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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333939/parents-attitude-awareness-and-behaviour-towards-influenza-vaccination-in-pakistan
#1
Allah Bukhsh, Habib-Ur Rehman, Inayat Ur Rehman, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
National immunization program of Pakistan does not include Influenza vaccines. The low rate of immunization might be attributed to the poor knowledge of influenza vaccination in Pakistan. Current study was aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of influenza vaccination among parents. A questionnaire-based cross sectional study was conducted among randomly selected parents with at least one child aged >6 months. The responses were recorded against 27 items questionnaire assessing knowledge, perception, attitude and behaviours of parents...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328884/evaluation-of-g2-citric-acid-based-dendrimer-as-an-adjuvant-in-veterinary-rabies-vaccine
#2
Vahid Asgary, Alireza Shoari, Majid Afshar Moayad, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Razieh Bigdeli, Leila Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Sadeq Khosravy, Erfan Panahnejad, Alireza Janani, Rouzbeh Bashar, Maliheh Abedi, Reza Ahangari Cohan
For induction of an appropriate immune response, especially in the case of an inactivated vaccine, the use of an adjuvant is crucial. In this study, adjuvanticity effect of G2 dendrimer in veterinary rabies vaccine has been investigated. A nonlinear globular G2 dendrimer comprising citric acid and polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG-600) was synthesized and the toxicity was studied in vitro on the J774A.1 cell line. The adjuvanticity effect of the dendrimer was then investigated on rabies virus in NMRI mice as a model...
January 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326178/impact-of-replacing-cytology-with-human-papillomavirus-testing-for-cervical-cancer-screening-on-the-prevalence-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-a-modelling-study
#3
Ben B Hui, Caitlin P Reulein, Rebecca J Guy, Basil Donovan, Jane S Hocking, Matthew G Law, David G Regan
OBJECTIVES: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common curable STI worldwide and is associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition and serious reproductive morbidities. The prevalence of TV infection is very low in Australian cities, and this is thought to be at least partly due to incidental detection and treatment of TV in women participating in the cervical cytology screening programme. In 2017, the national cervical screening programme will transition to a new model based on testing for high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV), with a reduced frequency and commencement at an older age...
January 11, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324800/hepcidin-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-do-not-alter-tuberculosis-susceptibility-in-a-murine-m-tb-infection-model
#4
Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Elena Stylianou, Lucy A Eddowes, Pei Jin Lim, Lisa Stockdale, Nawamin Pinpathomrat, Naomi Bull, Janet Pasricha, Marta Ulaszewska, Yulia Beglov, Sophie Vaulont, Hal Drakesmith, Helen McShane
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the macrophage-tropic pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a highly prevalent infectious disease. Since an immune correlate of protection or effective vaccine have yet to be found, continued research into host-pathogen interactions is important. Previous literature reports links between host iron status and disease outcome for many infections, including TB. For some extracellular bacteria, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is essential for protection against infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321311/herpes-simplex-virus-1-mutant-with-point-mutations-in-ul39-is-impaired-for-acute-viral-replication-in-mice-establishment-of-latency-and-explant-induced-reactivation
#5
Heba H Mostafa, Thornton W Thompson, Adam J Konen, Steve D Haenchen, Joshua G Hilliard, Stuart J Macdonald, Lynda A Morrison, David J Davido
In the process of generating HSV-1 mutants in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39, which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318332/-zika-virus-infection-and-the-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
I W Husstedt, M Maschke, C Eggers, E Neuen-Jacob, G Arendt
Zika virus is an arbovirus from the family of flaviviruses, which is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegyptii and also by the Asian mosquito Aedes albopticus. The largest observed Zika virus epidemic is currently taking place in North and South America, in the Caribbean, southern USA and Southeast Asia. In most cases the infection is an unspecific, acute, febrile disease. Neurological manifestations consist mainly of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome but other rare manifestations have also become known in the meantime, such as meningoencephalitis and myelitis...
January 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317871/perspective-on-the-genetic-response-to-antiparasitics-a-review-article
#7
REVIEW
Patricia Alarcon-Valdes, Mariana Ortiz-Reynoso, Jonnathan Santillan-Benitez
Background: Drugs' pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can be affected by diverse genetic variations, within which simple nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common. Genetic variability is one of the factors that could explain questions like why a given drug does not have the desired effect or why do adverse drug reactions arise. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, literature search limits were set within PubMed database as well as the epidemiological bulletins published by the Mexican Ministry of Health, from Jan 1st 2001 to Mar 31st 2017 (16 years)...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316047/parainfluenza-virus-5-vectored-vaccines-against-human-and-animal-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315111/the-growing-epidemic-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-adolescents-a-neglected-population
#9
Chelsea L Shannon, Jeffrey D Klausner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence is on the rise in the United States. The increase is especially pronounced in adolescents (15-24 years of age). Despite making up only a quarter of the population, adolescents account for approximately half of new STIs in the United States every year. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of STIs, excluding HIV, in adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we examine the epidemiology, screening, management, and prevention of STIs in adolescents...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306506/antibody-responses-among-adolescent-females-receiving-two-or-three-quadrivalent-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-doses-at-standard-and-prolonged-intervals
#10
Lea E Widdice, Elizabeth R Unger, Gitika Panicker, Rebecca Hoagland, S Todd Callahan, Lisa A Jackson, Andrea A Berry, Karen Kotloff, Sharon E Frey, Christopher J Harrison, Barbara A Pahud, Kathryn M Edwards, Mark J Mulligan, Jon Sudman, David I Bernstein
BACKGROUND: The originally recommended dosing schedule, 0, 2, 6 months, for the 3-dose quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV) was often not followed, resulting in longer than recommended intervals between doses and interest in the effect of prolonged intervals. Recent two-dose recommendations require investigations into the effect of delaying dose 2. METHODS: This multi-site, prospective study enrolled healthy 9-17 year old girls (n = 1321) on the day of or within 28 days following a third dose of 4vHPV vaccination...
January 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304825/bacterial-ribonuclease-binase-exerts-an-intra-cellular-anti-viral-mode-of-action-targeting-viral-rnas-in-influenza-a-virus-infected-mdck-ii-cells
#11
Raihan Shah Mahmud, Ahmed Mostafa, Christin Müller, Pumaree Kanrai, Vera Ulyanova, Yulia Sokurenko, Julia Dzieciolowski, Irina Kuznetsova, Olga Ilinskaya, Stephan Pleschka
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a severe contagious disease especially in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. Beside vaccination, the discovery of new anti-viral agents represents an important strategy to encounter seasonal and pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) strains. The bacterial extra-cellular ribonuclease binase is a well-studied RNase from Bacillus pumilus. Treatment with binase was shown to improve survival of laboratory animals infected with different RNA viruses. Although binase reduced IAV titer in vitro and in vivo, the mode of action (MOA) of binase against IAV at the molecular level has yet not been studied in depth and remains elusive...
January 5, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304199/intestinal-immune-responses-to-type-2-oral-polio-vaccine-opv-challenge-in-infants-previously-immunized-with-bivalent-opv-and-either-high-dose-or-standard-inactivated-polio-vaccine
#12
Elizabeth B Brickley, Carolyn B Strauch, Wendy F Wieland-Alter, Ruth I Connor, Shu Lin, Joshua A Weiner, Margaret E Ackerman, Minetaro Arita, M Steven Oberste, William C Weldon, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Peter F Wright
Background: The impact of inactivated polio vaccines (IPVs) on intestinal mucosal immune responses to live poliovirus is poorly understood. Methods: In a 2014 phase 2 clinical trial, Panamanian infants were immunized at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age with bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) and randomized to receive either a novel monovalent high-dose type 2-specific IPV (mIPV2HD) or a standard trivalent IPV at 14 weeks. Infants were challenged at 18 weeks with a monovalent type 2 oral polio vaccine (mOPV2)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304144/a-clinically-parameterized-mathematical-model-of-shigella-immunity-to-inform-vaccine-design
#13
Courtney L Davis, Rezwanul Wahid, Franklin R Toapanta, Jakub K Simon, Marcelo B Sztein
We refine and clinically parameterize a mathematical model of the humoral immune response against Shigella, a diarrheal bacteria that infects 80-165 million people and kills an estimated 600,000 people worldwide each year. Using Latin hypercube sampling and Monte Carlo simulations for parameter estimation, we fit our model to human immune data from two Shigella EcSf2a-2 vaccine trials and a rechallenge study in which antibody and B-cell responses against Shigella's lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and O-membrane proteins (OMP) were recorded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302647/detection-of-canine-parvovirus-antigen-in-dogs-in-kumasi-ghana
#14
R D Folitse, D O Kodie, E Amemor, D Dei, W Tasiame, V Burimuah, B O Emikpe
Background: Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297206/no-jab-no-record-catch-up-vaccination-of-children-in-immigration-detention
#15
Karen M Kiang, Sonja Elia, Georgia A Paxton
International Health and Medical Services (IHMS) are contracted to provide health services, including catch-up vaccination, for individuals in immigration detention. Our audit of catch-up vaccination in asylum seeker children who spent time in held detention demonstrates inadequate and suboptimal vaccine delivery in this setting, and no evidence that IHMS recorded vaccines on the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register at the time. We also found substantial shortfalls in vaccination for these children after they were released from detention...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290115/lipidated-brartemicin-analogues-are-potent-th1-stimulating-vaccine-adjuvants
#16
Amy J Foster, Masahiro Nagata, Xiuyuan Lu, Amy T Lynch, Zakaria Omahdi, Eri Ishikawa, Sho Yamasaki, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker
Effective Th1-stimulating vaccine adjuvants often engage the innate immune system via the activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs). Macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is an activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) expressed on the cell surface of APCs and has been identified as a potential target for Th1-stimulating adjuvants. In particular, trehalose dibehenate (TDB) is a leading Mincle-agonist and has shown much promise as an adjuvant. Herein, we report on the synthesis and adjuvanticity of rationally designed brartemicin analogues containing short, medium, and long chain lipids...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287062/the-influence-of-conjugation-variables-on-the-design-and-immunogenicity-of-a-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-salmonella-typhi
#17
M Arcuri, R Di Benedetto, A F Cunningham, A Saul, C A MacLennan, F Micoli
In recent years there have been major efforts to develop glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi polysaccharide that will protect against Salmonella enterica Typhi infections, particularly typhoid fever, which remains a major public health concern in low-income countries. The design of glycoconjugate vaccines influences the immune responses they elicit. Here we systematically test the response in mice to Vi glycoconjugates that differ in Vi chain length (full-length and fragmented), carrier protein, conjugation chemistry, saccharide to protein ratio and size...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285871/risk-taking-in-vaccination-surgery-and-gambling-environments-evidence-from-a-framed-laboratory-experiment
#18
Simon Binder, Robert Nuscheler
Vaccination involves a tradeoff between two risky alternatives, namely, susceptibility and immunization. By designing a controlled laboratory experiment, we investigate the association between risk preferences and immunization decisions. To contrast the role of risk preferences in vaccination decisions with other domains, we implemented four frames: vaccination, surgery, complex neutral, and simple neutral. We found direct framing effects for females but not for males. For the former, the demand for the safer alternative is significantly larger in the surgery frame than in all other frames...
December 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280170/a-boundary-optimized-rejection-region-test-for-the-two-sample-binomial-problem
#19
Erin E Gabriel, Martha Nason, Michael P Fay, Dean A Follmann
Testing the equality of 2 proportions for a control group versus a treatment group is a well-researched statistical problem. In some settings, there may be strong historical data that allow one to reliably expect that the control proportion is one, or nearly so. While one-sample tests or comparisons to historical controls could be used, neither can rigorously control the type I error rate in the event the true control rate changes. In this work, we propose an unconditional exact test that exploits the historical information while controlling the type I error rate...
December 26, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250437/heterologous-prime-boost-vaccination-with-h3n2-influenza-viruses-of-swine-favors-cross-clade-antibody-responses-and-protection
#20
Kristien Van Reeth, José Carlos Mancera Gracia, Ivan Trus, Lieve Sys, Gerwin Claes, Han Versnaeyen, Eric Cox, Florian Krammer, Yu Qiu
The emergence of multiple novel lineages of H1 and H3 influenza A viruses in swine has confounded control by inactivated vaccines. Because of substantial genetic and geographic heterogeneity among circulating swine influenza viruses, one vaccine strain per subtype cannot be efficacious against all of the current lineages. We have performed vaccination-challenge studies in pigs to examine whether priming and booster vaccinations with antigenically distinct H3N2 swine influenza viruses could broaden antibody responses and protection...
2017: NPJ Vaccines
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