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients will be diagnosed with a VTE event. Emergency general surgery patients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality because of the nature of acute surgical conditions and the challenges related to prophylaxis. Observations: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Collected Reviews were searched from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2015...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538278/going-off-grid-modelling-an-automated-record-search-to-process-electronically-reported-reactive-non-treponemal-syphilis-tests
#20
James Matthias, Gayle Keller, Susan Cha, Craig Wilson, Thomas A Peterman
BACKGROUND: Before searching prior records, sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs use syphilis reactor grids to exclude some reactive non-treponemal test results (RNTs) based on patient age, sex, and test titer. We propose a new algorithm that starts with comparing RNTs to previous syphilis non-treponemal tests and current treponemal test results. METHODS: De-duplicated RNTs from Florida's surveillance system (2006-2015) were extracted and stratified on morbidity...
March 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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