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Child physical abuse

Laura Jayne Broome, Cristina Izura, Nuria Lorenzo-Dus
Within the literature individuals who use the internet to facilitate the sexual abuse of a minor are generally classified as being fantasy or contact driven. Classification is based upon the intended location for sexual climax: fantasy driven individuals aim to reach sexual climax online, whereas contact driven individuals target minors to achieve physical sex offline. This review systematically investigates whether there is an empirical basis for the distinction between these two proposed discrete types. Comparison of tactics and behaviour are considered to examine whether the contact vs...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, George Anderson, Marta Kubera, Andre F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Kate Guastaferro, Betty S Lai, Katy Miller, Jenelle Shanley Chatham, Daniel J Whitaker, Shannon Self-Brown, Allison Kemner, John R Lutzker
Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem best addressed through evidence-based parent-support programs. There is a wide range of programs with different strengths offering a variety of options for families. Choosing one single evidence-based program often limits the range of services available to meet the unique needs of families. This paper presents findings from a study to examine the systematic braiding of two evidence-based programs, Parents as Teachers and SafeCare at Home (PATSCH), with the goal to provide a more robust intervention for higher risk families...
February 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Erin F Hoehn, Paria M Wilson, Lauren C Riney, Vi Ngo, Berkeley Bennett, Elena Duma
Child physical abuse affects hundreds of thousands of children annually and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Pediatric health care providers play a key role in the recognition and treatment of suspected child abuse. Abusive injuries are often missed, which may lead to dire consequences for the child. Standardized screening tools and treatment guidelines can enhance early recognition of child abuse. This article reviews key findings in a medical history and physical examination that should raise suspicion for abuse...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Catherine L Ward, Lillian Artz, Lezanne Leoschut, Reshma Kassanjee, Patrick Burton
BACKGROUND: We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. METHODS: For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
Elizabeth D Beatriz, Carmel Salhi, John L Griffith, Beth E Molnar
Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Livia Ottisova, Patrick Smith, Hitesh Shetty, Daniel Stahl, Johnny Downs, Sian Oram
BACKGROUND: Child trafficking is the recruitment and movement of people aged younger than 18 for the purposes of exploitation. Research on the mental health of trafficked children is limited, and little is known about the use of mental health services by this group. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and service use characteristics of trafficked children in contact with mental health services in England. METHODS & FINDINGS: The study employed an historical cohort design...
2018: PloS One
Amal Nishantha Vadysinghe, Chatula Usari Wickramashinghe, Dineshi Nadira Nanayakkara, Chandishni Ishara Kaluarachchi
Child abuse is a sensitive topic among many medical practitioners and the diagnosis of this entity requires awareness about conditions which can mimic physical child abuse. Here, the authors present a case of a 13-year-old school non-attendee who was referred due to multiple scars, over areas prone to accidental as well as non-accidental injury, who underwent medicolegal examination due to suspicion of physical child abuse. On further inquiry, it was discovered that she had easy bruising and poor wound healing...
January 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Cristiane S Paula, Jair J Mari, Isabel Altenfelder Santos Bordin, Euripedes C Miguel, Isabela Fortes, Natalia Barroso, Luis Augusto Rohde, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify early vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders among Brazilian elementary school children, controlling for familial and community adversities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study examining the association between child psychiatric disorders and potential early vulnerabilities (disability, low intellectual quotient, and negative dimensions of the temperament trait self-directedness (low resourcefulness, low purposefulness, low enlightened second nature), controlling for the potential confounders: familial and community adversities...
March 6, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Yuliang Zha, Hao Liu, Yang Sun, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Jiuping Xu
BACKGROUND: Surviving an earthquake can greatly increase the risk of suicidality among children and adolescents, especially if they experience physical and emotional neglect or abuse within the family after the earthquake. How various types of childhood adversity affect the vulnerability of adolescents to suicidality after exposure to a natural disaster is not well understood. This study examined the relationships among different types of earthquake exposure, childhood trauma, psychopathology and suicidality...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Susan Yoon, Julia M Kobulsky, Dalhee Yoon, Wonhee Kim
While many studies have identified a significant relation between child maltreatment and adolescent substance use, the developmental pathways linking this relation remain sparsely explored. The current study examines posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, mother-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing problems as potential longitudinal pathways through which child maltreatment influences adolescent substance use. Structural equation modeling was conducted on 883 adolescents drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN)...
November 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
Ingfrid Vaksdal Brattabø, Ragnhild Bjørknes, Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm
BACKGROUND: To prevent child maltreatment, the identification of vulnerable children is essential. In Norway, public dental health personnel (PDHP) report suspicion of child maltreatment to child welfare services (CWS) at a relatively high rate. However, their reasons for reporting and the response from CWS have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the reasons that PDHP send reports of concern, (2) examine how CWS responds to PDHP reports, and (3) assess whether different reasons for concern are associated with a given response from CWS...
March 2, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Idia B Thurston, Kathryn H Howell, Rebecca C Kamody, Courtney Maclin-Akinyemi, Jessica Mandell
Physical and emotional adversities in mothers have rippling effects across the family system. While an association between individual maternal adversities and problematic mental health outcomes has been established, less is known about co-existing adversities in mothers. Consistent with the syndemic conceptual framework, we examined the co-occurrence of Substance Abuse, Violence, and AIDS/HIV (i.e., SAVA), which are three adversities that uniquely affect racial/ethnic minorities, individuals living in poverty, and people in urban communities...
March 2, 2018: AIDS Care
E Yıldız, D Tanrıverdi
AIM: This systematic review was conducted in order to integrate evidence-based knowledge and experience related to child neglect and abuse into the nursing literature. BACKGROUND: The negative and intense effects of neglect and abuse on an individual can last into adulthood. Nurses who are in close contact with such cases have an important role to play in detecting child neglect and abuse and supporting the families involved. When nurses fulfil this role, it is important that evidence-based information and interventions are known to ensure that the process is a healthy one...
March 1, 2018: International Nursing Review
Susan Yoon, Jennifer L Bellamy, Wonhee Kim, Dalhee Yoon
Although there is a well-established connection between father involvement and children's positive behavioral development in general, this relation has been understudied in more vulnerable and high-risk populations. The aims of this study were to examine how the quantity (i.e., the amount of shared activities) and quality (i.e., perceived quality of the father-child relationship) of father involvement are differently related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preadolescents at risk of maltreatment and test if these associations are moderated by father type and child maltreatment...
February 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Hussein Hassan Soliman, Nagwa Ibrahim Alsharqawi, Mustafa Ahmed Younis
Tourism marriage in Egypt is considered a part of the child marriage phenomenon, as parents following false interpretations of Islamic teachings offer up their daughters for short-term sexual relationships in return for money from tourists. This exploratory study used qualitative methods to interview 42 parents who reside in the city of Darasa, Giza, Egypt, whose daughters were persuaded to engage in tourism marriage. Eight social work students utilized an interview guide that contained 10 questions exploring how parents strike deals with tourists and avoid all legal and traditional procedures of marriage in Egypt...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Agata Debowska, Daniel Boduszek, Nicole Sherretts, Dominic Willmott, Adele D Jones
The current study used latent class analysis to uncover groups of youths with specific abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) profiles in and outside the family, and identify how membership in each abuse group is associated with behavioral outcomes. Data were collected among a sample of male (n = 662; Mage  = 13.02 years) and female (n = 689; Mage  = 12.95 years) children and adolescents (9-17 years old) from Barbados and Grenada. Self-report surveys were completed by participants in school settings...
February 24, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Josipa Rikić, Petrana Beljan, Milan Milošević, Ivan Miškulin, Maja Miškulin, Aida Mujkić
The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a transgenerational transmission of violence within the family on a sample of parents of preschool children in Croatia, and to identify the factors that increase the likelihood of child abuse. The Child Abuse Questionnaire was self-administered to the sample of 118 parents of preschool children (91 mothers and 27 fathers) during February 2013. There were 7.7% of mothers and 3.8% of fathers who answered that they slapped their child, while 15.4% of the fathers answered that they even hit their child with a fist...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Erin C Dunn, Thomas W Soare, Miriam R Raffeld, Daniel S Busso, Katherine M Crawford, Kathryn A Davis, Virginia A Fisher, Natalie Slopen, Andrew D A C Smith, Henning Tiemeier, Ezra S Susser
BACKGROUND: Although childhood adversity is a potent determinant of psychopathology, relatively little is known about how the characteristics of adversity exposure, including its developmental timing or duration, influence subsequent mental health outcomes. This study compared three models from life course theory (recency, accumulation, sensitive period) to determine which one(s) best explained this relationship. METHODS: Prospective data came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7476)...
February 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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