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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929930/child-mortality-and-poverty-in-three-world-regions-the-west-asia-and-sub-saharan-africa-1988-2010-evidence-of-relative-intra-regional-neglect
#1
Colin Pritchard, Steven Keen
AIMS: Poverty kills children. This study assesses the relationship between poverty and child mortality rates (CMRs) in 71 societies from three world regions to determine whether some countries, relative to their region, neglect their children. METHODS: Spearman rank order correlations were calculated to determine any association between the CMR and poverty data, including income inequality and gross national income. A current CMR one standard deviation (SD) above or below the regional average and a percentage change between 1988 and 2010 were used as the measures to assess the progress of nations...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926979/mother-s-ipv-child-maltreatment-type-and-the-presence-of-ptsd-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Maravillas Castro, Mavi Alcántara-López, Antonia Martínez, Visitación Fernández, Julio Sánchez-Meca, Concepción López-Soler
This correlational cross-sectional study was designed to investigate whether the intimate partner violence (IPV) suffered by mothers (physical and psychological maltreatment), child eyewitness of psychological and physical maltreatment suffered by the mother, the neglect suffered by children, and the maltreatment (physical and psychological) directly suffered by children are statistically associated to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms exhibited by the child. In addition, the prevalence of child PTSD was estimated, as well as the concordance between the PTSD symptoms assessed by the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for child PTSD...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918232/childhood-maltreatment-and-adolescent-sexual-risk-behaviors-unique-cumulative-and-interactive-effects
#3
Marie-Eve Thibodeau, Francine Lavoie, Martine Hébert, Martin Blais
Child maltreatment has been associated with sexual risk behaviors. Previous investigators have typically studied only one form of maltreatment, preventing them from exploring interrelations between forms of maltreatment and their impact on sexual risk behaviors. Thus, this study aims to examine the unique, cumulative, and interactive effects of four maltreatment forms (sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and witnessing interparental violence) on sexual risk behaviors. The sample comprised 1940 sexually active adolescents (Mage=15...
September 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917187/trajectories-of-post-traumatic-stress-and-externalizing-psychopathology-among-maltreated-foster-care-youth-a-parallel-process-latent-growth-curve-model
#4
Gia Elise Barboza, Silvia Dominguez, Jyda Pinder
Few longitudinal studies have analyzed how violence exposure (e.g. child maltreatment, witnessing community violence) influence both externalizing and Post-Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms among children in foster care. Data from three waves of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (1999-2007) (NSCAW; National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect, 2002) were analyzed to investigate the change trajectories of both externalizing and PTS symptomatology among children with a substantiated report of child maltreatment by Child Protective Services (CPS) between October 1999 and December 2000...
September 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898416/reporting-and-identifying-child-physical-abuse-how-well-are-we-doing
#5
Grace W K Ho, Amie Bettencourt, Deborah A Gross
Entry into the child protection system in the US begins with a child maltreatment report. Some evidence suggests that report source and child age are related to report outcomes, but there has been no national study of these relationships. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to describe the distribution of report sources for child physical abuse (CPA), and examine whether (a) the source of a report and (b) child age contribute to the likelihood of substantiation of the reported abuse. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted using a US national sample of 204,414 children investigated for CPA in 2013 in a dataset obtained from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System...
September 12, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893219/a-case-of-a-four-year-old-child-adopted-at-eight-months-with-unusual-mood-patterns-and-significant-polypharmacy
#6
Magdalena Romanowicz, Alastair J McKean, Jennifer Vande Voort
BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of neglect in early life are still widely unknown. Diversity of outcomes can be explained by differences in genetic risk, epigenetics, prenatal factors, exposure to stress and/or substances, and parent-child interactions. Very common sub-threshold presentations of children with history of early trauma are challenging not only to diagnose but also in treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A Caucasian 4-year-old, adopted at 8 months, male patient with early history of neglect presented to pediatrician with symptoms of behavioral dyscontrol, emotional dysregulation, anxiety, hyperactivity and inattention, obsessions with food, and attachment issues...
September 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886759/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-by-child-abuse
#7
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Jeffrey A Gross, Sabine K Dhir, Gilles Maussion, Jennie Yang, Alexandre Bramoulle, Michael J Meaney, Gustavo Turecki
BACKGROUND: Experiences of abuse and neglect during childhood are major predictors of the emergence of depressive and suicidal behaviors throughout life. The underlying biological mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we focused on the opioid system as a potential brain substrate mediating these effects. METHODS: Postmortem samples from three brain structures regulating social bonds and emotions were analyzed. Groups were constituted of depressed individuals who died by suicide, with or without a history of severe child abuse, and of psychiatrically healthy control subjects...
July 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886470/exploring-member-perspectives-on-participation-on-child-welfare-citizen-review-panels-a-national-study
#8
J Jay Miller, Crystal Collins-Camargo, Blake Jones, Chunling Niu
The year 2016 marked the 20th anniversary of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) amendments (P.L. 104-235) that mandated Citizen Review Panels (CRPs). CRPs are citizen volunteer groups authorized by United States (U.S.) federal law to examine policies and procedures of state child welfare agencies. Despite the potential of CRPs to positively impact child welfare systems outcomes associated with child abuse and neglect, and the millions of dollars in resources allocated to these groups, there remains a dearth in the literature about CRPs...
September 5, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880356/-diagnostics-of-attachment-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#9
M J van Hoof
Growing concern about how the neglect and abuse of children can be tackled and prevented has led to increased interest in the parent-child relationship and the concept of attachment. It is vitally important that the diagnostics relating to attachment are accurate. One of the main problems is that up till now the parent-child relationship has not been assessed and analysed in accordance with reliable, unambiguous standards.<br/> AIM: To search the literature in order to identify the prerequisites for reliable diagnostics of attachment...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879470/childhood-maltreatment-and-the-medical-morbidity-in-bipolar-disorder-a-case-control-study
#10
Georgina M Hosang, Helen L Fisher, Rudolf Uher, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Barbara Maughan, Peter McGuffin, Anne E Farmer
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect) can have long-term deleterious consequences, including increased risk for medical and psychiatric illnesses, such as bipolar disorder in adulthood. Emerging evidence suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment is linked to the comorbidity between medical illnesses and mood disorders. However, existing studies on bipolar disorder have not yet explored the specific influence of child neglect and have not included comparisons with individuals without mood disorders (controls)...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878817/children-s-mental-health-problems-and-their-relation-to-parental-stress-in-foster-mothers-and-fathers
#11
Arnold Lohaus, Sabrina Chodura, Christine Möller, Tabea Symanzik, Daniela Ehrenberg, Ann-Katrin Job, Vanessa Reindl, Kerstin Konrad, Nina Heinrichs
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on children living in foster families with a history of maltreatment or neglect. These children often show adverse mental health outcomes reflected in increased externalizing and internalizing problems. It is expected that these adverse outcomes are associated with increased parental stress levels experienced by foster mothers as well as foster fathers. METHODS: The study sample included 79 children living in foster families and 140 children living in biological families as comparison group...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867425/the-association-between-substantiated-childhood-maltreatment-asthma-and-lung-function-a-prospective-investigation
#12
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, Gail Williams, Lane Strathearn, Sadasivam Suresh, Jake Moses Najman
BACKGROUND: Asthma reflects multiple and likely complex causal pathways. We investigate the possibility that childhood maltreatment is one such causal pathway. Childhood maltreatment can be interpreted as a form of early life adversity and like other life adversities may predict a range of negative health outcomes, including asthma. METHODS: A total of 3762 young adults (52.63% female) from the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) participated in this study...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865400/accounting-for-the-increase-of-children-in-care-in-western-australia-what-can-a-client-information-system-tell-us
#13
Andy Bilson, Rosemary L Cant, Maria Harries, David H Thorpe
This paper analyses a fourteen-year period of Western Australian data from the client information system of the Department for Child Protection and Family Support. Western Australia saw a large increase in the number of children in state care similar to trends across Australia as a whole. The study shows the following trends: changes in response to 'referrals' with particular increases in the number of findings of neglect and increasing proportions of these followed swiftly by entry to care; changes in patterns of entry to care with more children under one-year-old entering; increased length of stay of children in care; and, the high incidence of Aboriginal children entering and remaining in care...
August 30, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864538/hospital-costs-and-charges-of-discharge-delays-in-children-hospitalized-for-abuse-and-neglect
#14
Michael Lee, Angela Bachim, Carolyn Smith, Elizabeth A Camp, Marcella Donaruma-Kwoh, Binita Patel
OBJECTIVES: Hospitalizations for child maltreatment cases are longer and costlier than hospitalizations for medically similar nonabuse cases. Some discharges are delayed despite medical clearance because of a lack of safe disposition, increasing the cost of hospitalization. We aim to quantify the additional charges and costs of these delays. METHODS: A retrospective chart review evaluated the dates of medical clearance and clinical characteristics of child protection team inpatient consults from 2012 to 2014 at a 595-bed quaternary-care urban hospital...
September 1, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863393/child-maltreatment-characteristics-as-predictors-of-heterogeneity-in-internalizing-symptom-trajectories-among-children-in-the-child-welfare-system
#15
Susan Yoon
This study investigated heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories of internalizing symptoms among 541 children who were involved with the child welfare system and examined child maltreatment characteristics, including types, level of harm, and timing, as predictors of internalizing trajectory patterns. Secondary longitudinal research was conducted using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being-I, collected from 1999 to 2007 in the United States. Three distinct trajectory groups were identified: high-decreasing; low-increasing; and low-stable Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and more severe levels of harm from maltreatment predicted membership in two maladaptive groups compared to the low-stable group...
August 28, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857691/exploring-the-relationship-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-hope
#16
Michael A Baxter, Eden J Hemming, Heather C McIntosh, Chan M Hellman
To explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and hope, a convenience sample of caregivers bringing in children for medical investigation of child abuse at a regional child advocacy center were surveyed for adverse childhood experiences and dispositional hope. Hope in this sample had a significant negative correlation to the adverse childhood experiences subscale "abuse" (r = -.19; p < .05). The relationship between hope and the other adverse childhood experiences subscales "neglect" (r = -...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838892/concurrent-validity-discriminatory-power-and-feasibility-of-the-instrument-for-identification-of-parents-at-risk-for-child-abuse-and-neglect-iparan
#17
Esther M B Horrevorts, Amy van Grieken, Cathelijne L Mieloo, Esther Hafkamp-de Groen, Rienke Bannink, Merian B R Bouwmeester-Landweer, Suzanne Broeren, Hein Raat
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility, concurrent validity and discriminatory power of the instrument for Identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and Neglect (IPARAN) among Dutch parents with a newborn child. SETTING: Community paediatrics. PARTICIPANTS: Data from a controlled trial were used. In total, 2659 Dutch parents with a newborn child were invited to participate. Of the 2659 parents, 759 parents filled in the consent form and participated in the study...
August 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836676/commentary-is-there-a-there-there-in-hair-a-reflection-on-child-maltreatment-and-hair-cortisol-concentrations-in-white-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#18
Philip A Fisher
Both chronic and acute stressors have typically been understood to produce elevations in cortisol, as a means to maintaining homeostatic balance. In the past two decades, however, individuals experiencing high levels of chronic early adversity have been shown to manifest an alternate profile involving blunted cortisol levels. In the context of this emerging evidence, a number of questions about diminished cortisol have remained unclear. The study by White et al. (2017) is the first to measure hair cortisol concentrations in the context of adversity, and provides validation for the stability of diminished cortisol in maltreated individuals, the association between neglect and low cortisol, and a mediating role for dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in the association between early maltreatment and behavioral dysregulation...
September 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822253/clout-or-doubt-perspectives-on-an-infant-mental-health-service-for-young-children-placed-in-foster-care-due-to-abuse-and-neglect
#19
Fiona Turner-Halliday, Gary Kainth, Genevieve Young-Southward, Richard Cotmore, Nicholas Watson, Lynn McMahon, Helen Minnis
Despite knowledge about the profound effects of child abuse and neglect, we know little about how best to assess whether maltreated children should return home. The effectiveness of the New Orleans Intervention Model (NIM) is being tested in a randomized controlled trial where the comparison is social work 'services as usual.' The future trial results will tell us which approach produces the best outcomes for children; meanwhile qualitative process evaluation is generating intriguing findings about the perceived impact of NIM on decision-making about childrens' futures...
August 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821514/school-staff-perpetration-of-physical-violence-against-students-in-uganda-a-multilevel-analysis-of-risk-factors
#20
Katherine G Merrill, Louise Knight, Judith R Glynn, Elizabeth Allen, Dipak Naker, Karen M Devries
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a multilevel analysis of risk factors for physical violence perpetration by school staff against Ugandan students. DESIGN: Multilevel logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 499 staff and 828 caregivers of students at 38 primary schools, collected in 2012 and 2014 during the Good Schools Study. SETTING: Luwero District, Uganda. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Past-week use of physical violence by school staff against students was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect 'Child Abuse Screening Tool- Child International' and the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
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