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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725204/history-of-childhood-maltreatment-and-college-academic-outcomes-indirect-effects-of-hot-execution-function
#1
Marilyn C Welsh, Eric Peterson, Molly M Jameson
College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF). Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively "cool" EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional or motivational valence) and "hot" EF tasks that emphasize performance under more emotionally arousing conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718910/permanent-housing-for-child-welfare-involved-families-impact-on-child-maltreatment-overview
#2
Patrick J Fowler, Michael Schoeny
A longitudinal randomized controlled trial tested whether access to permanent housing reduces child maltreatment among inadequately housed families under investigation for child abuse and neglect. The study followed homeless and child welfare-involved families randomly assigned to receive a referral for housing subsidies plus housing case management (n = 75, 196 children) or housing case management alone (n = 75, 186 children). Latent growth models examined change in caregiver-reported frequencies of psychological aggression, physical abuse, and neglect toward children at five time points across 2...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711745/child-maltreatment-and-age-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-initiation-in-high-risk-youth
#3
Laura J Proctor, Terri Lewis, Scott Roesch, Richard Thompson, Alan J Litrownik, Diana English, Amelia M Arria, Patricia Isbell, Howard Dubowitz
INTRODUCTION: Youth with a history of child maltreatment use substances and develop substance use disorders at rates above national averages. Thus far, no research has examined pathways from maltreatment to age of substance use initiation for maltreated youth. We examined the longitudinal impact of maltreatment in early childhood on age of alcohol and marijuana use initiation, and whether internalizing and externalizing behaviors at age 8 mediates the link between maltreatment and age of substance use initiation...
June 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692832/prevalence-of-child-abuse-in-school-environment-in-kerala-india-an-icast-ci-based-survey
#4
Manoj Therayil Kumar, Sebind Kumar, Surendra P Singh, Nilamadhab Kar
Very few studies focus on childhood abuse in developing countries and only a small fraction of such studies explicitly deal with abuse in a school environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in a school environment in a developing country. Abuse history was collected using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool - Children's Institutional Version (ICAST-CI). Demographic variables were also collected...
July 7, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666366/child-maltreatment-and-clinical-outcome-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-in-the-eu-gei-high-risk-study
#5
Tamar C Kraan, Eva Velthorst, Manouk Themmen, Lucia Valmaggia, Matthew J Kempton, Phillip McGuire, Jim van Os, Bart P F Rutten, Filip Smit, Lieuwe de Haan, Mark van der Gaag
Background: Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of mental disorders in adulthood. Whether child maltreatment is specifically associated with psychosis risk in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, or leads to a general vulnerability for overall psychopathology in the UHR stage remains unclear. The present study examines the association between child maltreatment and transition to psychosis and other mental disorders. Methods: The sample consisted of 259 UHR individuals from the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study...
June 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665574/nonaccidental-injury-in-pediatric-patients-detection-evaluation-and-treatment
#6
Gunjan Tiyyagura, Meghan Beucher, Kirsten Bechtel
Emergency clinicians are likely to encounter physical abuse in children, and they must be prepared to recognize its many manifestations and take swift action. Pediatric nonaccidental injury causes considerable morbidity and mortality that can often be prevented by early recognition. Nonaccidental injuries present with a wide array of symptoms that may appear to be medically inconsequential (such as bruising in a premobile infant), but are actually sentinel injuries indicative of child abuse. This issue provides guidance regarding factors that contribute to abuse in children, key findings on history and physical examination that should trigger an evaluation for physical abuse, and laboratory and radiologic tests to perform when child abuse is suspected...
July 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656945/-forensic-medical-expertise-in-the-cases-of-neglect-of-the-exigencies-of-the-juveniles
#7
A V Kovalev, Yu V Kemeneva
The objective of the present study was the development of the method and the criteria to be used for forensic medical diagnostics of the constituent elements of neglect of the exigencies (abandonment) of the juveniles. The work was focused on the consideration of the performance of expert examination of one of the most widespread forms of the child abuse, such as neglect of the exigencies of the juveniles. We undertook the analysis of the causes underlying the emergence of the difficulties that tend to hamper the conduction of expert examination of the cases of neglect of the exigencies of the juveniles with special reference to the judicial qualification of such wrongdoings...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656806/baseline-characteristics-of-dependent-youth-who-have-been-commercially-sexually-exploited-findings-from-a-specialized-treatment-program
#8
Monica Landers, Kimberly McGrath, Melissa H Johnson, Mary I Armstrong, Norin Dollard
Commercial sexual exploitation of children has emerged as a critical issue within child welfare, but little is currently known about this population or effective treatment approaches to address their unique needs. Children in foster care and runaways are reported to be vulnerable to exploitation because they frequently have unmet needs for family relationships, and they have had inadequate supervision and histories of trauma of which traffickers take advantage. The current article presents data on the demographic characteristics, trauma history, mental and behavioral health needs, physical health needs, and strengths collected on a sample of 87 commercially sexually exploited youth...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641385/development-of-an-electronic-medical-record-based-child-physical-abuse-alert-system
#9
Rachel P Berger, Richard A Saladino, Janet Fromkin, Emily Heineman, Srinivasan Suresh, Tom McGinn
Objective: Physical abuse is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. Physicians do not consistently screen for abuse, even in high-risk situations. Alerts in the electronic medical record may help improve screening rates, resulting in early identification and improved outcomes. Methods: Triggers to identify children < 2 years old at risk for physical abuse were coded into the electronic medical record at a freestanding pediatric hospital with a level 1 trauma center...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626280/children-s-executive-function-in-a-cps-involved-sample-effects-of-cumulative-adversity-and-specific-types-of-adversity
#10
Leslie E Roos, Hyoun K Kim, Simone Schnabler, Philip A Fisher
Prior research has identified the presence of executive function (EF) deficits in child protective service (CPS) involved (versus non-involved) children but minimal work has examined predictors that might explain individual differences within these CPS-involved children. Here, we sought to characterize EF in a large sample (N=694) of CPS-involved children and examine how specific adversities (physical abuse, neglect, caregiver domestic violence, and caregiver substance dependence) and cumulative adversity (at ages 0-3 and 3-6 years) predict EF (at approximately 5-6 years)...
December 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622571/substantiated-childhood-maltreatment-and-young-adulthood-cannabis-use-disorders-a-pre-birth-cohort-study
#11
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Jake Moses Najman, Gail Williams, Lane Strathearn, Alexandra Clavarino, Steve Kisely
This study investigates the association between exposure to prospectively-substantiated childhood maltreatment between 0 and 14 years of age and lifetime cannabis use, abuse and dependence reported at 21 years. Data were taken from 2526 (51.6% female) participants in the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a pre-birth, prospective, cohort study. Prospectively-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment, reported to the government child protection agencies between 0 and 14 years of age, were linked to CIDI DSM-IV self-report data from the 21-year follow-up...
June 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617388/-substance-abuse-a-relationship-with-childhood-traumas
#12
A A Portnova, Yu P Sivolap
Childhood maltreatment contributes to poor mental and physical health and besides, in some cases, not only in early age but also throughout the life of the individual. Adverse effects of childhood trauma, along with depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, include predisposition to substance abuse. A reduction of child abuse may decrease the prevalence of mental disorders, including addictive disorders, and improve mental health.
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609690/what-do-we-know-about-child-abuse-and-neglect-patterns-of-co-occurrence-a-systematic-review-of-profiling-studies-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#13
REVIEW
Agata Debowska, Dominic Willmott, Daniel Boduszek, Adele D Jones
Latent class (LCA) and latent profile (LPA) analysis represent methodological approaches to identify subgroups of maltreated individuals. Although research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles is still rare, the application of person-centered techniques to clarify CAN types co-occurrence has substantially increased in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide a summary and critical evaluation of the findings of LCA/LPA child maltreatment research to: (a) systemize the current understanding of patterns of maltreatment across populations and (b) elucidate interactive effects of CAN types on psychosocial functioning...
June 10, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607670/emotional-abuse-of-girls-in-swaziland-prevalence-perpetrators-risk-and-protective-factors-and-health-outcomes
#14
Franziska Meinck, Deborah Fry, Choice Ginindza, Kerri Wazny, Aldo Elizalde, Thees F Spreckelsen, M Catherine Maternowska, Michael P Dunne
BACKGROUND: Research on emotional child abuse in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Few studies thus far have examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for emotional child abuse or the associations between emotional abuse and girls' health. METHODS: A nationally representative two-stage, cluster-sampled, household survey of females aged 13-24 years (n = 1244) on childhood abuse victimisation was conducted. Participants completed interviewer-assisted questionnaires...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605684/child-maltreatment-as-a-function-of-cumulative-family-risk-findings-from-the-intensive-family-preservation-program
#15
Irina Patwardhan, Kristin Duppong Hurley, Ronald W Thompson, Walter A Mason, Jay L Ringle
This study examined child maltreatment as a function of cumulative family risk in a sample of at-risk families (N=837) who were referred to an intensive family preservation program because of child behavior problems or suspected child abuse and neglect. The goal of this intensive family preservation program is to improve parenting skills and reduce immediate family stressors that may lead to an increased risk of child abuse and neglect. The findings indicate that the most prominent family risks comprising the cumulative risk scale in our sample were socio-economic disadvantage (e...
June 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602473/mothers-knowledge-perception-about-child-sexual-abuse-in-jordan
#16
Fatmeh Ahmad Alzoubi, Reem Ahmad Ali, Intesar Hussein Flah, Ahlam Alnatour
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious problem causing physical, social and psychosocial harm. To understand the Jordanian mothers' efforts to prevent CSA, we assessed the mothers' general knowledge about CSA, their perceptions, knowledge about signs and symptoms of CSA and their knowledge about prevention practices of CSA in relation to their demographics. A cross- sectional descriptive design was used with a convenient sample of 488 mothers. The data was collected using a self-reported questionnaire consisting of 52 items...
June 8, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599125/the-impact-of-perceived-childhood-victimization-and-patriarchal-gender-ideology-on-intimate-partner-violence-ipv-victimization-among-korean-immigrant-women-in-the-usa
#17
Chunrye Kim
Childhood victimization experiences are common among intimate partner violence (IPV) victims. This study examines the link between childhood physical and sexual victimization experiences and adulthood IPV among Korean immigrant women in the USA. As Korean immigrants often use physical punishment to discipline their children, and reporting sexual abuse is discouraged due to stigmatization in this community, cultural factors (e.g. patriarchal values) related to childhood victimization and IPV were also examined...
June 6, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595465/community-and-individual-risk-factors-for-physical-child-abuse-and-child-neglect-variations-by-poverty-status
#18
Kathryn Maguire-Jack, Sarah A Font
Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592146/drug-use-the-drug-environment-and-child-physical-abuse-and-neglect
#19
Bridget Freisthler, Jennifer Price Wolf, Wendy Wiegmann, Nancy J Kepple
Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591056/epidemiology-and-clinical-analysis-of-critical-patients-with-child-maltreatment-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-units
#20
En-Pei Lee, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Jing-Long Huang, Jainn-Jim Lin, Oi-Wa Chan, Chia-Ying Lin, Kuang-Lin Lin, Yu-Ching Chang, I-Jun Chou, Fu-Song Lo, Jung Lee, Yi-Chen Hsin, Pei-Chun Chan, Mei-Hua Hu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Han-Ping Wu
Children with abuse who are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) may have high mortality and morbidity and commonly require critical care immediately. It is important to understand the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of these critical cases of child maltreatment.We retrospectively evaluated the data for 355 children with maltreatments admitted to the ICU between 2001 and 2015. Clinical factors were analyzed and compared between the abuse and the neglect groups, including age, gender, season of admission, identifying settings, injury severity score (ISS), etiologies, length of stay (LOS) in the ICU, clinical outcomes, and mortality...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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