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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433045/-adherence-to-reporting-guidelines-in-perspectives-in-surgery
#1
O Ryska
INTRODUCTION: Reporting guidelines were established to improve the quality of scientific papers. Currently, the most common are CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials), STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and CARE (Clinical Consensus-based Case Reporting Guideline). Spin can be defined as (un)intentionally biased interpretation of results aimed at convincing readers of a positive benefit of any given intervention. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adherence of papers published in Perspectives in Surgery to CONSORT, STROBE or CARE and to identify the frequency of spin...
2017: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432607/impact-of-the-medical-specialty-on-knowledge-regarding-multidrug-resistant-organisms-and-strategies-toward-antimicrobial-stewardship
#2
Steffen Lebentrau, Christian Gilfrich, Malte W Vetterlein, Harald Schumacher, Philipp J Spachmann, Sabine D Brookman-May, Hans M Fritsche, Martin Schostak, Florian M Wagenlehner, Maximilian Burger, Matthias May
PURPOSE: Evidence is scarce on subject-specific knowledge of multidrug-resistant organisms and rational use of antibiotics. We aimed at evaluating attitude, perception, and knowledge about multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) and antibiotic prescribing among urologists versus other medical specialties. METHODS: Within the MR2-study (Multiinstitutional Reconnaissance of practice with MultiResistant bacteria), a questionnaire was conducted targeting general surgeons, internists, gynecologists, and urologists in 18 German hospitals...
April 21, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430468/yangian-symmetry-and-integrability-of-planar-n-4-supersymmetric-yang-mills-theory
#3
Niklas Beisert, Aleksander Garus, Matteo Rosso
In this Letter, we establish Yangian symmetry of planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We prove that the classical equations of motion of the model close onto themselves under the action of Yangian generators. Moreover, we propose an off-shell extension of our statement, which is equivalent to the invariance of the action and prove that it is exactly satisfied. We assert that our relationship serves as a criterion for integrability in planar gauge theories by explicitly checking that it applies to the integrable Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory but not to the nonintegrable N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430165/treatments-for-latrodectism-a-systematic-review-on-their-clinical-effectiveness
#4
REVIEW
Nicole M Ryan, Nicholas A Buckley, Andis Graudins
Latrodectism or envenomation by widow-spiders is common and clinically significant worldwide. Alpha-latrotoxin is the mammalian-specific toxin in the venom that results in toxic effects observed in humans. Symptoms may be incapacitating and include severe pain that can persist for days. The management of mild to moderate latrodectism is primarily supportive while severe cases have variously been treated with intravenous calcium, muscle relaxants, widow-spider antivenom and analgesic opioids. The object of this systematic review is to examine the literature on the clinical effectiveness of past and current treatments for latrodectism...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427891/local-global-processing-bias-is-not-a-unitary-individual-difference-in-visual-processing
#5
Rebecca Chamberlain, Ruth Van der Hallen, Hanne Huygelier, Sander Van de Cruys, Johan Wagemans
A large body of research reports individual differences in local and global visual processing in relation to expertise, culture and psychopathology. However, recent research has suggested that various different measures of local-global processing are not strongly associated with one another, calling its construct validity into question. The current study sought to further explore the validity of local-global processing biases in perception by developing three tasks based on two existing paradigms: the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and the Navon hierarchical letters task...
April 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427069/practical-lessons-from-protocol-i-for-the-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#6
Lekha Mukkamala, Neelakshi Bhagat, Marco A Zarbin
Protocol I, a multicenter randomized clinical trial, compared the visual outcomes of patients treated with 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab with either prompt or deferred (by 24 weeks laser), 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone with prompt laser, or sham injection with prompt laser for the treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME). A total of 854 adult patients with type I or II diabetes and any level of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative retinopathy with adequate panretinal photocoagulation, with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 78 to 24 ETDRS letters (Snellen equivalent of 20/32 to 20/320) and visual loss attributed to macular edema, or retinal thickening with central subfield thickness of at least 250 µm by OCT were enrolled...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427057/long-term-anatomical-and-functional-outcomes-in-patients-with-ischemic-central-retinal-vein-occlusion-treated-with-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-agents
#7
Irini Chatziralli, George Theodossiadis, Efstratios Parikakis, Panagiotis G Mitropoulos, Panagiotis Theodossiadis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes in patients with ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. METHODS: This retrospective study included 15 treatment-naive patients with ischemic CRVO and macular edema who were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab or aflibercept. The main outcomes were the evolution of retinal ischemia over time, as well as the change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and in central subfield thickness (CST) at month 24...
April 21, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421885/recognizing-risk-and-vulnerability-in-research-ethics-imagining-the-what-ifs
#8
Elizabeth Peter, Judith Friedland
Research ethics committees (RECs) may misunderstand the vulnerability of participants, given their distance from the field. What RECs identify as the vulnerabilities that were not adequately recognized in protocols and how they attempt to protect the perceived vulnerability of participants and mitigate risks were examined using the response letters sent to researchers by three university-based RECs. Using a critical qualitative method informed by feminist ethics, we identified an overarching theme of recognizing and responding to cascading vulnerabilities and four subthemes: identifying vulnerable groups, recognizing potentially risky research, imagining the "what ifs," and mitigating perceived risks...
April 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415155/letter-to-the-editor-regarding-dounousi-e-et%C3%A2-al-intact-fgf23-and-%C3%AE-klotho-during-acute-inflammation-sepsis-in-ckd-patients-eur-j-clin-invest-2016-46-234-41
#9
Axel Schlitt, Urban Sester, Martina Sester, Sarah Seiler-Mussler, Vincent Brandenburg, Elke Schäffner, Gunnar H Heine
With interest we read the recent European Journal of Clinical Investigation paper entitled "Intact FGF23 and α-Klotho during acute inflammation/sepsis in CKD patients" by E. Dounousi and coworkers (1). In their article, the authors analyse the association between acute infection and plasma levels of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). The physiological regulation of FGF-23 is not fully understood so far, and hence novel pathophysiological data are of importance. Particularly the link between FGF23 and inflammation is a growing field...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414043/quality-of-life-outcomes-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-antimetabolites-for-intermediate-posterior-and-panuveitis
#10
Katherine M Niemeyer, John A Gonzales, Sivakumar R Rathinam, Manohar Babu, Radhika Thundikandy, Anuradha Kanakath, Travis C Porco, Erica N Browne, Maya M Rao, Nisha R Acharya
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in quality of life in noninfectious uveitis patients treated with two of the most commonly prescribed antimetabolite treatments. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a multicenter, block-randomized, clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01232920). METHODS: Eighty patients at Aravind Eye Hospitals in Madurai and Coimbatore, India, with noninfectious intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis were randomized to receive oral methotrexate, 25 mg weekly, or oral mycophenolate mofetil, 1 g twice daily, and were followed up monthly for 6 months...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410056/generalization-analysis-of-fredholm-kernel-regularized-classifiers
#11
Tieliang Gong, Zongben Xu, Hong Chen
Recently, a new framework, Fredholm learning, was proposed for semisupervised learning problems based on solving a regularized Fredholm integral equation. It allows a natural way to incorporate unlabeled data into learning algorithms to improve their prediction performance. Despite rapid progress on implementable algorithms with theoretical guarantees, the generalization ability of Fredholm kernel learning has not been studied. In this letter, we focus on investigating the generalization performance of a family of classification algorithms, referred to as Fredholm kernel regularized classifiers...
April 14, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410052/robust-averaging-of-covariances-for-eeg-recordings-classification-in-motor-imagery-brain-computer-interfaces
#12
Takashi Uehara, Matteo Sartori, Toshihisa Tanaka, Simone Fiori
The estimation of covariance matrices is of prime importance to analyze the distribution of multivariate signals. In motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (MI-BCI), covariance matrices play a central role in the extraction of features from recorded electroencephalograms (EEGs); therefore, correctly estimating covariance is crucial for EEG classification. This letter discusses algorithms to average sample covariance matrices (SCMs) for the selection of the reference matrix in tangent space mapping (TSM)-based MI-BCI...
April 14, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409805/continuous-variable-quantum-key-distribution-with-a-real-local-oscillator-using-simultaneous-pilot-signals
#13
Sebastian Kleis, Max Rueckmann, Christian G Schaeffer
In this Letter, we propose a novel implementation of continuous variable quantum key distribution that operates with a real local oscillator placed at the receiver site. In addition, pulsing of the continuous wave laser sources is not required, leading to an extraordinary practical and secure setup. It is suitable for arbitrary schemes based on modulated coherent states and heterodyne detection. The shown results include transmission experiments, as well as an excess noise analysis applying a discrete 8-state phase modulation...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409803/design-of-ultracompact-polarimeters-based-on-dielectric-metasurfaces
#14
Shuwen Wei, Zhenyu Yang, Ming Zhao
The state of polarization (SOP) is the key characteristic of light; its evaluation is typically based on measurements of the Stokes parameters. However, conventional approaches often have bulky and complex optical systems with long acquisition times. In this Letter, an ultracompact polarimeter based on dielectric metasurfaces is proposed. The pixel of the proposed metasuface has four areas; each area acts not only as a polarization separator, but also a flat focusing lens. It can acquire a certain polarization component of the incident light and focus the component on the receiver...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409787/from-parabolic-trough-to-metasurface-concentrator-assessing-focusing-in-the-wave-optics-limit
#15
Liyi Hsu, Matthieu Dupré, Abdoulaye Ndao, Boubacar Kanté
Metasurfaces are promising tools toward novel designs for flat optics applications. As such, their quality and tolerance to fabrication imperfections need to be evaluated with specific tools. However, most such tools rely on the geometrical optics approximation and are not straightforwardly applicable to metasurfaces. In this Letter, we introduce and evaluate for metasurfaces parameters such as intercept factor and slope error usually defined for solar concentrators in the realm of ray-optics. After proposing definitions valid in physical optics, we put forward an approach to calculate them...
April 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408292/threat-distractor-and-perceptual-load-modulate-test-retest-reliability-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-response
#16
Nora Bunford, Kerry L Kinney, Jamie Michael, Heide Klumpp
Accumulating data from fMRI studies implicate the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in inhibition of attention to threat distractors that compete with task-relevant goals for processing resources. However, little data is available on the reliability of rACC activation. Our aim in the current study was to examine test-retest reliability of rACC activation over a 12-week period, in the context of a validated emotional interference paradigm that varied in perceptual load. During functional MRI, 23 healthy volunteers completed a task involving a target letter in a string of identical letters (low load) or in a string of mixed letters (high load) superimposed on angry, fearful, and neutral face distractors...
April 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407502/connections-are-not-enough-for-membership-letter-non-letter-distinction-persists-through-phonological-association-learning
#17
Andreas Schmitt, Cees van Leeuwen, Thomas Lachmann
In compound, hierarchical stimuli (also known as Navon figures), a Global Precedence Effect (GPE) can reliably be observed for both letters and non-letters. However, when presentation conditions sufficiently resemble those of reading, the GPE for letters has occasionally been found to disappear. We corroborate this effect in a study with a large group of participants. In addition, in-between two sessions, participants were trained in associating the non-letters with either phonological or non-phonological sounds...
April 10, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406859/visual-acuity-improvement-when-switching-from-ranibizumab-to-aflibercept-is-not-sustained
#18
Cecilia S Lee, Alisa J Kim, Douglas Baughman, Catherine Egan, Clare Bailey, Robert L Johnston, Salim Natha, Rehna Khan, Christopher Brand, Toks Akerele, Martin McKibbin, Louise Downey, Saher Al-Husainy, Aaron Y Lee, Adnan Tufail
PURPOSE: To assess whether visual benefits exist in switching to aflibercept in patients who have been chronically treated with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: A multicenter, national, electronic medical record database study was performed. Patients undergoing six continuous monthly ranibizumab injections and then switched to continuous aflibercept were matched to those on continuous ranibizumab therapy. Matching was performed in a 2:1 ratio and based on visual acuity 6 months before and at the time of the switch, and the number of previous ranibizumab injections...
April 11, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406653/aging-and-the-optimal-viewing-position-effect-in-visual-word-recognition-evidence-from-english
#19
Lin Li, Sha Li, Jingxin Wang, Victoria A McGowan, Pingping Liu, Timothy R Jordan, Kevin B Paterson
Words are recognized most efficiently by young adults when fixated at an optimal viewing position (OVP), which for English is between a word's beginning and middle letters. How this OVP effect changes with age is unknown but may differ for older adults due to visual declines in later life. Accordingly, a lexical decision experiment was conducted in which short (5-letter) and long (9-letter) words were fixated at various letter positions. The older adults produced slower responses. But, crucially, effects of fixation location for each word-length did not differ substantially across age groups, indicating that OVP effects are preserved in older age...
April 13, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405908/how-orthographic-specific-characteristics-shape-letter-position-coding-the-case-of-thai-script
#20
Manuel Perea, Heather Winskel, Pablo Gomez
A central question for any model of visual word identification is the representation of the position at which letters are encoded (e.g., calm vs. clam). In this article, we examine whether the orthographic-specific characteristics of a writing system-namely, Thai-shape the process of letter position coding. Thai is an alphabetic script that lacks interword spaces and has an orthographic order that does not necessarily correspond to the phonological order for initial vowels. This implies that the initial letter position coding in Thai needs to be flexible enough that readers can successfully encode the letter positions of words...
April 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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