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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815434/measles-vaccination-is-best-for-children-the-argument-for-relying-on-herd-immunity-fails
#1
Johan Christiaan Bester
This article examines an argument which may negatively influence measles vaccination uptake. According to the argument, an individual child in a highly vaccinated society may be better off by being non-vaccinated; the child does not risk vaccine adverse effects and is protected against measles through herd immunity. Firstly, the conclusion of the argument is challenged by showing that herd immunity's protection is unreliable and inferior to vaccination. Secondly, the logic of the argument is challenged by showing that the argument is inherently self-defeating and therefore logically inconsistent...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810829/blocking-il-10-signalling-at-the-time-of-immunization-does-not-increase-unwanted-side-effects-in-mice
#2
Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. However, IL-10 deficiency leads to autoimmune disease in the gut...
August 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794279/nasopharyngeal-infection-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-requires-superantigen-responsive-v%C3%AE-specific-t-cells
#3
Joseph J Zeppa, Katherine J Kasper, Ivor Mohorovic, Delfina M Mazzuca, S M Mansour Haeryfar, John K McCormick
The globally prominent pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes potent immunomodulatory proteins known as superantigens (SAgs), which engage lateral surfaces of major histocompatibility class II molecules and T-cell receptor (TCR) β-chain variable domains (Vβs). These interactions result in the activation of numerous Vβ-specific T cells, which is the defining activity of a SAg. Although streptococcal SAgs are known virulence factors in scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome, mechanisms by how SAgs contribute to the life cycle of S...
August 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794038/in-vitro-enhancement-of-rsv-infection-by-maternal-antibodies-does-not-explain-disease-severity-in-infants
#4
Elisabeth A van Erp, Puck B van Kasteren, Teun Guichelaar, Inge M L Ahout, Cornelis A M de Haan, Willem Luytjes, Gerben Ferwerda, Oliver Wicht
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of severe respiratory illness in infants. At this young age, infants typically depend on maternally transferred antibodies (matAbs) and their innate immune system for protection against infections. RSV-specific matAbs are thought to protect from severe illness, yet severe RSV disease occurs mainly below 6 months of age, when neutralizing matAb levels are present. To investigate this discrepancy, we asked if disease severity is related to antibody properties other than neutralization...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794024/highly-pathogenic-new-world-arenavirus-infection-activates-the-pattern-recognition-receptor-pkr-without-attenuating-virus-replication-in-human-cells
#5
Cheng Huang, Olga A Kolokoltsova, Elizabeth J Mateer, Takaaki Koma, Slobodan Paessler
The arenavirus family consists of several highly pathogenic viruses including the Old World (OW) arenavirus Lassa fever virus (LASV) and the New World (NW) Junín virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV). Host response to infection by these pathogenic arenaviruses is distinct in many aspects. NW JUNV and MACV infections readily induce an IFN response in human cells, while OW LASV infection usually triggers an undetectable or weak IFN response. JUNV induces IFN response through RIG-I, suggesting that the host non-self RNA sensor readily detects JUNV viral RNAs during infection and activates IFN response...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780422/efficacy-of-a-high-potency-o1-manisa-monovalent-vaccine-against-heterologous-challenge-with-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-of-o-sea-mya-98-lineage-in-sheep
#6
N B Singanallur, J M Pacheco, J Arzt, C Stenfeldt, G T Fosgate, L Rodriguez, W Vosloo
Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6PD50) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge...
August 3, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772257/protecting-newborns-from-pertussis-the-role-of-partner-vaccination-in-the-era-of-maternal-immunization
#7
Sushena Krishnaswamy, Euan M Wallace, Allen C Cheng, Jim Buttery, Michelle L Giles
OBJECTIVE(S): While antenatal vaccination is the most effective strategy to reduce newborn pertussis infection and its associated morbidity and mortality, uptake has consistently been reported to be suboptimal. "Cocooning" or vaccination of the close contacts of newborns therefore remains an important strategy for protecting newborns when maternal vaccination has not occurred or with insufficient time for antibody transfer. This study assesses the uptake of pertussis vaccination by parents and close contacts of newborns providing insight into the vulnerability of newborns to pertussis upon discharge from hospital to their primary carers...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768257/autoimmunity-in-the-elderly-insights-from-basic-science-and-clinics-a-mini-review
#8
Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Elias Toubi, Bat-Sheva Porat, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Advancements in the field of biomedicine, including the control of infectious diseases through antibiotics and vaccination practices and the prevention of chronic disorders, have led to reduced mortality, increased life expectancy and, as such, growth of the older population. Ageing is accompanied by profound morphological and physiological alterations. In particular, the immune system undergoes a complex series of remodeling/restructuring events, involving almost all compartments - both the innate and the adaptive system...
July 29, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751932/does-regular-exercise-counter-t-cell-immunosenescence-reducing-the-risk-of-developing-cancer-and-promoting-successful-treatment-of-malignancies
#9
REVIEW
James E Turner, Patricia C Brum
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise training or regular physical activity is beneficial for immune function. For example, some evidence shows that individuals with an active lifestyle exhibit stronger immune responses to vaccination compared to those who are inactive. Encouragingly, poor vaccine responses, which are characteristic of an ageing immune system, can be improved by single or repeated bouts of exercise. In addition, exercise-induced lymphocytosis, and the subsequent lymphocytopenia, is thought to facilitate immune surveillance, whereby lymphocytes search tissues for antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, or malignant transformation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747530/sequence-intrinsic-somatic-mutation-mechanisms-contribute-to-affinity-maturation-of-vrc01-class-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#10
Joyce K Hwang, Chong Wang, Zhou Du, Robin M Meyers, Thomas B Kepler, Donna Neuberg, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, M Gordon Joyce, Mattia Bonsignori, Barton F Haynes, Leng-Siew Yeap, Frederick W Alt
Variable regions of Ig chains provide the antigen recognition portion of B-cell receptors and derivative antibodies. Ig heavy-chain variable region exons are assembled developmentally from V, D, J gene segments. Each variable region contains three antigen-contacting complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), with CDR1 and CDR2 encoded by the V segment and CDR3 encoded by the V(D)J junction region. Antigen-stimulated germinal center (GC) B cells undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) of V(D)J exons followed by selection for SHMs that increase antigen-binding affinity...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746819/humanized-mouse-models-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#11
Matthew D Marsden, Jerome A Zack
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. No effective vaccine is available to prevent HIV transmission, and although antiretroviral therapy can prevent disease progression, it does not cure HIV infection. Substantial effort is therefore currently directed toward basic research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence and developing methods to stop the spread of the HIV epidemic and cure those individuals already infected with HIV. Humanized mice are versatile tools for the study ofHIVand its interaction with the human immune system...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745327/seminal-vesicle-fluid-increases-the-efficacy-of-intravaginal-hsv-2-vaccination
#12
A Varese, F Remes Lenicov, M Gonzalez Prinz, A Paletta, G Ernst, C Maeto, A Merlotti, J Sabatte, S Símula, M P Holgado, E Dantas, J Geffner, A Ceballos
Once considered merely as a vehicle for spermatozoa, it is now clear that seminal plasma (SP) induces a variety of biological actions on the female reproductive tissues able to modulate the immune response against paternal antigens. To our knowledge, the influence of SP on the immune response against sexually transmitted pathogens has not been yet evaluated. We here analyzed whether the seminal vesicle fluid (SVF), which contributes almost 60% of the SP volume in mice, could modulate the immune response against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744263/recombinant-invasive-lactococcus-lactis-carrying-a-dna-vaccine-coding-the-ag85a-antigen-increases-inf-%C3%AE-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-cytokines-after-intranasal-immunization
#13
Pamela Mancha-Agresti, Camila Prosperi de Castro, Janete S C Dos Santos, Maíra A Araujo, Vanessa B Pereira, Jean G LeBlanc, Sophie Y Leclercq, Vasco Azevedo
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat throughout the world and in 2015 it caused the death of 1.4 million people. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is the only existing vaccine against this ancient disease; however, it does not provide complete protection in adults. New vaccines against TB are eminently a global priority. The use of bacteria as vehicles for delivery of vaccine plasmids is a promising vaccination strategy. In this study, we evaluated the use of, an engineered invasive Lactococcus lactis (expressing Fibronectin-Binding Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus) for the delivery of DNA plasmid to host cells, especially to the mucosal site as a new DNA vaccine against tuberculosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739831/neutrophils-are-central-to-antibody-mediated-protection-against-genital-chlamydia
#14
Elizabeth K Naglak, Sandra G Morrison, Richard P Morrison
Determining the effector populations involved in humoral protection against genital chlamydia infection is crucial to development of an effective chlamydial vaccine. Antibody has been implicated in protection studies in multiple animal models, and we previously showed that the passive transfer of immune serum alone does not confer immunity in the mouse. Using the Chlamydia muridarum model of genital infection, we demonstrate a protective role for both Chlamydia-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and show the importance of an antibody/effector cell interaction in mediating humoral immunity...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737622/changes-in-the-nature-and-severity-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-before-and-after-the-7-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programs-in-calgary-canada
#15
Leah J Ricketson, Nicholas G Conradi, Otto G Vanderkooi, James D Kellner
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence has decreased in children and the predominant serotypes causing disease have changed. This study describes changes in the clinical features of IPD in children (<18 years) before and after conjugate vaccine introduction. METHODS: The Calgary Area Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research (CASPER) study collects information on all IPD cases in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732684/the-impact-of-current-infection-levels-on-the-cost-benefit-of-vaccination
#16
Matt J Keeling, Katherine A Broadfoot, Samik Datta
When considering a new vaccine programme or modifying an existing one, economic cost-benefit analysis, underpinned by predictive epidemiological modelling, is a key component. This analysis is intimately linked to the willingness to pay for additional QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years) gained; currently in England and Wales a health programme is economically viable if the cost per QALY gained is less than £ 20,000, and models are often used to assess if a vaccine programme is likely to fall below this threshold cost...
July 8, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724763/species-specificity-of-vaccinia-virus-complement-control-protein-towards-bovine-classical-pathway-is-governed-primarily-by-direct-interaction-of-its-acidic-residues-with-factor-i
#17
Jitendra Kumar, Viveka Nand Yadav, Swastik Phulera, Ashish Kamble, Avneesh Kumar Gautam, Hemendra Singh Panwar, Arvind Sahu
Poxviruses display species tropism - variola virus is a human-specific virus, while vaccinia virus causes repeated outbreaks in dairy cattle. Consistent with this, variola virus complement regulator SPICE exhibit selectivity in inhibiting the human alternative complement pathway and vaccinia virus complement regulator VCP display selectivity in inhibiting the bovine alternative complement pathway. In the present study, we examined the species-specificity of VCP and SPICE towards the classical pathway (CP). We observed that VCP is ∼43-fold superior in inhibiting bovine CP than SPICE...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724741/body-height-and-immune-efficacy-testing-body-stature-as-a-signal-of-biological-quality
#18
Bogusław Pawłowski, Judyta Nowak, Barbara Borkowska, Daria Augustyniak, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
According to the good genes hypothesis and energy allocation theory, human adult body height may reflect biological quality. An important aspect of this quality is immune system functioning (ISF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ISF and body height in healthy people. The ISF was determined by several important innate (total complement and lysozyme activity, neutrophil function) and adaptive immune parameters (lymphocytes, IgA and IgG, and response to the flu vaccine). Overall, 96 males and 97 females were subjected to flu vaccination, and of these, 35 males and 34 females were subjected to tetanus...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722575/household-and-individual-risk-factors-for-cholera-among-cholera-vaccine-recipients-in-rural-haiti
#19
Wilfredo R Matias, Jessica E Teng, Isabelle J Hilaire, Jason B Harris, Molly F Franke, Louise C Ivers
Oral cholera vaccination was used as part of cholera control in Haiti, but the vaccine does not provide complete protection. We conducted secondary data analyses of a vaccine effectiveness study in Haiti to evaluate risk factors for cholera among cholera vaccine recipients. Individuals vaccinated against cholera that presented with acute watery diarrhea and had a stool sample positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 were included as cases. Up to four vaccinated individuals who did not present for treatment of diarrhea were included as controls for each case, and matched by location of residence, enrollment time, and age...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716893/which-dengue-vaccine-approach-is-the-most-promising-and-should-we-be-concerned-about-enhanced-disease-after-vaccination-there-is-only-one-true-winner
#20
Scott B Halstead
The scientific community now possesses information obtained directly from human beings that makes it possible to understand why breakthrough-enhanced dengue virus (DENV) infections occurred in children receiving Sanofi Pasteur's Dengvaxia tetravalent live attenuated vaccine and to predict the possibility of breakthrough-enhanced DENV infections following immunization with two other tetravalent live attenuated vaccines now in phase III testing. Based upon recent research, Dengvaxia, lacking DENV nonstructural protein antigens, did not protect seronegatives because it failed to raise a competent T-cell response and/or antibodies to NS1...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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