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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646959/is-chickenpox-so-bad-what-do-we-know-about-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-and-what-does-it-tell-us-about-the-future
#1
Anne A Gershon
Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640005/intussusception-related-hospitalizations-among-infants-before-and-after-private-market-licensure-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-taiwan-2001-2013
#2
Catherine Yen, Shu-Man Shih, Jacqueline E Tate, Fang-Tzy Wu, Yhu-Chering Huang, Umesh D Parashar, Chao A Hsiung
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among Taiwanese children. Two globally licensed rotavirus vaccines recommended for inclusion in routine immunization programs that have been available for private market use in Taiwan since 2006 have been associated with a low risk of intussusception in post-marketing studies conducted in several countries. Our objective was to examine trends and characteristics of intussusception hospitalizations in Taiwan among children aged <12 months before and after rotavirus vaccine licensure to provide updated baseline and early post-licensure data...
June 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#3
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637805/conjugation-of-pspa4pro-with-capsular-streptococcus-pneumoniae-polysaccharide-serotype-14-does-not-reduce-the-induction-of-cross-reactive-antibodies
#4
Míriam A da Silva, Thiago R Converso, Viviane M Gonçalves, Luciana C C Leite, Martha M Tanizaki, Giovana C Barazzone
Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data shows increasing incidence of infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The use of Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help preventing serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634355/longitudinal-study-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-in-dromedary-camel-herds-in-saudi-arabia-2014-2015
#5
Maged Gomaa Hemida, Abdulmohsen Alnaeem, Daniel Kw Chu, Ranawaka Apm Perera, Samuel Ms Chan, Faisal Almathen, Emily Yau, Brian Cy Ng, Richard J Webby, Leo Lm Poon, Malik Peiris
Two herds of dromedary camels were longitudinally sampled with nasal and rectal swabs and serum, between September 2014 and May 2015, and the samples were tested for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus RNA and antibodies. Evidence of MERS-CoV infection was confirmed in one herd on the basis of detection of virus RNA in nasal swabs from three camels and significant increases in the antibody titers from three others. The three viruses were genetically identical, thus indicating introduction of a single virus into this herd...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628715/overcoming-the-resistance-of-pancreatic-cancer-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#6
REVIEW
Richard A Skelton, Ammar Javed, Lei Zheng, Jin He
Immunotherapy has become a new modality of cancer treatment, but has had a limited success in treating PDAC. A combination approach to immunotherapy, using both immune checkpoint inhibitors and immune activating agonists, is needed, as PDAC does not respond to single-agent checkpoint inhibitors. Studies have also supported using vaccine-based therapies to prime the tumor microenvironment of PDAC with effector T-cells. Other therapeutic strategies including epigenetic agents, stroma modulators, radiotherapy, and T-cell transfer therapies may also prime the tumor microenvironment to overcome resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624868/how-does-cytomegalovirus-factor-into-diseases-of-aging-and-vaccine-responses-and-by-what-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Allison E Aiello, Yen-Ling Chiu, Daniela Frasca
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen for both clinical and population settings. There is a growing body of research implicating CMV in multiple health outcomes across the life course. At the same time, there is mounting evidence that individuals living in poverty are more likely to be exposed to CMV and more likely to experience many of the chronic conditions for which CMV has been implicated. Further research on the causal role of CMV for health and well-being is needed. However, the strong evidence implicating CMV in type 2 diabetes, autoimmunity, cancer, cardiovascular disease, vaccination, and age-related alterations in immune function warrants clinical and public health action...
June 18, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624306/preclinical-assessment-of-safety-of-maternal-vaccination-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-in-cotton-rats
#9
Jorge C G Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Raymonde O Otoa, Mira C Patel, Stefanie N Vogel, Marina S Boukhvalova
Maternal immunization directed to control RSV infection in newborns and infants is an appealing vaccination strategy currently under development. In this work we have modeled maternal vaccination against RSV in cotton rats (CR) to answer two fundamental questions on maternal vaccine safety. We tested (i), whether a known, unsafe RSV vaccine (i.e., FI-RSV Lot 100 vaccine) induces vaccine enhanced disease in the presence of passively transferred, RSV maternal immunity, and (ii) whether the same FI-RSV vaccine could induce vaccine enhanced disease in CR litters when used to immunize their RSV-primed mothers...
June 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619678/april-taci-axis-is-dispensable-for-the-immune-response-to-rabies-vaccination
#10
Shannon L Haley, Evgeni P Tzvetkov, Andrew G Lytle, Kishore R Alugupalli, Joseph R Plummer, James P McGettigan
There is significant need to develop a single-dose rabies vaccine to replace the current multi-dose rabies vaccine regimen and eliminate the requirement for rabies immune globulin in post-exposure settings. To accomplish this goal, rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines must rapidly activate B cells to secrete antibodies which neutralize pathogenic RABV before it enters the CNS. Increased understanding of how B cells effectively respond to RABV-based vaccines may improve efforts to simplify post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens...
June 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619153/identification-of-candidate-protein-markers-of-bovine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-infection-using-an-in-vitro-model
#11
Darren W Gray, Michael D Welsh, Simon Doherty, Mark H Mooney
Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (BPI3V) infections are often asymptomatic, causing respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression, predisposing animals to severe bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) mortality. As with many pathogens, routine BPI3V serology does not indicate the presence of damaged respiratory tissue or active infection. In vitro proteomic marker screening using disease relevant cell models could help identify markers of infection and tissue damage that are also detectable during in vivo infections...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617450/a-human-intestinal-m-cell-like-model-for-investigating-particle-antigen-and-microorganism-translocation
#12
Ana Beloqui, David J Brayden, Per Artursson, Véronique Préat, Anne des Rieux
The specialized microfold cells (M cells) in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of intestinal Peyer's patches serve as antigen-sampling cells of the intestinal innate immune system. Unlike 'classical' enterocytes, they are able to translocate diverse particulates without digesting them. They act as pathways for microorganism invasion and mediate food tolerance by transcellular transport of intestinal microbiota and antigens. Their ability to transcytose intact particles can be used to develop oral drug delivery and oral immunization strategies...
July 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617262/mmr-vaccine-in-the-postpartum-does-not-expose-seronegative-women-to-untoward-effects
#13
Enrico Finale, Giuliana Leonardi, Gaetano Auletta, Roberta Amadori, Chiara Saglietti, Leonardo Pagani, Andrea Guala
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess whether rubella vaccination immediately after delivery could expose seronegative women to specific untoward effects. METHODS: 163 rubella-seronegative women received Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine in the immediate postpartum period; they were evaluated at one month and at three months thereafter through telephone interviews. As controls, we matched 163 rubella-seropositive women, who might experience similar symptoms for any reason in the same timeframe...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616987/impact-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-on-transcript-and-metabolite-abundance-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Michael C Schultz, Jian Zhang, Xian Luo, Oleksandra Savchenko, Liang Li, Michael Deyholos, Jie Chen
The interactions of ultrasound with biological materials are exploited for diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic multiple applications in medicine and can improve biological productivity in industrial biotechnological applications, such as biofuel generation, vaccine and antibodies production. Accordingly, there is great interest in better understanding the biological effects of ultrasound. In this paper, we studied the impact of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on RNA expression and metabolism of S...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615211/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotyped-with-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-serves-as-a-protective-non-infectious-vaccine-against-ebola-virus-challenge-in-mice
#15
Nicholas J Lennemann, Andrew S Herbert, Rachel Brouillette, Bethany Rhein, Russell A Bakken, Katherine J Perschbacher, Ashley L Cooney, Catherine L Miller-Hunt, Patrick Ten Eyck, Julia Biggins, Gene Olinger, John M Dye, Wendy Maury
The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa demonstrates the potential for a significant public health burden caused by filoviral infections. No vaccine or antiviral is currently FDA-approved. To expand the vaccine options potentially available, we assessed protection conferred by an EBOV vaccine composed of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions that lack native G glycoprotein (VSVΔG) and bear EBOV glycoprotein (GP). These pseudovirions mediate a single round of infection. Both single dose and prime/boost vaccination regimens protected mice against lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (ma-EBOV) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611341/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-d-virus-in-saudi-arabia-a-single-center-study
#16
Ghazi A Jamjoom, Mai M El-Daly, Esam I Azhar, Hind I Fallatah, Hisham O Akbar, Mohammed Babatin, Abdullah S Alghamdi, Mohammed I Dgdgi, Mohamed A Hamid, Yousef A Qari, Sherif A El-Kafrawy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that is dependent on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for transmission and replication. HDV significance arises from the possibility of poor prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In Saudi Arabia, HDV prevalence varied from 8 to 32% before the HBV vaccination program and ranged from 0 to 14.7% after the vaccination program was started. The last study, performed in 2004, showed a prevalence of 8.6% in hospital-based HBV cases and 3...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606814/does-cost-effectiveness-of-influenza-vaccine-choice-vary-across-the-u-s-an-agent-based-modeling-study
#17
Jay V DePasse, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Kenneth J Smith, Jonathan M Raviotta, Eunha Shim, Richard K Zimmerman, Shawn T Brown
BACKGROUND: In a prior agent-based modeling study, offering a choice of influenza vaccine type was shown to be cost-effective when the simulated population represented the large, Washington DC metropolitan area. This study calculated the public health impact and cost-effectiveness of the same four strategies: No Choice, Pediatric Choice, Adult Choice, or Choice for Both Age Groups in five United States (U.S.) counties selected to represent extremes in population age distribution. METHODS: The choice offered was either inactivated influenza vaccine delivered intramuscularly with a needle (IIV-IM) or an age-appropriate needle-sparing vaccine, specifically, the nasal spray (LAIV) or intradermal (IIV-ID) delivery system...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595972/17%C3%AE-ethynylestradiol-alters-the-peritoneal-immune-response-of-gilthead-seabream
#18
N E Gómez González, I Cabas, M C Rodenas, M Arizcun, V Mulero, A García Ayala
17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in most oral contraceptives pills and hormone replacement therapies, is found in many water bodies, where it can modulate the fish immune response. EE2 acts as an endocrine disruptor in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., a marine teleost fish of great economic value in Mediterranean aquaculture, as it induces hepatic vitellogenin gene (vtg) expression. Moreover, EE2 also alters the capacity of gilthead seabream to appropriately respond to infection although it does not behave as an immunosuppressor...
June 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590242/heterologous-post-infection-immunity-against-egyptian-avian-influenza-virus-aiv-h9n2-modulates-the-course-of-subsequent-infection-by-highly-pathogenic-aiv-h5n1-but-vaccination-immunity-does-not
#19
Mahmoud M Naguib, Christian Grund, Abdel-Satar Arafa, E M Abdelwhab, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
In Egypt, zoonotic A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (gs/GD-like) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1.2 is entrenched in poultry populations and has co-circulated with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus H9N2 of the G1 lineage since 2010. Here, the impact of H9N2 infection or vaccination on the course of consecutive infection with a lethal Egyptian HPAIV H5N1 is studied. Three-week-old chickens were infected with H9N2 or vaccinated with inactivated H9N2 or H5N1 antigens and challenged three weeks later by an HPAIV H5N1...
June 5, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589490/bifurcation-thresholds-and-optimal-control-in-transmission-dynamics-of-arboviral-diseases
#20
Hamadjam Abboubakar, Jean Claude Kamgang, Leontine Nkague Nkamba, Daniel Tieudjo
In this paper, we derive and analyse a model for the control of arboviral diseases which takes into account an imperfect vaccine combined with some other control measures already studied in the literature. We begin by analysing the basic model without control. We prove the existence of two disease-free equilibrium points and the possible existence of up to two endemic equilibrium points (where the disease persists in the population). We show the existence of a transcritical bifurcation and a possible saddle-node bifurcation and explicitly derive threshold conditions for both, including defining the basic reproduction number, [Formula: see text], which provides whether the disease can persist in the population or not...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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