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Liver , transplantation , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , fatty liver

Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Nwe Ni Than, Anwar Ghazanfar, James Hodson, Nadeem Tehami, Chris Coldham, Hynek Mergental, Derek Manas, Tahir Shah, Philip N Newsome, Helen Reeves, Shishir Shetty
INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in incidence in the UK and globally. Liver cirrhosis is the common cause for developing HCC. The common reasons for liver cirrhosis are viral hepatitis C (HCV), viral hepatitis B and alcohol. However, HCC caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-cirrhosis is now increasingly as a result of rising worldwide obesity. AIM: To compare the clinical presentation, treatment options and outcomes of HCC due to HCV and NAFLD patients...
September 10, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Jody C Olson
Chronic liver disease is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and represents a major burden for the health care community. Cirrhosis is a progressive disease resulting in end-stage liver failure, which in the absence of liver transplantation is fatal. Acute-on-chronic liver failure carries high short-term mortality but is potentially reversible. Viral hepatitis, alcohol, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease remain the principal causes of liver disease. Though treatments exist for hepatitis B and C, they remain unavailable to many with these diseases...
July 2016: Critical Care Clinics
J Gregory Fitz
The ∼90% probability of curing individual patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)using direct-acting antivirals represents one of the most dramatic medical success stories of the modern era, and the journey from viral discovery to treatment occurred over just ∼25 years. The realities of the global burden of disease (2-3% of the world's population is infected), limited access to care and cost of treatment mean that HCV will continue to be a major problem for the next 25 years. But what if HCV (and hepatitis B) could be eradicated? Since liver transplantation and HCV management have been the mainstays of academic hepatology practice, where do we go from here? Unfortunately, we are in an era where the incidence and prevalence of liver diseases around the globe is increasing, and death from complications of cirrhosis is now among the top 10 causes in most countries; so hepatologists are expected to play a major role in the future...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Pankaj Puri, Sandeep Kumar
The advances in management of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with highly effective anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) have resulted in increased longevity of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. AIDS-related illnesses now account for less than 50 % of the deaths, and liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of death in patients with HIV infection. Chronic viral hepatitis, drug-related hepatotoxicity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and opportunistic infections are the common liver diseases that are seen in HIV-infected individuals...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Pengcheng Zhou, Li Shao, Lifu Zhao, Guoliang Lv, Xiaoping Pan, Anye Zhang, Jianzhou Li, Ning Zhou, Deying Chen, Lanjuan Li
Bioartificial livers may act as a promising therapy for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with better accessibility and less injury compared to orthotopic liver transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fluidized bed bioartificial liver (FBBAL) and to explore its therapeutic mechanisms based on metabolomics. FHF was induced by D-galactosamine. Eighteen hours later, pigs were treated with an FBBAL containing encapsulated primary porcine hepatocytes (B group), with a sham FBBAL (containing cell-free capsules, S group) or with only intensive care (C group) for 6 h...
2016: Scientific Reports
Metin Basaranoglu, Sonia M Najjar, Ali Ebag Demirbag, Hakan Senturk
AIM: To characterize non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presentation with esophageal varices. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study on 258 patients with esophageal varices at a single tertiary referral center. These patients underwent diagnosis of several liver diseases, including: NAFLD-associated cirrhosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Wilson disease, autoimune liver diseases, and others. RESULTS: Of the 258 patients, 39% of patients exhibited esophageal varices due to NAFLD-associated cirrhosis...
March 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Chavdar S Pavlov, Giovanni Casazza, Marianna Semenistaia, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Ekaterina Liusina, Vladimir T Ivashkin, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol consumption causes alcoholic liver disease and is a causal factor of many types of liver injuries and concomitant diseases. It is a true systemic disease that may damage the digestive tract, the nervous system, the heart and vascular system, the bone and skeletal muscle system, and the endocrine and immune system, and can lead to cancer. Liver damage in turn, can present as multiple alcoholic liver diseases, including fatty liver, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, with presence or absence of hepatitis B or C virus infection...
March 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Deepak Joshi, Kosh Agarwal
End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, drug-induced hepatotoxicity related to combined anti-retro-viral therapy, alcohol related liver disease and non-alcohol related fatty liver disease appear to be the leading causes. It is therefore, anticipated that more HIV-positive patients with ESLD will present as potential transplant candidates. HIV infection is no longer a contraindication to liver transplantation...
November 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Zobair M Younossi, Munkhzul Otgonsuren, Linda Henry, Chapy Venkatesan, Alita Mishra, Madeline Erario, Sharon Hunt
UNLABELLED: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly reported in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to assess the prevalence and mortality of patients with NAFLD-HCC. We examined Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries (2004-2009) with Medicare-linkage files for HCC, which was identified by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition codes using topography and morphology codes 8170-8175. Medicare-linked data was used to identify NAFLD, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and other liver disease using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes...
December 2015: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jessica Howell, Glenda Balderson, Margaret Hellard, Paul Gow, Simone Strasser, Katherine Stuart, Alan Wigg, Gary Jeffrey, Ed Gane, Peter W Angus
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), and non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are leading indications for adult liver transplantation in Australia and New Zealand. However, these diseases are potentially preventable through effective primary and/or secondary prevention strategies. This study evaluates the relative contribution of potentially preventable liver diseases to liver transplant numbers in Australia and New Zealand over time...
February 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Adam S Bodzin, Ronald W Busuttil
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a common and lethal malignancy worldwide and arises in the setting of a host of diseases. The incidence continues to increase despite multiple vaccines and therapies for viruses such as the hepatitis B and C viruses. In addition, due to the growing incidence of obesity in Western society, there is anticipation that there will be a growing population with HCC due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Due to the growing frequency of this disease, screening is recommended using ultrasound with further imaging using magnetic resonance imaging and multi-detector computed tomography used for further characterization of masses...
May 28, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Jorge Marrero, John Renz, Riccardo Lencioni
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death, with a rising global incidence. The vast majority of HCC cases occur in the setting of liver cirrhosis, mainly due to chronic hepatitis C (HCV) or hepatitis B (HBV) viral infections, alcohol consumption, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The new approval of curative therapy with two NS5A inhibitors, ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, for the treatment of HCV will no doubt affect HCC incidence and outcome. No studies have evaluated the use of the new antivirals in patients with HCC...
2015: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Chun-Hsiang Wang, Keh-Cherng Wey, Lein-Ray Mo, Kuo-Kwan Chang, Ruey-Chang Lin, Jen-Juan Kuo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been one of the most fatal malignant tumors worldwide and its associated morbidity and mortality remain of significant concern. Based on in-depth reviews of serological diagnosis of HCC, in addition to AFP, there are other biomarkers: Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP (AFP-L3), des- carboxyprothrombin (DCP), tyrosine kinase with Ig and eprdermal growth factor (EGF) homology domains 2 (TIE2)-espressing monocytes (TEMs), glypican-3 (GPC3), Golgi protein 73 (GP73), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) have been proposed as biomarkers for the early detection of HCC...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Perla Oliveira Schulz, Fabio Gonçalves Ferreira, Maria de Fátima Araújo Nascimento, Andrea Vieira, Mauricio Alves Ribeiro, André Ibrahim David, Luiz Arnaldo Szutan
AIM: To investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver cancer, and NAFLD prevalence in different liver tumors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of the clinical, laboratory and histological data of 120 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary hepatic neoplasms and treated at a tertiary center where they underwent hepatic resection and/or liver transplantation, with subsequent evaluation of the explant or liver biopsy...
January 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Bernard J DuBray, Kendra D Conzen, Gundumi A Upadhya, Kristen L Gunter, Jianluo Jia, Brett L Knolhoff, Thallachallour Mohanakumar, William C Chapman, Christopher D Anderson
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to the liver continues to be a source of significant morbidity, especially in patients with hepatic steatosis. This is a growing problem given the increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. B-cell lymphoma-2 homology3-only members of the B-cell lymphoma-2 protein family are known mediators of cellular apoptosis, although their role in hepatic IRI is still emerging. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Bim and Bid on warm hepatic IRI in the setting of steatosis...
April 2015: Journal of Surgical Research
Robert J Wong, Maria Aguilar, Ramsey Cheung, Ryan B Perumpail, Stephen A Harrison, Zobair M Younossi, Aijaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been predicted to become the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States. However, few studies have evaluated changes in the etiology of liver diseases among patients awaiting LT, and none have focused on the effects of NASH on liver transplant waitlists in the United States. METHODS: We collected data from the United Network for Organ Sharing and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry from 2004 through 2013, on liver transplant waitlist registrants with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, NASH, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), or a combination of HCV infection and ALD...
March 2015: Gastroenterology
I A Hanouneh, C Macaron, R Lopez, A E Feldstein, L Yerian, B Eghtesad, N N Zein
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an increasing indication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in the United States and other countries. However, the incidence of disease recurrence and natural course following OLT remains incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of recurrent disease, outcome and identify risk factors associated with disease recurrence in patients undergoing OLT for NASH as compared to those undergoing OLT for HCV cirrhosis...
2011: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Maria Stepanova, Homan Wai, Sammy Saab, Alita Mishra, Chapy Venkatesan, Zobair M Younossi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: JAMA Internal Medicine
E Kalaitzakis, E S Björnsson
Statins are generally well tolerated and shown to have a good safety profile. In clinical trials a similar proportion of patients randomized to statins and placebo treated developed abnormal liver tests. However, idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare adverse reaction and clinical trials are underpowered to detect uncommon side effects. Although probably very rare, idiosyncratic DILI due to statins has been reported among other drugs in all major prospective and retrospective series on DILI...
March 2014: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
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