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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906032/infection-of-rhesus-macaques-with-a-pool-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-with-the-envelope-genes-from-acute-hiv-1-infections
#1
Kendall C Krebs, Meijuan Tian, Mohammed Asmal, Binhua Ling, Kenneth Nelson, Kenneth Henry, Richard Gibson, Yuejin Li, Weining Han, Robin J Shattock, Ronald S Veazey, Norman Letvin, Eric J Arts, Yong Gao
BACKGROUND: New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques...
November 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903741/whole-killed-blood-stage-vaccine-induced-immunity-suppresses-the-development-of-malaria-parasites-in-mosquitoes
#2
Feng Zhu, Taiping Liu, Chenhao Zhao, Xiao Lu, Jian Zhang, Wenyue Xu
As a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine alone does not confer a direct benefit to the recipient, it is necessary to develop a vaccine that not only blocks malaria transmission but also protects vaccinated individuals. In this study we observed that a whole-killed blood-stage vaccine (WKV) not only conferred protection against the blood-stage challenge but also markedly inhibited the transmission of different strains of the malaria parasite. Although the parasitemia is much lower in WKV-immunized mice challenged with malaria parasites, the gametocytemia is comparable between control and immunized mice during the early stages of infection...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895595/moving-from-histopathology-to-molecular-tools-in-the-diagnosis-of-molluscs-diseases-of-concern-under-eu-legislation
#3
REVIEW
Raquel Aranguren, Antonio Figueras
One of the main factors limiting molluscs production is the presence of pathogens and diseases. Disease agent transfer via transfers of live molluscs has been a major cause of disease outbreaks and epizootics. Because of that, the European Union has adopted several decisions and directives, the last in 2006 (2006/88/EC) to control movements of marine organisms over the European countries. Once the disease is established in a determined area its eradication is a complicated task because life cycle of pathogens are not completely known and only a good and early diagnosis of the disease could be the most appropriate way to deal with it...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893898/association-between-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-vaccination-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-morbidity-in-offspring
#4
Anders Hviid, Henrik Svanström, Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Philipp Lambach
Importance: Several studies investigating potential adverse effects of the pandemic A(H1N1) vaccine have supported that influenza A(H1N1) vaccination does not increase the risk for major pregnancy and birth adverse outcomes, but little is known about possible adverse effects in offspring of A(H1N1)-vaccinated mothers beyond the perinatal period and into early childhood. Objective: To evaluate whether pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in pregnancy increases the risk for early childhood morbidity in offspring...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892498/sensitization-with-vaccinia-virus-encoding-h5n1-hemagglutinin-restores-immune-potential-against-h5n1-influenza-virus
#5
Fumihiko Yasui, Yasushi Itoh, Ai Ikejiri, Masahiro Kitabatake, Nobuo Sakaguchi, Keisuke Munekata, Shintaro Shichinohe, Yukiko Hayashi, Hirohito Ishigaki, Misako Nakayama, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Michinori Kohara
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) virus causes elevated mortality compared with seasonal influenza viruses like H1N1 pandemic influenza (H1N1 pdm) virus. We identified a mechanism associated with the severe symptoms seen with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. H5N1 HPAI virus infection induced a decrease of dendritic cell number in the splenic extrafollicular T-cell zone and impaired formation of the outer layers of B-cell follicles, resulting in insufficient levels of antibody production after infection...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881704/generation-of-a-novel-hla-class-i-transgenic-mouse-model-carrying-a-knock-in-mutation-at-the-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-locus
#6
Naomoto Harada, Satoshi Fukaya, Hiroshi Wada, Risa Goto, Toshihiro Osada, Akira Gomori, Koichi Ikizawa, Motomu Sakuragi, Nobuyuki Oda
We generated a series of monochain HLA class I knock-in (KI) mouse strains, in which a chimeric HLA class I molecule (α1/α2 domain of HLA-A*0201, HLA-A*0301, HLA-A*2402, or HLA-A*3101 and α3 domain of H-2D(b)) was covalently linked with 15 aa to human β2-microglobulin (β2m) and introduced into the endogenous mouse β2m locus. In homozygous KI mice, mouse β2m gene disruption resulted in loss of the endogenous H-2 class I molecules and reduction in the peripheral CD8(+) T cell population that was partially restored by monochain HLA class I expression...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881643/inclusion-body-fusion-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-regulated-by-acetylated-%C3%AE-tubulin-enhances-viral-replication
#7
Shengwei Zhang, Yanliang Jiang, Qi Cheng, Zhong Yi, Yali Qin, Mingzhou Chen
: Viral inclusion bodies (IBs) or replication factories are unique structures generated by viral proteins together with some cellular proteins as a platform for efficient viral replication, but little is known about the mechanism underlying IB formation and fusion. Our previous study demonstrated that the interaction between the nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), an enveloped virus of great medical impact, can form IBs. In this study, we found that small IBs can fuse with each other to form large IBs that enhance viral replication...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877052/dendritic-cell-immunotherapy-versus-bevacizumab-plus-irinotecan-in-recurrent-malignant-glioma-patients-a-survival-gain-analysis
#8
Stefan-Alexandru Artene, Adina Turcu-Stiolica, Richard Hartley, Marius Eugen Ciurea, Oana Daianu, Corina Brindusa, Oana Alexandru, Ligia Gabriela Tataranu, Stefana Oana Purcaru, Anica Dricu
BACKGROUND: The bevacizumab and irinotecan protocol is considered a standard treatment regimen for recurrent malignant glioma. Recent advances in immunotherapy have hinted that vaccination with dendritic cells could become an alternative salvage therapy for the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma. METHODS: A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Embase in order to identify studies with patients receiving bevacizumab plus irinotecan or dendritic cell therapy for recurrent malignant gliomas...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873323/inflammation-enhances-the-vaccination-potential-of-cd40-activated-b-cells-in-mice
#9
Mélissa Mathieu, Livia Odagiu, Léa Gaudot, Jean-François Daudelin, Heather J Melichar, Réjean Lapointe, Nathalie Labrecque
Vaccination with antigen-pulsed CD40-activated B (CD40-B) cells can efficiently lead to the in vivo differentiation of naive CD8(+) T cells into fully functional effectors. In contrast to bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) vaccination, CD40-B cell priming does not allow for memory CD8(+) T-cell generation but the reason for this deficiency is unknown. Here, we show that compared to BMDCs, murine CD40-B cells induce lower expression of several genes regulated by T-cell receptor signalling, co-stimulation and inflammation (signals 1 to 3) in mouse T cells...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870812/does-breastfeeding-protect-young-infants-from-pertussis-case-control-study-and-immunologic-evaluation
#10
Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Emanuela Carloni, Alberto Villani, Fabio Midulla, Rita Carsetti, Paola Stefanelli, Giorgio Fedele, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi
BACKGROUND: Pertussis infection can be severe in unvaccinated infants. A case control study was conducted to investigate the potential role of breastfeeding in protecting young, unvaccinated infants from pertussis. METHODS: Hospitalized infants < 6 months with positive RT-PCR for pertussis on nasopharyngeal aspirate were enrolled as cases; healthy controls were enrolled among patients admitted for ultrasound screening. Vaccinated infants were excluded. Sociodemographic, clinical and feeding information were collected...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866774/complement-independent-dengue-virus-type-1-infection-enhancing-antibody-reduces-complement-dependent-and-independent-neutralizing-antibody-activity
#11
Atsushi Yamanaka, Eiji Konishi
Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are globally important mosquito-transmitted viral diseases. However, the only licensed vaccine is not highly protective. Viremia is related to disease severity in infected humans, and it is thought to be reduced by neutralizing antibodies but increased by infection-enhancing antibodies. We established an assay system to measure the balance between neutralizing and enhancing antibodies and found that most dengue-immune individuals in endemic areas carry complement-independent enhancing antibodies (CiEAb)...
December 12, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865379/antibodies-and-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Ashley J Jacobs, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin R Screaton, Helen McShane, Robert J Wilkinson
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem internationally, causing 9.6 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths worldwide in 2014. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against TB, but its protective effect does not extend to controlling the development of infectious pulmonary disease in adults. The development of a more effective vaccine against TB is therefore a pressing need for global health. Although it is established that cell-mediated immunity is necessary for the control of latent infection, the presupposition that such immunity is sufficient for vaccine-induced protection has recently been challenged...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863556/oral-vaccination-of-cattle-with-heat-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-does-not-compromise-bovine-tb-diagnostic-tests
#13
Gareth J Jones, Sabine Steinbach, Iker A Sevilla, Joseba M Garrido, Ramon Juste, H Martin Vordermeier
In this study we investigated whether oral uptake of a heat inactivated M. bovis wildlife vaccine by domestic cattle induced systemic immune responses that compromised the use of tuberculin or defined antigens in diagnostic tests for bovine TB. Positive skin test and blood-based IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) results were observed in all calves vaccinated via the parenteral route (i.e. intramuscular). In contrast, no positive responses to tuberculin or defined antigens were observed in either the skin test or IGRA test when performed in calves vaccinated via the oral route...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854310/does-herd-immunity-exist-in-aquatic-animals
#14
Isaac F Standish, Travis O Brenden, Mohamed Faisal
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb) is presently found throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. We recently developed a DNA vaccine preparation containing the VHSV-IVb glycoprotein (G) gene with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter that proved highly efficacious in protecting muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) and three salmonid species. This study was conducted to determine whether cohabitation of VHSV-IVb immunized fishes could confer protection to non-vaccinated (i.e...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849170/hiv-1-envelope-mimicry-of-host-enzyme-kynureninase-does-not-disrupt-tryptophan-metabolism
#15
Todd Bradley, Guang Yang, Olga Ilkayeva, T Matt Holl, Ruijun Zhang, Jinsong Zhang, Sampa Santra, Christopher B Fox, Steve G Reed, Robert Parks, Cindy M Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Laura L Sutherland, Richard M Scearce, Nathan Vandergrift, Thomas B Kepler, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, S Munir Alam, Roger McLendon, Jeffrey I Everitt, Christopher B Newgard, Laurent Verkoczy, Garnett Kelsoe, Barton F Haynes
The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) has evolved to subvert the host immune system, hindering viral control by the host. The tryptophan metabolic enzyme kynureninase (KYNU) is mimicked by a portion of the HIV Env gp41 membrane proximal region (MPER) and is cross-reactive with the HIV broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) 2F5. Molecular mimicry of host proteins by pathogens can lead to autoimmune disease. In this article, we demonstrate that neither the 2F5 bnAb nor HIV MPER-KYNU cross-reactive Abs elicited by immunization with an MPER peptide-liposome vaccine in 2F5 bnAb VHDJH and VLJL knock-in mice and rhesus macaques modified KYNU activity or disrupted tissue tryptophan metabolism...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836224/-infectious-events-during-the-course-of-autoimmune-diseases-treated-with-rituximab-a-retrospective-study-of-93%C3%A2-cases
#16
M Catroux, M Lauda-Maillen, M Pathe, A-C De Boisgrollier de Ruolz, F Cazenave-Roblot, P Roblot, O Souchaud-Debouverie
OBJECTIVE: Describe the occurring infections in patients treated with rituximab for an autoimmune disease. METHODS: Retrospective and monocentric study of 93 adult patients treated with rituximab for autoimmune indications over a nine years period. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients suffered from a total of 95 infections. Out of them, 18 patients (19 %) had had at least an infectious episode triggering a hospital admission and/or intravenous treatment...
November 8, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835525/assessing-the-risk-of-intussusception-and-rotavirus-vaccine-safety-in-canada
#17
Steven Hawken, Robin Ducharme, Laura C Rosella, Eric I Benchimol, Joanne M Langley, Kumanan Wilson, Natasha S Crowcroft, Scott A Halperin, Shalina Desai, Monika Naus, Carolyn J Sanford, Salah M Mahmud, Shelley L Deeks
BACKGROUND: Intussusception has been identified as a rare adverse event following rotavirus immunization. We sought to determine the incidence of intussusception among infants in Canada both before and after introduction of rotavirus immunization programs. METHODS: We used Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) to identify infants under 1 year of age who were admitted to a Canadian hospital, which the exception of Quebec, which does not submit data to CIHI, with a diagnosis of intussusception (ICD-10 code K56...
November 11, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834208/expanding-the-host-range-of-hepatitis-c-virus-through-viral-adaptation
#18
Markus von Schaewen, Marcus Dorner, Kathrin Hueging, Lander Foquet, Sherif Gerges, Gabriela Hrebikova, Brigitte Heller, Julia Bitzegeio, Juliane Doerrbecker, Joshua A Horwitz, Gisa Gerold, Sebastian Suerbaum, Charles M Rice, Philip Meuleman, Thomas Pietschmann, Alexander Ploss
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) species tropism is incompletely understood. We have previously shown that at the level of entry, human CD81 and occludin (OCLN) comprise the minimal set of human factors needed for viral uptake into murine cells. As an alternative approach to genetic humanization, species barriers can be overcome by adapting HCV to use the murine orthologues of these entry factors. We previously generated a murine tropic HCV (mtHCV or Jc1/mCD81) strain harboring three mutations within the viral envelope proteins that allowed productive entry into mouse cell lines...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830066/helicobacter-pylori-overcomes-natural-immunity-in-repeated-infections
#19
Björn Stenström, Helen M Windsor, Alma Fulurija, Mohammed Benghezal, M Priyanthi Kumarasinghe, Kazufumi Kimura, Chin Yen Tay, Charlie H Viiala, Hooi C Ee, Wei Lu, Tobias D Schoep, K Mary Webberley, Barry J Marshall
Repeated experimental reinfection of two subjects indicates that Helicobacter pylori infection does not promote an immune response protective against future reinfection. Our results highlight the importance of preventing reinfection after eradication, through public health initiatives, and possibly treatment of family members. They indicate difficulties for vaccine development, especially therapeutic vaccines.
November 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829489/does-adjusting-for-recall-in-trend-analysis-affect-coverage-estimates-for-maternal-and-child-health-indicators-an-analysis-of-dhs-and-mics-survey-data
#20
Nobubelo K Ngandu, Samuel Manda, Donela Besada, Sarah Rohde, Nicholas P Oliphant, Tanya Doherty
BACKGROUND: The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) are the major data sources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for evaluating health service coverage. For certain maternal and child health (MCH) indicators, the two surveys use different recall periods: 5 years for DHS and 2 years for MICS. OBJECTIVE: We explored whether the different recall periods for DHS and MICS affect coverage trend analyses as well as missing data and coverage estimates...
2016: Global Health Action
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