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Xu Feng, Feng-Kun Guo, Chien-Yeah Seng
The parity-odd effect in the standard model weak neutral current reveals itself in the long-range parity-violating nuclear potential generated by the pion exchanges in the ΔI=1 channel with the parity-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant h_{π}^{1}. Despite decades of experimental and theoretical efforts, the size of this coupling constant is still not well understood. In this Letter, we derive a soft-pion theorem relating h_{π}^{1} and the neutron-proton mass splitting induced by an artificial parity-even counterpart of the ΔI=1 weak Lagrangian and demonstrate that the theorem still holds exact at the next-to-leading order in the chiral perturbation theory...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Debkalpa Goswami, Juan Camilo Múnera, Aniket Pal, Behnam Sadri, Caio Lui Paganelli Guzzo Scarpetti, Ramses V Martinez
This letter describes a low-cost, scalable nanomanufacturing process that enables the continuous forming of thin metallic layers with nanoscale accuracy using roll-to-roll, laser-induced superplasticity (R2RLIS). R2RLIS uses a laser shock to induce the ultrahigh strain rate deformation of metallic films at room temperature into low-cost polymeric nanomolds, independently of the original grain size of the metal. This simple and inexpensive nanoforming method does not require access to cleanrooms and associated facilities, and can be easily implemented on conventional CO2 lasers, enabling laser systems commonly used for rapid prototyping or industrial cutting and engraving to fabricate uniform and three-dimensional crystalline metallic nanostructures over large areas...
May 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Allison M McKendrick, Yu Man Chan, Bao N Nguyen
PURPOSE: The number of older adults is rapidly increasing internationally, leading to a significant increase in research on how healthy ageing impacts vision. Most clinical assessments of spatial vision involve simple detection (letter acuity, grating contrast sensitivity, perimetry). However, most natural visual environments are more spatially complicated, requiring contrast discrimination, and the delineation of object boundaries and contours, which are typically present on non-uniform backgrounds...
May 17, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Ihsan Turan, Ali Kemal Topaloglu, Bilgin Yuksel
We appreciate the valuable comments on our article by Hanukoglu and Hanukoglu. With regard to cutaneous involvement in systemic pseudohypoaldosteronism (sysPHA), we agree with Hanukoglu and Hanukoglu in that these co-occurrences are not rare. Indeed, in our study, three of four patients with sysPHA1 showed skin manifestations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 17, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Tobias Talanow, Ulrich Ettinger
Executive functions (EFs) comprise the updating, shifting and inhibition dimensions. According to the Unity and Diversity Model, the inhibition dimension is fully accounted for by a general EFs factor. This suggests that training of inhibition should transfer, in part, to updating and shifting. Therefore, we tested the effectiveness of a three-week inhibition training (high-conflict Stroop task) and explored near transfer effects to an untrained inhibition task (antisaccade task) and far transfer effects to untrained tasks demanding task-set shifting (number-letter-task), working memory updating (n-back task) and planning abilities (Stockings of Cambridge task)...
May 14, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Min Peng, Na Yin, Ming O Li
In the originally published version of this Letter, there was an error in Extended Data Fig. 7e and the corresponding uncropped blots in the Supplementary Information. The actin bands in the last blot of Extended Data Fig. 7e were duplicates  of the corresponding actin bands in the last blot of Extended Data Fig. 7 f. (In the uncropped blot for Extended Data Fig. 7e, the actin bands were mislabelled as 'WDR59' and this led to the error.) Extended Data Fig. 7 and the Supplementary Information of the original Letter have been corrected online...
May 16, 2018: Nature
A Kurnosov, H Marquardt, D J Frost, T Boffa Ballaran, L Ziberna
In Extended Data Table 1 of this Letter, some of the elastic constants were reported incorrectly. This occurred as a result of an error in the script used to generate the numbers. The values of the elastic constants at room pressure cited in the manuscript on page 544 were derived using the same erroneous script, and the correct values and 1σ-uncertainties in the last given digit are C11 = 461.3(17) GPa instead of 462.7(17) GPa; C22 = 509.7(26) GPa instead of 504.9(26) GPa; C33 = 425.7(5) GPa instead of 426...
May 16, 2018: Nature
Ralph M Trüeb
Traditionally, syndromes have been named after the physician who originally identified the condition. These are referred to as eponymous syndromes. Nevertheless, the term eponym is to be regarded in a broader sense, since - by definition - an eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or which something is named. Accordingly, some eponymous syndromes do not refer to the physician who originally reported the condition, but alternatively to the indicator patient, a geographic location, or a historical, literary, or mythological context...
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
Rebecca Wiseheart, Robin Wellington
BACKGROUND: Dyslexia is the most common type of learning disability and studies have shown that student-athletes with learning disabilities sustain more concussions than their non-affected peers. However, current methods of dyslexia identification in college students are potentially invalid because they rely on students to self-report formal dyslexia diagnoses. METHODS: To test the accuracy of self-report against two alternative methods of dyslexia screening, 94 college students completed three dyslexia symptom inventories, two rapid naming (RAN) tasks, and a standard word reading measure...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Heather Winskel, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jeung-Ryeul Cho
The aim was to investigate whether native English speakers (Experiment 1) and native Korean speakers (Experiment 2) processed familiar letters in an analytic manner in comparison to unfamiliar letters or symbols. Participants performed a two-alternative-forced-choice identification task with Roman, Korean Hangul and Thai Navon compound letters (large letters made up of small letters). The English speakers were familiar with Roman script but not Korean or Thai, whereas the Korean speakers were familiar with Korean and Roman script but not Thai...
May 12, 2018: Acta Psychologica
David W Tyler
To address the need for the analysis of image processing and optical requirements in multi-mode imaging systems, such as multi-spectral and polarimetric imagers, I have developed a Fisher information matrix to quantify errors in estimating the shift between images with non-transformational feature differences. If images of the same field have differences not attributable to a geometric transformation, as is common for images acquired using different spectral or polarization filters, uncertainty in estimating the parameters of the transformation will be increased by intrinsic bias, or bias inherent in the data itself, as opposed to bias originating in the estimation algorithm...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Dima Bykhovsky
The coherence distance (CD) is the spatial distance over which the channel does not change appreciably. It is a common and important wireless communication channel parameter. While adoption of this parameter in the realm of radio-frequency is well established, it is a less familiar concept in the realm of optical wireless communication (OWC), where it can be beneficial as a measure for spatial optical channel changes. In this Letter, the average CD is proposed as a metric to characterize indoor OWC channels and a method for its evaluation is outlined...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
A C McPherson, T J Knibbe, M Oake, J A Swift, N Browne, G D C Ball, J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Health care professionals play a critical role in preventing and managing childhood obesity, but the American Academy of Pediatrics recently stressed the importance of using sensitive and nonstigmatizing language when discussing weight with children and families. Although barriers to weight-related discussions are well known, there are few evidence-based recommendations around communication best practices. Disability populations in particular have previously been excluded from work in this area...
May 15, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Damla Aksit Bicak
Background: Halitosis, in other words, oral malodor is an important multifactorial health problem affecting the psychological and social life of individuals and is the most common reason for referral to dentists after dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: The objective of this review was to present and discuss conventional and recently introduced information about the types, causes, detection and treatment methods of halitosis. Methods: An expanded literature review was conducted which targeted all articles published in peer-reviewed journals relating to the topic of halitosis...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Susanna S Yeung
This one-year longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectories of English reading in Chinese children learning English as a second language (ESL) and identified cognitive profiles of children who are at risk for English reading disability. One hundred and eighty-four Chinese ESL children from eight Hong Kong kindergartens were measured four times during their last year of kindergarten for phonological awareness, letter knowledge, vocabulary and English word reading. Growth mixture modeling was applied to classify the children based on their growth trajectories in English word reading...
May 11, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Felix Leditzky, Debbie Leung, Graeme Smith
We determine both the quantum and the private capacities of low-noise quantum channels to leading orders in the channel's distance to the perfect channel. It has been an open problem for more than 20 yr to determine the capacities of some of these low-noise channels such as the depolarizing channel. We also show that both capacities are equal to the single-letter coherent information of the channel, again to leading orders. We thus find that, in the low-noise regime, superadditivity and degenerate codes have a negligible benefit for the quantum capacity, and shielding does not improve the private capacity beyond the quantum capacity, in stark contrast to the situation when noisier channels are considered...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Da-Jian Zhang, C L Liu, Xiao-Dong Yu, D M Tong
Quantifying coherence has received increasing attention, and considerable work has been directed towards finding coherence measures. While various coherence measures have been proposed in theory, an important issue following is how to estimate these coherence measures in experiments. This is a challenging task, since the state of a system is often unknown in practical applications and the accessible measurements in a real experiment are typically limited. In this Letter, we put forward an approach to estimate coherence measures of an unknown state from any limited experimental data available...
April 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Balaram Pradhan, Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty, Alex Hankey
Context: Attentional processes tend to be less well developed in the visually impaired, who require special training to develop them fully. Yogic breathing which alters the patterns of respiration has been shown to enhance attention skills. Letter cancellation tests are well-established tools to measure attention and attention span. Here, a modified Braille version of the six-letter cancellation test (SLCT) was used for students with visual impairment (VI). Aim: This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of Bhramari Pranayama (BhPr) and breath awareness (BA) on students with VI...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
Karin H M Larmené-Beld, E Kim Alting, Katja Taxis
PURPOSE: Unclear labeling has been recognized as an important cause of look-alike medication errors. The aim of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the current evidence on strategies to minimize medication errors due to look-alike labels. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and EMBASE for all available years was performed independently by two reviewers. Original studies assessing strategies to minimize medication errors due to look-alike labels focusing on readability of labels by health professionals or consumers were included...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Vincent De Coninck, Etienne Xavier Keller, María Rodríguez-Monsalve, Marie Audouin, Steeve Doizi, Olivier Traxer
OBJECTIVES: To review literature on all available ureteral access sheaths (UASs) with their indications, limitations, risks, advantages and disadvantages in current modern endourological practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two authors searched Medline, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science databases to identify studies on UASs published in English. No time period restriction was applied. All original articles reporting about outcomes or innovations were included. Additional articles identified through references lists were also included...
May 11, 2018: BJU International
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