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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138572/current-status-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitors-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Akihiro Ohmoto, Shinichi Yachida
Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which play a key role in DNA damage/repair pathways, have been developed as antitumor agents based on the concept of synthetic lethality. Synthetic lethality is the idea that cell death would be efficiently induced by simultaneous loss of function of plural key molecules, for example, by exposing tumor cells with inactivating gene mutation of BRCA-mediated DNA repair to chemically induced inhibition of PARPs. Indeed, three PARP inhibitors, olaparib, rucaparib and niraparib have already been approved in the US or Europe, mainly for the treatment of BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138210/what-happens-after-menopause-wham-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicentre-age-matched-cohort-trial-of-risk-reducing-bilateral-salpingo-oophorectomy-in-high-risk-premenopausal-women
#2
Martha Hickey, Alison Trainer, Sabine Braat, Mary-Ann Davey, Efrosinia Krejany, John Wark
INTRODUCTION: Women at high inherited risk of ovarian cancer are advised to undergo risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) at age 40-45 years or when their families are complete. Most women are premenopausal at this age, so RRBSO will induce surgical menopause. Despite the clear benefits of RRBSO for cancer risk reduction, much less is known about the impact on non-cancer outcomes that contribute to health and well-being and inform surveillance and management strategies...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137284/treatment-strategy-and-prognostic-factors-for-krukenberg-tumors-of-gastric-origin-report-of-a-10-year-single-center-experience-from-china
#3
Pengfei Yu, Ling Huang, Guoping Cheng, Litao Yang, Gaiguo Dai, Jieer Ying, Yian Du
Background: Gastric cancer patient with ovarian metastasis is common in clinical practice, but it is still uncertain whether surgical resection of ovarian metastasis could improve the outcome. This study aimed to explore the survival benefit of metastasectomy plus chemotherapy over chemotherapy alone in the treatment of Krukenberg tumors arising from gastric cancer and to identify prognostic factors. Results: A total of 152 patients were identified, including 93 patients with synchronous ovarian metastasis and 59 patients with metachronous ovarian metastasis...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135088/the-role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-ovarian-cancer
#4
Vlad Gata, Ignat Florin Laurentiu
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecological malignancies in western countries. Chemoresistance represents a major issue and a better understanding of the interactions that take place within the tumor microenvironment is needed, such as the connection between inflammation and cancer. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are part of the basic mechanisms that are involved in the activation of the innate immune system, with extensive activation of various transcription factors, that subsequently lead to an adaptive immune response, making them key players that modulate the inflammatory response and tumor dynamics...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134372/systematic-review-of-cytoreductive-surgery-and-bevacizumab-containing-chemotherapy-in-advanced-ovarian-cancer-focus-on-safety
#5
REVIEW
Marco Petrillo, Camilla Nero, Vittoria Carbone, Matteo Bruno, Giovanni Scambia, Anna Fagotti
BACKGROUND: Initial experiences reported increased surgical morbidities in patients receiving cytoreductive surgery for colorectal cancer after bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy; however, more recent literature suggests a favorable toxicity profile in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). With the aim of providing a more objective point of view on this controversial issue, we present here a systematic literature review. METHODS: Systematic revision of the available literature was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE electronic databases...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133151/laparoscopic-management-of-a-rudimentary-uterine-horn
#6
Emilie Faller, Jean Jacques Baldauf, François Becmeur, Anne Lehn, Cherif Youssef Akladios, Lise Lecointre
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a technique of laparoscopic management of a rudimentary horn in a 12-year-old girl. DESIGN: A step-by-step explanation of the surgery using video (instructive video), approved the local institutional Review Board. SETTING: A university hospital, University Hospital of Strasbourg, France. PATIENT: A 12-year-old girl with a uterine rudimentary horn. INTERVENTION: We describe the case of a 12 years old girl who had no medical history...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132396/circulating-cell-free-dna-and-circulating-tumor-cells-the-liquid-biopsies-in-ovarian-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Xianliang Cheng, Lei Zhang, Yajuan Chen, Chen Qing
Limited understanding of ovarian cancer (OC) genome portrait has hindered the therapeutic advances. The serial monitoring of tumor genotypes is becoming increasingly attainable with circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerging as "liquid biopsies". They represent non-invasive biomarkers and are viable, as they can be isolated from human plasma, serum and other body fluids. Molecular characterization of circulating tumor DNA (ct-DNA) and CTCs offer unique potentials to better understand the biology of metastasis and resistance to therapies...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129390/clinical-significance-of-enlarged-cardiophrenic-lymph-nodes-in-advanced-ovarian-cancer-implications-for-survival
#8
Ismail Mert, Amanika Kumar, Shannon P Sheedy, Amy L Weaver, Michaela E McGree, Bohyun Kim, William A Cliby
OBJECTIVE: Advanced ovarian cancer (OC) commonly spreads to cardiophrenic lymph nodes (CPLNs), and is often visible on preoperative imaging. We investigated the prognostic significance of abnormal CPLNs in OC detected by preoperative CT scans using three different definitions. METHODS: Patients undergoing primary debulking surgery for stage IIIC/IV with residual disease (RD) ≤1.0cm and a preoperative abdominopelvic CT scan available were included. Scans were reviewed by two blinded radiologists...
November 9, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128912/ovarian-stem-cells-resolving-controversies
#9
Deepa Bhartiya, Hiren Patel
A recent review on ovarian stem cells by Horan and Williams entitled "Oocyte Stem Cells: Fact or Fantasy?" suggests that the debate on ovarian stem cells (OSCs) is still not over. They did not even discuss the presence of two distinct populations of stem cells in the ovary in their review. OSCs are located in the ovary surface epithelium and Tilly's group reported them in the size range of 5-8 μm whereas Virant-Klun's group has reported pluripotent, 2-4 μm OSCs. Our group reported OSCs of two distinct sizes including pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) which are smaller in size than RBCs (similar to those reported by Virant-Klun's group) and slightly bigger (similar to those reported by Tilly's group) tissue committed progenitors (OSCs) that presumably differentiate from VSELs...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128106/who-are-the-long-term-survivors-of-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Claire Hoppenot, Mark A Eckert, Samantha M Tienda, Ernst Lengyel
Although the median survival for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is <5years, approximately 15% of patients will survive for >10years. A better understanding of these exceptional responders could reveal opportunities to improve the dismal prognosis of most EOC patients. In this review, we examine the clinical and genomic features that have been associated with long-term survival, which is generally defined as survival of >7-10years after initial diagnosis. Clinical features influencing long-term survival have been best reported in large retrospective population-based studies...
November 8, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127647/o-glcnacylation-in-women-s-cancers-breast-endometrial-and-ovarian
#11
REVIEW
Gloria M Trinca, Christy R Hagan
O-GlcNAcylation is emerging as a critical regulatory post-translational modification, impacting proteins that regulate cell division, apoptosis, metabolism, cell signaling, and transcription. O-GlcNAc also affects biological homeostasis by integrating information coming from the environment, such as nutrient conditions and extracellular stimuli, with cellular response. Aberrant O-GlcNAc modulation has been linked to metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancers. While many studies have highlighted the significance of O-GlcNAc in cancer, a specific function for O-GlcNAc during tumorigenesis remains unclear and seems to differ according to cancer type...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123347/referral-patterns-of-gynecological-cancer-patients-to-a-palliative-medicine-unit-a-2-years-retrospective-analysis
#12
Shrikant Atreya
Introduction: Patients with advanced gynecological malignancies often present with a high burden of symptoms endangering their quality of life. Objective: This study aims at assessing the symptom prevalence in patients with gynecological malignancies referred to palliative care and identify factors that predict high symptom burden. Methodology: This was a retrospective data analysis of gynecological cancer patients referred to palliative medicine department...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118265/a-systematic-review-of-health-related-quality-of-life-reporting-in-ovarian-cancer-phase-iii-clinical-trials-room-to-improve
#13
REVIEW
Michelle K Wilson, Michael L Friedlander, Florence Joly, Amit M Oza
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Patients may experience a multitude of disease- and treatment-related symptoms that can impact quality of life (QOL) and should be measured and reported in clinical trials. This systematic review investigated the adequacy of reporting of QOL in randomized phase III trials in OC in both the first-line and recurrent disease setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE identified randomized clinical trials of systemic therapy in OC from 1980 to 2014...
November 8, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116596/antibody-drug-conjugates-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors-clinical-experience-and-latest-developments
#14
Aiko Nagayama, Leif W Ellisen, Bruce Chabner, Aditya Bardia
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex immunoconjugates designed to selectively deliver toxic small molecules preferentially to cancer cells. These immunoconjugates consist of a monoclonal antibody - directed to a tumor antigen - and a cytotoxic agent that is conjugated to the antibody via a molecular linker. Following the binding to a specific antigen on the surface of cancer cells, the conjugate is internalized and releases its cytotoxic payload to kill the malignant cell. ADCs that have gained regulatory approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) include brentuximab vedotin for CD30-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma and trastuzumab emtansine for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer...
November 8, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115416/annexin-a2-and-cancer-a-systematic-review
#15
Maria V Christensen, Claus K Høgdall, Kirsten M Jochumsen, Estrid V S Høgdall
Annexin A2 is a 36-kDa protein interfering with multiple cellular processes especially in cancer progression. The present review aimed to show the relations between Annexin A2 and cancer. A systematic search for studies investigating cancer and Annexin A2 expression was conducted using PubMed. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute promyelocytic leukaemia, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, gastric cancer, glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung, multiple myeloma, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma, prostate cancer and urothelial carcinoma were evaluated...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113651/the-role-of-f18-fdg-pet-ct-in-predicting-secondary-optimal-de-bulking-in-patients-with-recurrent-ovarian-cancer
#16
Amnon Amit, Adina Hodes, Ofer Lavie, Zohar Keidar, Emad Matanes, Lior Lowenstein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The decision to perform secondary cytoreductive surgery for recurrent ovarian cancer is generally determined by clinical criteria. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capability of FDG-PET/CT in identifying patients for whom secondary optimal debulking can be obtained. METHODS: We reviewed the records of all women with suspected recurrent ovarian cancer (CA-125 levels >35 U/ml and/or clinical symptoms), at two medical centers, between January 2004 and December 2013...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113037/vitamin-d-and-vdr-in-gynecological-cancers-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Eileen Deuster, Udo Jeschke, Yao Ye, Sven Mahner, Bastian Czogalla
In recent years, a vast amount of studies have centered on the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of certain types of cancers such as breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D and its receptor play a crucial role in the development of gynecological cancers. In this review, we systematically analyzed the effect of vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor on endometrial, ovarian, cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer. Our literature research shows that vitamin D levels and vitamin-D-related pathways affect the risk of gynecological cancers...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109859/candidate-synthetic-lethality-partners-to-parp-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-clear-cell-cancer
#18
Naoki Kawahara, Kenji Ogawa, Mika Nagayasu, Mai Kimura, Yoshikazu Sasaki, Hiroshi Kobayashi
Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) are new types of personalized treatment of relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer harboring BRCA1/2 mutations. Ovarian clear cell cancer (CCC), a subset of ovarian cancer, often appears as low-stage disease with a higher incidence among Japanese. Advanced CCC is highly aggressive with poor patient outcome. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential synthetic lethality gene pairs for PARP inhibitions in patients with CCC through virtual and biological screenings as well as clinical studies...
November 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108961/rare-ovarian-tumours-epidemiology-treatment-challenges-in-and-outside-a-network-setting
#19
I Ray-Coquard, AnnaLisa Trama, M J Seckl, C Fotopoulou, P Pautier, S Pignata, G Kristensen, G Mangili, H Falconer, L Massuger, J Sehouli, E Pujade-Lauraine, D Lorusso, F Amant, E Rokkones, I Vergote, J A Ledermann
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: More than 50% of all gynaecological cancers can be classified as rare tumours (defined as an annual incidence of <6 per 100,000) and such tumours represent an important challenge for clinicians. RECENT FINDINGS: Rare cancers account for more than one fifth of all new cancer diagnoses, more than any of the single common cancers alone. Reviewing the RARECAREnet database, some of the tumours occur infrequently, whilst others because of their natural history have a high prevalence, and therefore appear to be more common, although their incidence is also rare...
November 3, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105030/what-s-new-in-imaging-for-gynecologic-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Sairah R Khan, Mubarik Arshad, Kathryn Wallitt, Victoria Stewart, Nishat Bharwani, Tara D Barwick
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal modality for local staging of gynecological tumors. Advances in functional MRI with diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences provide more detailed information regarding tumor cellularity, vascularity, and viability. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) now has an established role in imaging for gynecological cancers, particularly staging of locally advanced cervical cancers and pre-salvage exenterative therapy in relapsed gynecologic tumors...
November 6, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
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