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dialysis shunt and cardiovascular complications

Anil K Agarwal
Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are at a high risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with end-stage renal disease have a particularly high morbidity and mortality, in part attributed to the complications and dysfunction related to vascular access in this population. Creation of an arteriovenous access for HD is considered standard of care for most patients and has distinct advantages including less likelihood of infections, less need for intervention, and positive impact on survival as compared with usage of a catheter...
November 2015: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Alexander Massmann, Peter Fries, Kerstin Obst-Gleditsch, Peter Minko, Roushanak Shayesteh-Kheslat, Arno Buecker
PURPOSE: To report a retrospective observational analysis of standard balloon angioplasty (BA) vs. paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty (PCBA) for symptomatic central vein restenoses in patients with impaired native hemodialysis fistulas. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 27 consecutive patients (15 men; mean age 66 ± 13.8 years, range 39-90) with 32 central vein stenoses (CVS; 6 axillary, 11 subclavian, 12 brachiocephalic, and/or 3 superior caval veins) treated successfully using BA...
February 2015: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Jan Malik, Jaroslav Kudlicka, Vladimir Tesar, Ales Linhart
More than 50% of all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients die from cardiovascular complications. Among them, heart failure and pulmonary hypertension play a major role, and published studies document significantly higher mortality rates in patients with these two states. Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and arteriovenous grafts (AVG) are the preferred types of vascular access (VA). However, both AVF and AVG increase cardiac output and in turn could contribute to (the decompensation of) heart failure or pulmonary hypertension...
2015: Contributions to Nephrology
Shahin Zandieh, Dina Muin, Reinhard Bernt, Petra Krenn-List, Siroos Mirzaei, Joerg Haller
In daily clinical practice, the radiologist in the context of diagnosis often faces dialysis-associated complications. The complications are numerous and range from infections, catheter dysfunctions, haematomas, cardiovascular diseases, digital ischaemia, and pseudoaneurysms to shunt stenosis. In this pictorial essay, we take a close look at the imaging diagnostics of the most common complications in dialysis patients. Teaching Points • The occurrence of venous stenosis in haemodialysis patients is up to 41 %...
October 2014: Insights Into Imaging
Andrea Remuzzi, Simone Manini
BACKGROUND: The creation and management of an autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as vascular access (VA) for hemodialysis patients is still a critical procedure. The placement of a functional and long-lasting VA derives from adequate planning of the surgical procedure based on physical examination, vascular mapping and selection of the best modality for arteriovenous anastomosis. The risk of AVF non-maturation and early failure is high, even when all precautions are taken to minimize these events...
2014: Journal of Vascular Access
M Boghosian, K Cassel, M Hammes, B Funaki, S Kim, X Qian, X Wang, P Dhar, J Hines
The care and outcome of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic hemodialysis is directly dependent on their hemodialysis access. A brachiocephalic fistula (BCF) is commonly placed in the elderly and in patients with a failed lower-arm, or radiocephalic, fistula. However, there are numerous complications such that the BCF has an average patency of only 3.6 years. A leading cause of BCF dysfunction and failure is stenosis in the arch of the cephalic vein near its junction with the axillary vein, which is called cephalic arch stenosis (CAS)...
July 2014: Medical Engineering & Physics
Gulay Asci, Huseyin Tz, Mehmet Ozkahya, Soner Duman, Meltem Sezis Demirci, Mustafa Cirit, Savas Sipahi, Hamad Dheir, Devrim Bozkurt, Fatih Kircelli, Ebru Sevinc Ok, Sinan Erten, Muhittin Ertilav, Timur Kose, Ali Basci, Jochen G Raimann, Nathan W Levin, Ercan Ok
The effects of high-flux dialysis and ultrapure dialysate on survival of hemodialysis patients are incompletely understood. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of both membrane permeability and dialysate purity on cardiovascular outcomes. We randomly assigned 704 patients on three times per week hemodialysis to either high- or low-flux dialyzers and either ultrapure or standard dialysate using a two-by-two factorial design. The primary outcome was a composite of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events during a minimum 3 years follow-up...
May 2013: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Gregg A Miller, Wayne W Hwang
The Kidney Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative and Fistula First Initiative have embraced the arteriovenous fistula as the gold standard for hemodialysis accesses. Despite this status, fistulae are fraught with complex issues ranging from a high primary failure rate to high flow resulting in increased cardiovascular morbidity. It is important not to overlook the insidious peril of a hyperfunctioning access that may actively promote cardiac overload, cardiopulmonary recirculation, rapid access growth with aneurysm enlargement, recurrent venous stenosis resulting in access failure, and inflow/outflow mismatch...
November 2012: Seminars in Nephrology
Steven G Achinger, Juan Carlos Ayus
Mortality among hemodialysis patients remains unacceptably high in the USA, especially among newly diagnosed end-stage renal disease patients. Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among HD patients. It has been shown that complications of the arteriovenous (AV) access are not just limited to overt infectious complications but they may also pose a threat as a haven for occult infection and can aggravate the chronic inflammatory state. This inflammatory state is characterized by failure to thrive, erythropoietin-resistant anemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated plasma C-reactive protein levels, which are well-known risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality on dialysis...
April 2013: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Luis Coentrão, Carla Santos-Araújo, Claudia Dias, Ricardo Neto, Manuel Pestana
BACKGROUND: Although several studies have demonstrated early survival advantages with peritoneal dialysis (PD) over hemodialysis (HD), the reason for the excess mortality observed among incident HD patients remains to be established, to our knowledge. This study explores the relationship between mortality and dialysis modality, focusing on the role of HD vascular access type at the time of dialysis initiation. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed among local adult chronic kidney disease patients who consecutively initiated PD and HD with a tunneled cuffed venous catheter (HD-TCC) or a functional arteriovenous fistula (HD-AVF) in our institution in the year 2008...
2012: BMC Nephrology
Duriye Deren Oygar, Guzin Zekican
Cardiovascular complications are encountered frequently in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study and a total of 105 dialysis patients, 77 hemodialysis and 28 peritoneal dialysis patients, were investigated. All patients had undergone M-Mode Doppler echocardiography every 6 months by which their systolic pulmonary arterial pressures (sPAPs) and left ventricular mass indices (LVMIs) were recorded. Thirty-nine (37.1%) patients had pulmonary hypertension (PHT), that is, a mean sPAP of more than 35 mmHg...
2012: Renal Failure
Konstantinos Katsanos, Dimitris Karnabatidis, Panagiotis Kitrou, Stavros Spiliopoulos, Nikolaos Christeas, Dimitris Siablis
PURPOSE: To report the 6-month results of a prospective randomized trial investigating angioplasty with paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) vs. plain balloon angioplasty (BA) for the treatment of failing native arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) or prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVG). METHODS: The enrollment criteria for this non-inferiority hypothesis trial included clinical signs of failing dialysis access with angiographic documentation of a significant venous stenotic lesion in patients with AVF or AVG circuits...
April 2012: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
James R Gill, Kara Storck, Sean Kelly
Exsanguination from hemodialysis vascular sites may cause a rapid death. Due to extensive blood loss at the scene, investigators may initially suspect a homicide or suicide. We reviewed 100 deaths due to hemorrhage from hemodialysis shunt sites. The majority (81%) of these hemorrhages occurred at home and 44% subsequently died at home. Recognition of this medical complication at the scene is important to prevent the dispatch of the crime scene or homicide unit. In these instances, the common causes of kidney failure included hypertensive cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus...
September 2012: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Dejan Petrović, Vladimir Miloradović, Mileta Poskurica, Biljana Stojimirović
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in patients on haemodialysis. Cardiovascular mortality rate in these patients is approximately 9% per year, with the highest prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy, ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure being the most frequent cardiovascular complications. Risk factors for cardiac failure include hypertension, disturbed lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, microinflammation, hypoalbuminemia, anaemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, and increased concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine, increased shunt blood flow and secondary hyperparathyroidism...
March 2011: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Giuseppe Curatola, Davide Bolignano, Stefania Rastelli, Graziella Caridi, Rocco Tripepi, Giovanni Tripepi, Raffaele Politi, Francesco Catalano, Diego Delfino, Maurizio Ciccarelli, Francesca Mallamaci, Carmine Zoccali
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension remains a major problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: We performed a pragmatic trial (Pragmatic Clinical Intervention on Blood Pressure Driven by Audit [CLINIDEA]) testing the effectiveness and safety of a 6-month multimodal intervention in hypertensive HD patients regarding the application of higher ultrafiltration (UF) rates or longer or more frequent dialyses in UF-intolerant patients, and an educational intervention to encourage patients to lower their salt and fluid intake...
July 2011: Journal of Nephrology
Marissa K Peck, Nathalie Dusserre, Krzysztof Zagalski, Sergio A Garrido, Wojciech Wystrychowski, Marc H Glickman, Nicolas A F Chronos, Lech Cierpka, Nicolas L'Heureux, Todd N McAllister
Since Scribner described the first prosthetic chronic dialysis shunt in 1961, the surgical techniques and strategies to maintain vascular access have improved dramatically. Today, hundreds of thousands of patients worldwide are treated with some combination of native vein fistula, synthetic vascular graft, or synthetic semipermanent catheter. Despite significantly lower efficacy compared with autologous fistulae, the basic materials used for synthetic shunts and catheters have evolved surprisingly slowly. The disparity between efficacy rates and concomitant maintenance costs has driven a strong campaign to decrease the use of synthetic grafts and catheters in favor of native fistulae...
July 2011: Journal of Vascular Access
Richard Amerling, Claudio Ronco, Martin Kuhlman, James F Winchester
The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has been a mainstay of hemodialysis treatments and the preferred access route since its inception in the 1960s, due to its longevity and resistance to infection. However, the AVF is not benign. There is significant primary failure, as well as cardiac, vascular, and other, less well recognized, complications. Together, they represent toxicity, to which considerable morbidity and mortality can be attached. Official policy, based on guidelines where AVF toxicity is given short shrift, drives an increase in use of these devices, and may have undesired consequences...
2011: Blood Purification
Koen Van Canneyt, Thierry Pourchez, Sunny Eloot, Caroline Guillame, Alexandre Bonnet, Patrick Segers, Pascal Verdonck
PURPOSE: An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the first choice vascular access for hemodialysis. The AVF pathway can be seen as consisting of seven segments: proximal artery, distal artery, arterial collaterals, proximal vein, distal vein, venous collaterals, and the anastomosis. While most studies describe access complications without considering the impact of the anastomosis (7th segment), the present mathematical study investigated the hemodynamic impact of anastomosis size and angle on pressure drop and flow distribution...
January 2010: Journal of Vascular Access
Irena Głowińska, Jerzy Głowinski, Marek Gacko, Jolanta Małyszko
There is an increasing number of patients with end-stage renal disease all over the world, mainly in the population of patients with diabetic nephropathy and in the elderly. One of the most important issues in nephrology care is the vascular access. The closest to the ideal vascular access is the native arterio-venous fistula. On the other hand, patients with end-stage renal failure are prone to cardiovascular complications, including left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, accelerated arterio- and atherosclerosis, vascular remodeling...
2008: Przegla̧d Lekarski
C H Chang, J Y Huang, P C Lai, C W Yang
Mediastinal abscess is a rare but life-threatening disease with grave prognosis if not recognized in time. The diagnosis of this entity is hampered by its nonspecific presentation. Thus, a high index of clinical suspicion is one of the keystones in the successful management of these patients. Currently, mediastinitis occurred mostly as a complication post cardiovascular or thoracic surgical procedures. Rarely, primary mediastinitis developed as a result of hematogenous spread. We report the case of primary mediastinitis in a renal failure patient who had Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia...
January 2009: Clinical Nephrology
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