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Renata Gruszka, Magdalena Zakrzewska
The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qiu-Ling Ma, Jing-Han Wang, Min Yang, Huan-Ping Wang, Jie Jin
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are of special interest in cancer research and hold significant promise as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for malignant disease. MiR-362-5p have been found to exert both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects depending highly on the cellular context. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of miR-362-5p can be served as a prognostic factor for patients with cytogentically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). METHODS: We enrolled 224 patients with CN-AML and measured the expression of miR-362-5p by quantitative real time PCR analysis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Aaron Balasingam Koenig, Juan Martín Barajas, María Jose Guerrero, Kalpana Ghoshal
MicroRNAs are ~22 nucleotide RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding messenger RNA transcripts. miR-21 is described as an oncomiR whose steady-state levels are commonly increased in many malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods known as cross-linking and immunoprecipitation of RNA followed by sequencing (CLIP-seq) have enabled transcriptome-wide identification of miRNA interactomes. In our study, we use a publicly available Argonaute-CLIP dataset (GSE97061), which contains nine HCC cases with matched benign livers, to characterize the miR-21 interactome in HCC...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Clarence T Sasaki, Sotirios G Doukas, Dimitra P Vageli
PURPOSE: Bile-containing gastroesophageal reflux may promote cancer at extraesophageal sites. Acidic bile can accelerate NF-κB activation and molecular events, linked to premalignant changes in murine hypopharyngeal mucosa (HM). We hypothesize that short-term in vivo topical application of NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 can prevent acidic bile-induced early preneoplastic molecular events, suggesting its potential role in disease prevention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We topically exposed HM (C57Bl/6j wild-type) to a mixture of bile acids at pH 3...
March 9, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Xiu-Hua Yang, Feng Guo
The incidence of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has increased annually over the last decade. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) serve an important role in tumor progression and development. Our previous microarray studies have revealed that miR‑3147 was overexpressed in VSCC. However, its function and underlying mechanism in VSCC remain unknown. In the present study, it was confirmed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction that the expression of miR‑3147 was markedly upregulated in VSCC tissues...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Dirk Baumjohann
T helper (Th) cells are critically involved in adaptive immune responses against various pathogens. In contrast, dysregulated T helper cell responses are associated with a variety of diseases, including autoimmunity, allergies, and cancer. Differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into effector T helper cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg, and Tfh, requires precise dosing of signaling molecules and transcription factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small endogenously expressed RNAs that regulate gene expression, play important roles in these processes...
February 27, 2018: Cancer Letters
Kate Burbury, Michael P MacManus
Patients with cancer are at high risk of both thromboembolic and haemorrhagic events during the course of their disease. The pathogenesis of haemostatic dysfunction in cancer is complex and involves the interplay of multiple factors. There is growing evidence that interactions between malignancies and the coagulation system are not random but can represent coordinated and clinically-significant adaptations that enhance tumour cell survival, proliferation and metastatic potential. A detailed understanding of the interactions between the haemostatic systems and the pathophysiology of metastasis may not only provide insight into strategies that could potentially reduce the incidence of thrombohaemorrhagic events and complications, but could also help design strategies that are capable of modifying tumour biology, progression and metastatic potential in ways that could enhance anticancer therapies and thereby improve overall survival...
February 28, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Wanqun Chen, Yaya Yu, Naikun Yang, Jingli Zhu, Ke Li, Ruocun Li, Wenqiao Su, Lina Luo, Ling Hu, Gengxin Chen, Haixia Deng
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common types of cancer and a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are demonstrated to function as oncomiRs or tumor-suppressor-miRs in GC. miR-7 has been identified to be a tumor suppressor of GC by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In our previous study, Yangzheng Sanjie Decoction (YZSJD), a traditional Chinese formula, was identified to be effective in alleviating the symptoms and even postponing turnover of precancerous lesions...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Yoichi Robertus Fujii
MicroRNA (miRNA) is the noncoding gene: therefore, the miRNA gene inheritably controls protein gene expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Aberrant expression of miRNA genes causes various human diseases, especially cancers. Although cancer is a complex disease, cancer/miRNA implication has yet been grasped from the perspective of miRNA profile in bed side. Since miRNA is the mobile genetic element, the clinical verification of miRNA in microvesicle of blood is too much straggle to predict potential cancer/miRNA associations without bioinformatical computing...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
Lauren A Gay, Sunantha Sethuraman, Merin Thomas, Peter C Turner, Rolf Renne
KS tumors are derived from endothelial cells and express KHSV microRNAs (miRNAs). Although miRNA targets have been identified in B cell lymphoma-derived cells and in epithelial cells, little has been done to characterize the KSHV miRNA targetome in endothelial cells. A recent innovation in the identification of miRNA targetomes, Cross-linking, Ligation, and Sequencing of Hybrids (CLASH), unambiguously identifies miRNAs and their targets by ligating the two species while both are still bound within the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Li Z Luo, Lisa Cd Storer, Kenneth J Cohen, Linda Resar, Richard G Grundy
Pediatric spinal ependymomas (SEPN) are important albeit uncommon malignant central nervous system tumors with limited treatment options. Our current knowledge about the underlying biology of these tumors is limited due to their rarity. To begin to elucidate molecular mechanisms that give rise to pediatric SEPN, we compared the transcriptomic landscape of SEPNs to that of intracranial ependymomas using genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling in primary tumour samples. We found that pediatric SEPNs are characterized by increased expression of genes involved in developmental processes, oxidative phosphorylation, cellular respiration, electron transport chain, and cofactor metabolic process...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Stephanie Rebecca Setijono, Mikyung Park, Goeun Kim, Yongjo Kim, Kae Won Cho, Su Jung Song
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has an aggressive clinical behavior, but the treatment of TNBC remains challenging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a potential target for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of breast cancer. However, the precise role of miRNAs and their targets in breast cancer remain to be elucidated. Here we show that miR-218 is downregulated and miR-129 is upregulated in TNBC samples and their expressions confer prognosis to patients...
January 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lai Wei, Fengming Ran
MicroRNA-20a (miR-20a) serves a notable role in tumor development and progression; it functions differently in different types of malignant tumor, and its role and mechanism in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of miR-20a on the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells and the underlying mechanisms behind this were investigated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression level of miR-20a was higher in human NSCLC than in normal tissues...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Kangkang Liu, Kun Zhao, Lining Wang, Erlin Sun
BACKGROUND: miR-155 functions as an oncomiR or as an oncosuppressor-miR in human cancer. Although miR-155 has been researched in many cancers, its prognostic value is uncertain. METHODS: We performed a literature search in up-to-date electronic databases including PubMed and Embase to obtain as many relevant articles as possible. Combined hazard ratios (HR) of miR-155 for outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 24 papers researching different cancers were included in this meta-analysis...
January 20, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Xinrui Wang, Zhijun Liao, Zhimin Bai, Yan He, Juan Duan, Leyi Wei
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PPARGC1A, formerly known as PGC-1a) is a transcriptional coactivator and metabolic regulator. Previous studies are mainly focused on the association between PPARGC1A and hepatoma. However, the regulatory mechanism remains unknown. A microRNA associated with cancer (oncomiR), miR-93-5p, has recently been found to play an essential role in tumorigenesis and progression of various carcinomas, including liver cancer. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the regulatory mechanism underlying these two proteins in hepatoma cells...
January 22, 2018: Genes
Lauren LeMay-Nedjelski, Julie K Mason-Ennis, Amel Taibi, Elena M Comelli, Lilian U Thompson
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), independently reduce the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro, but the mechanisms, which may involve microRNA (miRNA), are still unclear. The expression of the oncomiR, miR-21, is reduced by DHA treatment, but the effects of ALA on miR-21, alone or combined with EPA and DHA under physiologically relevant concentrations, have not been investigated. The effects of ALA alone and +/-EPA and DHA at the blood molar ratios seen in either humans (1...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elena Pomari, Federica Lovisa, Elisa Carraro, Simona Primerano, Emanuele S G D'Amore, Paolo Bonvini, Luca Lo Nigro, Rita De Vito, Luciana Vinti, Piero Farruggia, Marta Pillon, Giuseppe Basso, Katia Basso, Lara Mussolin
Although probability of event-free survival in pediatric lymphoblastic T-cell lymphoma (T-LBL) is about 75%, survival in relapsed patients is very poor, so the identification of new molecular markers is crucial for treatment optimization. Here, we demonstrated that the over-expression of miR-223 promotes tumor T-LBL cell growth, migration and invasion in vitro. We found out that SIK1, an anti-metastatic protein, is a direct target of miR-223 and consequently is significantly reduced in miR-223-overexpressing tumor cells...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Bruna Cristine de Almeida, Natalia Garcia, Giovana Maffazioli, Laura Gonzalez Dos Anjos, Edmund Chada Baracat, Katia Candido Carvalho
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They play a key role in several biological processes. Their abnormal expression may lead to malignant cell transformation. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of 84 miRNAs involved in tumorigenesis in immortalized cells of myometrium (MM), uterine leiomyoma (ULM), and uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS). Specific cell lines were cultured and qRT-PCR was performed. Thirteen miRNAs presented different expression profiles in ULM and the same thirteen in ULMS compared to MM...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cody J Wehrkamp, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Ashley M Mohr, Mary Anne Phillippi, Justin L Mott
MicroRNA dysregulation is a common feature of cancer and due to the promiscuity of microRNA binding this can result in a wide array of genes whose expression is altered. miR-106b is an oncomiR overexpressed in cholangiocarcinoma and its upregulation in this and other cancers often leads to repression of anti-tumorigenic targets. The goal of this study was to identify the miR-106b-regulated gene landscape in cholangiocarcinoma cells using a genome-wide, unbiased mRNA analysis. Through RNA-Seq we found 112 mRNAs significantly repressed by miR-106b...
December 29, 2017: RNA Biology
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