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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157068/quadrivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-vaxigriptetra%C3%A2
#1
Viviane Gresset-Bourgeois, Phillip S Leventhal, Stéphanie Pepin, Rosalind Hollingsworth, Marie-Pierre Kazek-Duret, Iris De Bruijn, Sandrine I Samson
VaxigripTetra™ (IIV4; Sanofi Pasteur) is a quadrivalent split-virion influenza vaccine approved in Europe in 2016 for individuals ≥ 3 years of age. IIV4 builds on the well-established record of the trivalent split-virion influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip®). Areas covered: This literature review summarizes the rationale for developing quadrivalent influenza vaccines and discusses the phase III clinical trial results supporting the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of IIV4. Expert Commentary: IIV4 is immunogenic and well tolerated...
November 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154369/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet, Nicole Pavio, Rakesh Aggarwal, Alain Labrique, Heiner Wedemeyer, Harry R Dalton
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal disease; it is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes are responsible for most infection in humans, of which HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are obligate human pathogens and HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are mostly zoonotic. Until quite recently, HEV was considered to be mainly responsible for epidemics of acute hepatitis in developing regions owing to contamination of drinking water supplies with human faeces...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153266/ebola-virus-disease-an-update-on-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#3
REVIEW
William A Fischer, Pauline Vetter, Daniel G Bausch, Timothy Burgess, Richard T Davey, Robert Fowler, Frederick G Hayden, Peter B Jahrling, Andre C Kalil, Douglas L Mayers, Aneesh K Mehta, Timothy M Uyeki, Michael Jacobs
The massive outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa between 2013 and 2016 resulted in intense efforts to evaluate the efficacy of several specific countermeasures developed through years of preclinical work, including the first clinical trials for therapeutics and vaccines. In this Review, we discuss how the experience and data generated from that outbreak have helped to advance the understanding of the use of these countermeasures for post-exposure prophylaxis against Ebola virus infection. In future outbreaks, post-exposure prophylaxis could play an important part in reducing community transmission of Ebola virus by providing more immediate protection than does immunisation as well as providing additional protection for health-care workers who are inadvertently exposed over the course of their work...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134823/does-self-efficacy-mediate-the-relationships-between-social-cognitive-factors-and-intentions-to-receive-hpv-vaccination-among-young-women
#4
Shannon M Christy, Joseph G Winger, Catherine E Mosher
Drawing upon health behavior change theories, the current study examined whether self-efficacy mediated relationships between social-cognitive factors (i.e., perceived risk, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived severity, and cue to action) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intentions among college women. Unvaccinated women ( N = 115) aged 18 to 25 years attending a Midwestern university completed an anonymous web-based survey assessing study variables. Correlational analyses and mediation analyses were conducted...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129917/dengue-virus-reactive-cd8-t-cells-mediate-cross-protection-against-subsequent-zika-virus-challenge
#5
Jinsheng Wen, Annie Elong Ngono, Jose Angel Regla-Nava, Kenneth Kim, Matthew J Gorman, Michael S Diamond, Sujan Shresta
Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are antigenically related flaviviruses that share cross-reactivity in antibody and T cell responses, and co-circulate in increasing numbers of countries. Whether pre-existing DENV immunity can cross-protect or enhance ZIKV infection during sequential infection of the same host is unknown. Here, we show that DENV-immune Ifnar1 (-/-) or wild-type C57BL/6 mice infected with ZIKV have cross-reactive immunity to subsequent ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. Adoptive transfer and cell depletion studies demonstrate that DENV-immune CD8(+) T cells predominantly mediate cross-protective responses to ZIKV...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128754/development-and-characterization-of-a-human-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-the-n-terminal-region-of-hepatitis-c-virus-envelope-glycoprotein-e1
#6
Ahmed Atef Mesalam, Isabelle Desombere, Ali Farhoudi, Freya Van Houtte, Lieven Verhoye, Jonathan Ball, Jean Dubuisson, Steven K H Foung, Arvind H Patel, Mats A A Persson, Geert Leroux-Roels, Philip Meuleman
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope have been raised mainly against envelope protein 2 (E2), while the antigenic epitopes of envelope protein 1 (E1) are not fully identified. Here we describe the detailed characterization of a human mAb, designated A6, generated from an HCV genotype 1b infected patient. ELISA results showed reactivity of mAb A6 to full-length HCV E1E2 of genotypes 1a, 1b and 2a. Epitope mapping identified a region spanning amino acids 230-239 within the N-terminal region of E1 as critical for binding...
November 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124129/subtle-microbiome-manipulation-using-probiotics-reduces-antibiotic-associated-mortality-in-fish
#7
Victor Schmidt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Chelsea Roy, Katherine Smith, Linda Amaral-Zettler
Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123081/resistance-to-cancer-immunotherapy-mediated-by-apoptosis-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes
#8
Jingjing Zhu, Céline G Powis de Tenbossche, Stefania Cané, Didier Colau, Nicolas van Baren, Christophe Lurquin, Anne-Marie Schmitt-Verhulst, Peter Liljeström, Catherine Uyttenhove, Benoit J Van den Eynde
Despite impressive clinical success, cancer immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint blockade remains ineffective in many patients due to tumoral resistance. Here we use the autochthonous TiRP melanoma model, which recapitulates the tumoral resistance signature observed in human melanomas. TiRP tumors resist immunotherapy based on checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines or adoptive T-cell therapy. TiRP tumors recruit and activate tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells, but these cells then undergo apoptosis. This does not occur with isogenic transplanted tumors, which are rejected after adoptive T-cell therapy...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121056/epidemic-spreading-in-multiplex-networks-influenced-by-opinion-exchanges-on-vaccination
#9
Lucila G Alvarez-Zuzek, Cristian E La Rocca, José R Iglesias, Lidia A Braunstein
Through years, the use of vaccines has always been a controversial issue. People in a society may have different opinions about how beneficial the vaccines are and as a consequence some of those individuals decide to vaccinate or not themselves and their relatives. This attitude in face of vaccines has clear consequences in the spread of diseases and their transformation in epidemics. Motivated by this scenario, we study, in a simultaneous way, the changes of opinions about vaccination together with the evolution of a disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119445/guidelines-for-bacteriophage-product-certification
#10
Alan Fauconnier
Following decades in the wilderness, bacteriophage therapy is now appearing as a credible antimicrobial strategy. However, this reemerging therapy does not rekindle without raising sensitive regulatory concerns. Indeed, whereas the European regulatory framework has been basically implemented to tackle ready-to-use pharmaceuticals produced on a large scale, bacteriophage therapy relies on a dynamic approach requiring a regulation on personalized medicine, nonexistent at present. Because of this, no guideline are currently available for addressing the scientific and regulatory issues specifically related to phage therapy medicinal products (PTMP)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116597/response-to-tetanus-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-following-administration-of-ixekizumab-in-healthy-participants
#11
Elisa V Gomez, Jessie L Bishop, Kimberley Jackson, Talia M Muram, Diane Phillips
BACKGROUND: Ixekizumab (IXE) is an interleukin (IL)-17A antagonist approved for the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if the immune response to tetanus and pneumococcal vaccines in healthy subjects administered IXE was noninferior to control. METHODS: In a randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, adult subjects received vaccinations alone (N = 42, control) or in combination with 160 mg IXE subcutaneously 2 weeks prior to vaccination and 80 mg IXE on the day of vaccination (N = 41, IXE)...
November 7, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115536/advances-in-the-t7-phage-display-system-review
#12
Xiangying Deng, Li Wang, Xiaolong You, Pei Dai, Yanhua Zeng
The present review describes the advantages and updated applications of the T7 phage display system in bioscience and medical science. Current phage display systems are based on various bacteriophage vectors, including M13, T7, T4 and f1. Of these, the M13 phage display is the most frequently used, however, the present review highlights the advantages of the T7 system. As a phage display platform, M13 contains single‑stranded DNA, while the T7 phage consists of double‑stranded DNA, which exhibits increased stability and is less prone to mutation during replication...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114387/repeat-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccination-does-not-impair-functional-immune-responses-among-indigenous-australians
#13
Paul V Licciardi, Edwin Hoe, Zheng Quan Toh, Anne Balloch, Sarah Moberley, Paula Binks, Rachel Marimla, Amanda Leach, Sue Skull, Kim Mulholland, Ross Andrews
Indigenous Australians experience one of the highest rates of pneumococcal disease globally. In the Northern Territory of Australia, a unique government-funded vaccination schedule for Indigenous Australian adults comprising multiple lifetime doses of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is currently implemented. Despite this programme, rates of pneumococcal disease do not appear to be declining, with concerns raised over the potential for immune hyporesponse associated with the use of this vaccine. We undertook a study to examine the immunogenicity and immune function of a single and repeat pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination among Indigenous adults compared to non-Indigenous adults...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110131/what-controls-the-acute-viral-infection-following-yellow-fever-vaccination
#14
James Moore, Hasan Ahmed, Jonathan Jia, Rama Akondy, Rafi Ahmed, Rustom Antia
Does target cell depletion, innate immunity, or adaptive immunity play the dominant role in controlling primary acute viral infections? Why do some individuals have higher peak virus titers than others? Answering these questions is a basic problem in immunology and can be particularly difficult in humans due to limited data, heterogeneity in responses in different individuals, and limited ability for experimental manipulation. We address these questions for infections following vaccination with the live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV-17D) by analyzing viral load data from 80 volunteers...
November 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097876/testing-for-hepatitis-b-virus-alone-does-not-increase-vaccine-coverage-in-non-immunized-persons
#15
Anders Boyd, Julie Bottero, Fabrice Carrat, Joël Gozlan, Hayette Rougier, Pierre-Marie Girard, Karine Lacombe
AIM: To determine whether hepatitis B virus (HBV)-testing could serve as a gateway to vaccinate non-immunized individuals in a low-prevalent country. METHODS: Non-immunized subjects participating in a multi-center, HBV-testing campaign in Paris, France were identified and contacted via telephone 3-9 mo after testing in order to determine vaccination status. Vaccination coverage was evaluated in per-protocol (for all respondents) and intent-to-treat analysis (assuming all non-responders did not vaccinate)...
October 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093096/microrna-based-attenuation-of-influenza-virus-across-susceptible-hosts
#16
Barbara M Waring, Louisa E Sjaastad, Jessica K Fiege, Elizabeth J Fay, Ismarc Reyes, Branden Moriarity, Ryan A Langlois
Influenza A virus drives significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Annual circulation of the virus in livestock and waterfowl contributes to severe economic disruption and increases the risk of zoonotic transmission of novel strains into the human population where there is no preexisting immunity. Seasonal vaccinations in humans help prevent infection and can reduce symptoms when infection does occur. However, current vaccination regimens available for livestock are limited in part due to safety concerns regarding reassortment/recombination with circulating strains...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093092/isolation-and-characterization-of-v%C3%AE-i3-confirms-that-the-vaccinia-virus-ssb-plays-an-essential-role-in-viral-replication
#17
Matthew D Greseth, Maciej W Czarnecki, Matthew S Bluma, Paula Traktman
Vaccinia virus is unusual among DNA viruses in replicating exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. The ssDNA binding protein (SSB), I3, is among the replication machinery encoded by the 195 kb genome, although direct genetic analysis of I3 has been lacking. Herein, we describe a complementing cell line (CV1-I3) that fully supports the replication of a null virus lacking the I3 ORF (vΔI3). In non-complementing CV1-CAT cells, vΔI3 shows a severe defect in the production of infectious virus (≥200-fold reduction)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093087/early-ebv-genomic-diversity-and-convergence-towards-the-b95-8-genome-in-primary-infection
#18
Eric R Weiss, Susanna L Lamers, Jennifer L Henderson, Alexandre Melnikov, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa Selin, Chad Nusbaum, Katherine Luzuriaga
Over 90% of the world's population is persistently infected with Epstein-Barr virus. While EBV does not cause disease in most individuals, it is the common cause of acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM), has been associated with several cancers and autoimmune diseases, highlighting a need for a preventive vaccine. At present, very few primary, circulating EBV genomes have been sequenced directly from infected individuals. While low levels of diversity and viral evolution rates have been predicted for dsDNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated appreciable diversity in common dsDNA pathogens (e...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082646/safety-and-efficacy-of-telbivudine-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-during-the-entire-pregnancy-long-term-follow-up
#19
J Shang, Q Wen, C C Wang, K Liu, L Bai, H Tang
The management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnancy is a unique issue. Telbivudine (LdT) is recommended to block HBV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in the third trimester. However, the safety of LdT treatment during the entire pregnancy for the long-term growth of infants is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of LdT for the entire pregnancy period. This retrospective cohort study included 40 pregnant women and 43 children from 2011 to 2017. The antiviral effects and maternal abnormalities were evaluated...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079099/the-m2-protein-of-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-encodes-a-mutation-that-reduces-replication-in-human-nasal-epithelial-cells
#20
Nicholas Wohlgemuth, Yang Ye, Katherine J Fenstermacher, Hsuan Liu, Andrew P Lane, Andrew Pekosz
The influenza A virus components of the live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) encode the HA and NA gene segments from a circulating virus strain and the remaining gene segments from the cold-adapted master donor virus, A/Ann Arbor/6/1960 (H2N2). The master donor virus imparts at least three phenotypes: temperature-sensitivity (ts), attenuation (att), and cold-adaption (ca). The genetic loci responsible for the att and ts phenotypes of LAIV were mapped to PB1, PB2, and NP by reverse genetics experiments using immortalized cell lines...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
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