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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666685/identifying-risk-factors-for-healthcare-associated-infections-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#1
Amira M Sultan, Wael A Seliem
Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii is a causative pathogen of various healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and is particularly prevalent in high-risk hospital settings. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with HAIs caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: This prospective study was performed between January 2013 and June 2014 among NICU patients at the Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661991/information-to-improve-public-perceptions-of-the-food-and-drug-administration-fda-s-tobacco-regulatory-role
#2
Amira Osman, Sarah D Kowitt, Paschal Sheeran, Kristen L Jarman, Leah M Ranney, Adam O Goldstein
While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had regulatory authority over tobacco products since 2009, public awareness of this authority remains limited. This research examines several broad types of information about FDA tobacco regulatory mission that may improve the perceptions of FDA as a tobacco regulator. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk, 1766 adults, smokers and non-smokers, were randomly assigned to view a statement about FDA regulatory authority that varied three information types in a 2 × 2 × 2 between subjects experimental design: (1) FDA's roles in regulating tobacco (yes/no); (2) The scientific basis of regulations (yes/no); and (3) A potential protective function of regulations (yes/no)...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656653/derivatization-molecular-docking-and-in-vitro-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-of-glycyrrhizin-as-a-selective-anti-alzheimer-agent
#3
Fatma M Abdel Bar, Diaaeldin M Elimam, Amira S Mira, Fardous F El-Senduny, Farid A Badria
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) increase both level and duration of action of acetylcholine (ACh); thus, alleviate symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Glycyrrhizin, is the main active compound in liquorice root. Its aglycone, glycyrrhetinic acid, has shown several beneficial pharmacological activities. This study reports the synthesis and screening of a series of glycyrrhetinic acid analogs as AChE-Is. Fourteen derivatives were prepared, of which five derivatives are recorded as new viz., 3-phenyl-carbamoyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (J9), 3-acetyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic-30-anilinamide (J10), 3-acetyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic-30-ethanolamide (J11), 3-acetyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic-30-n-butylamide (J12) and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid-30-prenyl ester (J14), in addition to nine known derivatives (J1-J8 & J13)...
April 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655869/a-general-structured-model-of-a-hermaphrodite-population
#4
Amira Kebir, Nina H Fefferman, Slimane Ben Miled
Both empirical and theoretical studies, have dealt with the question how to best optimize reproductive fitness for hermaphrodites, using models such as game theory or complicated energetic costs and benefits of mating displays. However, hermaphrodites exhibit a broad spectrum of sexual behaviors like simultaneous, sequential or lifetime gonochorist that cannot be explained using a unique formalism. A possible explanation of this diversity relies on the way these species maximize their fitness: Does the individual hermaphrodite split its time between strategies maximizing its instantaneous reproductive fitness or its evolutionary fitness? Here, we compare these two points of view and extend a game theoretical formalism to a sex allocation model that underlies all sexual behaviors as a result of a dynamic game whose payoff depends on the costs and benefits of sexual reproduction...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629992/management-of-children-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-intermedia-overview-recent-advances-and-treatment-challenges
#5
Amira A Adly, Eman A Ismail
Our knowledge of the various clinical morbidities that thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients endure has substantially increased over the past decade. It is mandatory to grasp a solid understanding of disease-specific complications in order to tailor management. The optimal course of management for TI patients has been hard to identify, and several controversies remain with regard to the best treatment plan. Although advances in TI are moving at a fast pace, many complications remain with no treatment guidelines...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627312/-does-heliox-administered-by-low-flow-nasal-cannula-improve-respiratory-distress-in-infants-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-acute-bronchiolitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Wael Seliem, Amira M Sultan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study is to evaluate whether the use of heliox (79:21) delivered through a low flow nasal cannula would improve respiratory distress in infants with acute bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus. METHODS: We have conducted a prospective randomized controlled study. All patients fulfilled inclusion criteria were randomized to either heliox (79:21) or air via NC at 2 L/min for a continuous 24hours. Measurements were taken at baseline, after 2hours and at the end of the 24hours...
April 4, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626590/altered-expression-of-wfs1-and-notch2-genes-associated-with-diabetic-nephropathy-in-t2dm-patients
#7
Sahar A Sharaf, Nagwa A Kantoush, Dina F Ayoub, Alshaymaa A Ibrahim, Amaal A Abdelaal, Rokaya Abdel Aziz, Mahmoud M ElHefnawi, Amira N Ahmed
AIM: The increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the importance of early identification and management of its complications, especially diabetic nephropathy (DN), have spotted the light on genetic factors that increase risk of T2DM and its related nephropathy. The present study aimed at investigating expression of (KCNJ11, ABCC8, JAZF1, WFS1, PPARG, NOTCH2 and EXOSC4) genes in peripheral blood of T2DM patients. METHOD: The study included 30 non-complicated T2DM patients, 30 patients with DN and 40 healthy controls...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622564/the-cell-biology-of-systemic-insulin-function
#8
REVIEW
Victoria L Tokarz, Patrick E MacDonald, Amira Klip
Insulin is the paramount anabolic hormone, promoting carbon energy deposition in the body. Its synthesis, quality control, delivery, and action are exquisitely regulated by highly orchestrated intracellular mechanisms in different organs or "stations" of its bodily journey. In this Beyond the Cell review, we focus on these five stages of the journey of insulin through the body and the captivating cell biology that underlies the interaction of insulin with each organ. We first analyze insulin's biosynthesis in and export from the β-cells of the pancreas...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620724/expanding-the-phenome-and-variome-of-skeletal-dysplasia
#9
Sateesh Maddirevula, Saud Alsahli, Lamees Alhabeeb, Nisha Patel, Fatema Alzahrani, Hanan E Shamseldin, Shams Anazi, Nour Ewida, Hessa S Alsaif, Jawahir Y Mohamed, Anas M Alazami, Niema Ibrahim, Firdous Abdulwahab, Mais Hashem, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Dorota Monies, Nada Al Tassan, Muneera Alshammari, Afaf Alsagheir, Mohammed Zain Seidahmed, Samira Sogati, Mona S Aglan, Muddathir H Hamad, Mustafa A Salih, Ahlam A Hamed, Nadia Alhashmi, Amira Nabil, Fatima Alfadli, Ghada M H Abdel-Salam, Hisham Alkuraya, Winnie Ong Peitee, W T Keng, Abdullah Qasem, Aziza M Mushiba, Maha S Zaki, Mahmoud R Fassad, Majid Alfadhel, Saji Alexander, Yasser Sabr, Samia Temtamy, Alka V Ekbote, Samira Ismail, Gamal Ahmed Hosny, Ghada A Otaify, Khalda Amr, Saeed Al Tala, Arif O Khan, Tamer Rizk, Aida Alaqeel, Abdulmonem Alsiddiky, Ankur Singh, Seema Kapoor, Amal Alhashem, Eissa Faqeih, Ranad Shaheen, Fowzan S Alkuraya
PurposeTo describe our experience with a large cohort (411 patients from 288 families) of various forms of skeletal dysplasia who were molecularly characterized.MethodsDetailed phenotyping and next-generation sequencing (panel and exome).ResultsOur analysis revealed 224 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (54 (24%) of which are novel) in 123 genes with established or tentative links to skeletal dysplasia. In addition, we propose 5 genes as candidate disease genes with suggestive biological links (WNT3A, SUCO, RIN1, DIP2C, and PAN2)...
April 5, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618226/the-effect-of-rectus-muscle-re-approximation-at-cesarean-delivery-on-pain-perceived-after-operation-a-randomized-control-trial
#10
Eman F Omran, Hadeer Meshaal, Sarah M Hassan, Amira S Dieb, Hala Nabil, Hani Saad
BACKGROUND: Cesarean section rate has increased dramatically worldwide but there is still debate about the optimum operative technique of cesarean section. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of rectus muscle reapproximation at cesarean delivery on the postoperative pain. METHODS: This study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. It included 280 primigravidas, with a singleton pregnancy, who underwent elective lower segment cesarean section at term...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605863/increased-tenascin-c-and-dkk1-in-vitiligo-possible-role-of-fibroblasts-in-acral-and-non-acral-disease
#11
Samia M Esmat, Heba H El Hadidi, Rehab A Hegazy, Heba I Gawdat, Amira M Tawdy, Marwa M Fawzy, Dalia M AbdelHalim, Omnia S Sultan, Olfat G Shaker
Recently, multiple culprits-in addition to melanocytes-have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Among those factors are fibroblasts. However, their exact role has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible role played by fibroblasts in vitiligo via studying the expression Tenascin C and DKK1 in acral versus non-acral vitiligo lesions. This case-control study included 19 non-segmental vitiligo patients and ten controls. All patients were subjected to thorough clinical evaluation...
March 31, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601550/exploration-of-the-use-of-new-psychoactive-substances-by-individuals-in-treatment-for-substance-misuse-in-the-uk
#12
Rosalind Gittins, Amira Guirguis, Fabrizio Schifano, Ian Maidment
Substance misuse services need to meet the growing demand and needs of individuals using new psychoactive substances (NPS). A review of the literature identified a paucity of research regarding NPS use by these individuals and UK guidelines outline the need for locally tailored strategies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explore key themes in relation to the use of NPS by individuals receiving community treatment for their substance use. Electronic records identified demographics and semi-structured interviews were undertaken...
March 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594423/epidemiological-observations-on-cryptosporidiosis-and-molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-sheep-and-goats-in-kuwait
#13
Qais A H Majeed, Osama M E El-Azazy, Nadra-Elwgoud M I Abdou, Zein A Al-Aal, Amira I El-Kabbany, Laila M A Tahrani, Maha S AlAzemi, Yuanfei Wang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Molecular epidemiological analysis of cryptosporidiosis in Middle Eastern countries suggests that small ruminants could play a major role in the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. to humans, with a dominance of Cryptosporidium parvum, especially its IId subtypes. However, little information is available on the epidemiology and risk factors of cryptosporidiosis as well the distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes and subtypes in small ruminants in this area, including Kuwait. In the present study, 47 farms from several areas in Kuwait were visited once during October 2014 to September 2015 to collect data on risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection...
March 29, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587250/efficacy-of-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-cervical-lymphadenitis
#14
Soumaya Rammeh, Emna Romdhane, Amira Arfaoui Toumi, Yoldez Houcine, Rym Lahiani, Asma Sassi, Helmi Mardassi, Mamia Ben Salah, Mohamed Ferjaoui
OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TL) in comparison with histology and bacteriology findings. STUDY DESIGN: We undertook a descriptive retrospective study of 937 FNAC specimens from 851 patients with cervical lymph nodes. The FNAC findings were then compared to histopathology and bacteriology. RESULTS: Of the 937 aspirates, the cytopathological diagnoses consisted of 426 (55...
March 27, 2018: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577109/male-mice-lacking-nlrx1-are-partially-protected-from-high-fat-diet-induced-hyperglycemia
#15
Sheila R Costford, Ivan Tattoli, Francis T Duan, Allen Volchuk, Amira Klip, Dana J Philpott, Minna Woo, Stephen E Girardin
Nod-like receptor (NLR)X1 is an NLR family protein that localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and modulates reactive oxygen species production, possibly by directly interacting with the electron transport chain. Recent work demonstrated that cells lacking NLRX1 have higher oxygen consumption but lower levels of adenosine triphosphate, suggesting that NLRX1 might prevent uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. We therefore hypothesized that NLRX1 might regulate whole-body energy metabolism through its effect on mitochondria...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574132/resveratrol-influences-platinum-pharmacokinetics-a-novel-mechanism-in-protection-against-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#16
Mostafa A Darwish, Amira M Abo-Youssef, Marwa M Khalaf, Ali A Abo-Saif, Ibrahim G Saleh, Tamer M Abdelghany
Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used drug in treatment of solid tumors. However, the use of CP was hampered by its serious side effects especially nephrotoxicity. This study aims to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on CP-induced nephrotoxicity, particularly, the effect of RES on CP pharmacokinetics (PKs). Male white albino rats were divided to four group's six rats each. The first group received (1%) tween 80 in normal saline and served as control. The second group received RES (30 mg kg-1 ) per day for 14 consecutive day's i...
March 21, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573963/high-rate-of-over-staging-of-barrett-s-neoplasia-with-endoscopic-ultrasound-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Bashar J Qumseya, Michael J Bartel, Sherif Gendy, Paul Bain, Amira Qumseya, Herbert Wolfsen
BACKGROUND: The use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) to stage patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) with suspected neoplasia is controversial due to high rates of over-staging. However, this rate of over-staging has not been adequately investigated or quantified. AIM: To determine the rate of over-staging related EUS in this population. METHODS: Search included Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central ending on 9/30/2016. The primary effect-estimate of interest was the false positive rate of advanced disease on EUS at the tumor level (T1a vs...
March 1, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573751/a-hydatic-cyst-of-the-appendix-mimicking-a-uterine-lateral-mass-a-case-report
#18
Molka Chemlali, Sarah Sghaier, Montassar Ghalleb, Amira Triki, Jamel Ben Hassouna, Khaled Ben Rahal
BACKGROUND: Hydatic cyst is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It is a public health problem in Tunisia and remains endemic. It occurs in intra-abdominal organs in 10-15% of the cases, particularly in the liver representing the most common affected organ. The aim of the case is to highlight the scarcity of this appendicle origin and to consider it among the differential diagnosis of any intra-abdominal cystic lesion. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old Tunisian woman, with no past medical history, was admitted for a pelvic cystic mass...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571154/postmortem-interval-estimation-using-the-animal-model-of-postmortem-gas-volume-changes
#19
Chika Iwamoto, Kenoki Ohuchida, Miki Okumura, Yosuke Usumoto, Junji Kishimoto, Masaharu Murata, Noriaki Ikeda, Makoto Hashizume
It is important to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic autopsy. Many methods to estimate the postmortem interval have been reported, and are typically associated with internal examination. However, there are issues such as rejection of autopsy by the family and a lack of forensic doctor in internal examination. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new methods, such as autopsy imaging, that can substitute for internal examination. Here, we first evaluated whether gas volume in the body increased with postmortem interval...
December 20, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570747/dogs-canis-familiaris-stick-to-what-they-have-learned-rather-than-conform-to-their-conspecifics-behavior
#20
Markus Germar, Amira Sultan, Juliane Kaminski, Andreas Mojzisch
In recent years, an increasing number of studies has investigated majority influence in nonhuman animals. However, due to both terminological and methodological issues, evidence for conformity in nonhuman animals is scarce and controversial. Preliminary evidence suggests that wild birds, wild monkeys, and fish show conformity, that is, forgoing personal information in order to copy the majority. By contrast, chimpanzees seem to lack this tendency. The present study is the first to examine whether dogs (Canis familiaris) show conformity...
2018: PloS One
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