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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545228/aberrant-dna-methylation-as-a-biomarker-and-a-therapeutic-target-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Toshiaki Nakaoka, Yoshimasa Saito, Hidetsugu Saito
Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial malignancy arising in the region between the intrahepatic bile ducts and the ampulla of Vater at the distal end of the common bile duct. The effect of current chemotherapy regimens against cholangiocarcinoma is limited, and the prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma is poor. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification induce silencing of tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability during carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that the tumor suppressor genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) including MLH1, p14, p16, death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), miR-370 and miR-376c are frequently methylated in cholangiocarcinoma...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542273/expression-profile-of-epstein-barr-virus-and-human-adenovirus-small-rnas-in-tonsillar-b-and-t-lymphocytes
#2
Farzaneh Assadian, Wael Kamel, Göran Laurell, Catharina Svensson, Tanel Punga, Göran Akusjärvi
We have used high-throughput small RNA sequencing to characterize viral small RNA expression in purified tonsillar B and T lymphocytes isolated from patients tested positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human adenovirus (HAdV) infections, respectively. In the small set of patients analyzed, the expression profile of EBV and HAdV miRNAs could not distinguish between patients diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy or chronic/recurrent tonsillitis. The EBV miR-BART expression profile among the patients diagnosed with tonsillar diseases resembles most closely the pattern seen in EBV+ tumors (Latency II/I)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540676/micrornas-biomarkers-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#3
Weili Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (21-23 nucleotides in length) that regulate gene expression at translational or posttranslational levels. The major regulatory mechanisms include translational repression or mRNA degradation (Filipowicz et al., Curr Opin Struct Biol 15:331-341, 2005).Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been found to be associated with a variety of human diseases such as cancers/tumors, diabetes, viral infections, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases (Wang et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540675/viral-micrornas-host-micrornas-regulating-viruses-and-bacterial-microrna-like-rnas
#4
Sara-Elizabeth Cardin, Glen M Borchert
As masters of genome-wide regulation, miRNAs represent a key component in the complex architecture of cellular processes. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that miRNAs have many important roles in the development of disease and cancer. Recently, however, their role in viral and bacterial gene regulation as well as host gene regulation during disease progression has become a field of interest. Due to their small size, miRNAs are the ideal mechanism for bacteria and viruses that have limited room in their genomes, as a single miRNA can target up to ~30 genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#5
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534962/galectin%C3%A2-9-ameliorates-fulminant-liver-injury
#6
Tomoko Tadokoro, Asahiro Morishita, Teppei Sakamoto, Shintaro Fujihara, Koji Fujita, Shima Mimura, Kyoko Oura, Takako Nomura, Joji Tani, Hirohito Yoneyama, Hisakazu Iwama, Takashi Himoto, Toshiro Niki, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
Fulminant hepatitis is a severe liver disease resulting in hepatocyte necrosis. Galectin‑9 (Gal‑9) is a tandem‑repeat‑type galectin that has been evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases that regulate the host immune system. Concanavalin A (ConA) injection into mice results in serious, immune‑mediated liver injury similar to human viral, autoimmune and fulminant hepatitis. The present study investigated the effects of Gal‑9 treatment on fulminant hepatitis in vivo and the effect on the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), in order to identify specific miRNAs associated with the immune effects of Gal‑9...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534856/manipulation-of-viral-micrornas-as-a-potential-antiviral-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection
#7
Jiang Deng, Jun Xiao, Ping Ma, Bo Gao, Feng Gong, Liping Lv, Yanyu Zhang, Jinbo Xu
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection leads to notable morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Current antiviral drugs are effective but seriously limited in their long-term use due to their relatively high toxicity. In the present study, we characterized the expression of murine CMV microRNAs (MCMV miRNAs) both in vitro and in vivo. Although 29 miRNAs were detectable during in vitro infection, only 11 miRNAs (classified as Group 1) were detectable during in vivo infection, and as many as 18 viral miRNAs (classified as Group 2) were less detectable (<50% of animals) in both the liver and lungs...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534512/a-viral-microrna-downregulates-metastasis-suppressor-cd82-and-induces-cell-invasion-and-angiogenesis-by-activating-the-c-met-signaling
#8
W Li, M Hu, C Wang, H Lu, F Chen, J Xu, Y Shang, F Wang, J Qin, Q Yan, B J Krueger, R Renne, S-J Gao, C Lu
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as the most common AIDS-associated malignancy is etiologically caused by KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KS is a highly disseminated and vascularized tumor. KSHV encodes 12 pre-microRNAs that yield 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs), but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor metastasis and angiogenesis remain largely unclear. KSHV-encoded miR-K12-6 (miR-K6) can generate two mature miRNAs, miR-K6-5p and miR-K6-3p. Recently, we have shown that miR-K6-3p induced cell migration and angiogenesis via directly targeting SH3 domain binding glutamate-rich protein (SH3BGR)...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531277/genome-wide-discovery-of-viral-micrornas-based-on-phylogenetic-analysis-and-structural-evolution-of-various-human-papillomavirus-subtypes
#9
Shun-Long Weng, Kai-Yao Huang, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Fang-Yu Hung, Tzu-Hao Chang, Tzong-Yi Lee
In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in controlling posttranscriptional regulation through binding to the mRNAs of target genes. Recently, it was discovered that viral miRNAs may be involved in human cancers and diseases. It is likely that viral miRNAs help viruses enter the latent phase of their life cycle and become undetected by the host's immune system, while increasing the host's risk for cancer development. Cervical cancer is typically related to the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual transmission...
May 20, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530014/microrna-30a-5p-promotes-replication-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-through-enhancing-autophagy-by-targeting-14-3-3
#10
Xiaomin Wang, Xianglan Xu, Wei Wang, Zhengyu Yu, Libin Wen, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy and microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in regulating virus-host interactions and can restrict or facilitate viral replication. In the present study we examined whether a functional relationship exists between autophagy, miRNA and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection, using several approaches. We demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between PCV2 infection and autophagy in 3D4/21 cells and autophagy induced by PCV2 infection triggered PCV2 replication...
May 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523344/role-of-g3bp1-in-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-microrna-15b-and-microrna-23a-biogenesis-in-endothelial-cells
#11
Hoi-Hin Kwok, Po-Ying Poon, Kylie Hin-Man Mak, Lin-Yao Zhang, Pei Liu, Huoming Zhang, Nai-Ki Mak, Patrick Ying-Kit Yue, Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating various normal cellular responses. Recent studies revealed that the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway is subject to sophisticated regulation. Hormonal control of miRNA biogenesis by androgen and estrogen has been demonstrated, but the direct effects of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on miRNA biogenesis are unknown. This study revealed the role of GR in miRNA maturation. We showed that two GR agonists, dexamethasone and ginsenoside-Rg1 rapidly suppressed the expression of mature miR-15b, miR-23a, and miR-214 in human endothelial cells...
May 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515295/natural-variation-of-epstein-barr-virus-genes-proteins-and-pri-mirna-revised
#12
Samantha Correia, Anne Palser, Claudio Elgueta Karstegl, Jaap M Middeldorp, Octavia Ramayanti, Jeffrey I Cohen, Allan Hildesheim, Maria Dolores Fellner, Joelle Wiels, Robert E White, Paul Kellam, Paul J Farrell
Viral gene sequences from an enlarged set of about 200 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) strains including many primary isolates have been used to investigate variation in key viral genetic regions, particularly LMP1, Zp, gp350, EBNA1 and the BART miRNA cluster 2. Determination of type 1 and type 2 EBV in saliva samples from people from a wide range of geographic and ethnic backgrounds demonstrates a small percentage of healthy white Caucasian British people carrying predominantly type 2 EBV. Linkage of Zp and gp350 variants to type 2 EBV is likely to be due to their genes being adjacent to the EBNA3 locus, which is one of the major determinants of the type 1/type 2 distinction...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510513/putative-roles-as-oncogene-or-tumour-suppressor-of-the-mid-clustered-micrornas-in-gallid-alphaherpesvirus-2-gahv2-induced-marek-s-disease-lymphomagenesis
#13
Man Teng, Zu-Hua Yu, Pu Zhao, Guo-Qing Zhuang, Zi-Xiang Wu, Lu Dang, Hui-Zhen Li, Sheng-Ming Ma, Zhi-Zhong Cui, Gai-Ping Zhang, Run Wu, Jun Luo
In the last decade, numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in diverse virus families, particularly in herpesviruses. Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV2) is a representative oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that induces rapid-onset T-cell lymphomas in its natural hosts, namely Marek's disease (MD). In the GaHV2 genome there are 26 mature miRNAs derived from 14 precursors assembled into three clusters, namely the Meq-cluster, Mid-cluster and LAT-cluster. Several GaHV2 miRNAs, especially those in the Meq-cluster (e...
May 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494740/nucleic-acids-based-nanotherapeutics-crossing-the-blood-brain-barrier
#14
Noha Nafee, Noha Gouda
The restless endeavors revealing the molecular pathways underlying many neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors have paved the way for the introduction of the selective exogenous gene-based therapeutics. The implicated active biomolecules encompass mainly negatively-charged nucleic acids ranging from DNA, mRNA, non-coding RNAs (small-interfering RNA, siRNA, and microRNA, miRNA), to antisense oligonucleotides. They selectively interfere with the genes translational and/or transcriptional processes. Although many reviews previously addressed brain targeting, a thorough correlation between the molecular properties of these biomacromolecules, the nature of blood brain barrier (BBB) in the accompanying pathological condition, the intracellular targets, as well as the design of the delivery system which will transport the bioactive cargo to the target cells attempting efficient delivery to the active sites in the brain will be appraised...
May 10, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493990/mir-338-3p-regulates-neuronal-maturation-and-suppresses-glioblastoma-proliferation
#15
James R Howe, Emily S Li, Sarah E Streeter, Gilbert J Rahme, Edmond Chipumuro, Grace B Russo, Julia F Litzky, L Benjamin Hills, Kyla R Rodgers, Patrick D Skelton, Bryan W Luikart
Neurogenesis is a highly-regulated process occurring in the dentate gyrus that has been linked to learning, memory, and antidepressant efficacy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been previously shown to play an important role in the regulation of neuronal development and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus via modulation of gene expression. However, this mode of regulation is both incompletely described in the literature thus far and highly multifactorial. In this study, we designed sensors and detected relative levels of expression of 10 different miRNAs and found miR-338-3p was most highly expressed in the dentate gyrus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489271/successful-treatment-of-kshv-inflammatory-cytokine-syndrome-kics-after-kidney-liver-transplant-correlations-with-hhv8-mirnome-and-specific-t-cell-response
#16
Alessandra Mularoni, Alessia Gallo, Giovanni Riva, Patrizia Barozzi, Monica Miele, Giovanni Cardinale, Giovanni Vizzini, Riccardo Volpes, Paolo Grossi, Daniele Di Carlo, Angelo Luca, Tommaso Trenti, Mario Luppi, Pier Giulio Conaldi
In post-transplant patients, HHV-8/KSHV infection is known to cause aggressive tumors, as well as severe non-neoplastic complications. These latter syndromes are driven by HHV-8/KSHV lytic reactivations and related hyper-inflammatory host responses, typically characterized by high viral loads, elevated levels of cytokines and other inflammation biomarkers, cytopenia, organ failure, high fever, and worsening conditions (with no evidence of B-cell neoplasias). These disorders are associated with a high mortality rate, often due to lack of prompt diagnosis, effective therapeutic approaches, and adequate follow up...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488082/genome-wide-identification-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-responsive-micrornas-in-watermelon
#17
Yuyan Sun, Xiaowei Niu, Min Fan
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a damaging pathogen that attacks crop plants belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Little is known about the regulatory role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to CGMMV infection. To identify CGMMV-responsive miRNAs, two sRNA libraries from mock-inoculated and CGMMV-infected watermelon leaves were constructed and sequenced using Solexa sequencing technology. In total, 471 previously known and 1,809 novel miRNAs were obtained, of which 377 known and 246 novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed during CGMMV infection...
May 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487941/identification-of-micrornas-associated-with-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-by-bioinformatics-analyses
#18
Xiangjun Fu, Jugao Fang, Meng Lian, Qi Zhong, Hongzhi Ma, Ling Feng, Ru Wang, Haizhou Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) profile in human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tissue. The GSE40807 data profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following preprocessing, differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs) between MTC and healthy tissues were identified. Based on the obtained DEMs, transcription factor (TF)‑miRNA and miRNA‑target gene regulatory association pairs were predicted. Finally, functional enrichment analysis was performed on target genes of DEMs...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487016/the-expression-level-of-c19mc-mirnas-in-early-pregnancy-and-in-response-to-viral-infection
#19
Tina M F Dumont, Jean-Francois Mouillet, Avaraham Bayer, Christina L Gardner, William B Klimstra, Dana G Wolf, Simcha Yagel, Fabiola Balmir, Anna Binstock, Joseph S Sanfilippo, Carolyn B Coyne, Jacob C Larkin, Yoel Sadovsky
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that miRNAs produced from the Chromosome 19 MiRNA Cluster (C19MC), which are expressed almost exclusively in primate trophoblasts and are released into the maternal circulation, reduce viral replication in non-placental cells and can modulate migratory behavior of extravillous trophoblast. We sought to define the expression pattern of C19MC miRNA in early pregnancy and in response to viral infection in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We prospectively followed women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and determined their blood level of C19MC miRNA using RT-qPCR...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485720/herpesvirus-micrornas-for-use-in-gene-therapy-immune-evasion-strategies
#20
REVIEW
S T F Bots, R C Hoeben
Transplantation of allogeneic cells as well as of genetically corrected autologous cells are potent approaches to restore cellular functions in patients suffering from genetic diseases. The recipient's immune responses against non-self-antigens may compromise the survival of the grafted cells. Recipients of the graft may therefore require life-long treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. An alternative approach to reduce graft rejection could involve the use of immune-evasion molecules. Expression of such molecules in cells of the graft may subvert recognition by the host's immune system...
May 9, 2017: Gene Therapy
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