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Viral mirna

Jun P Ren, Lin Wang, Juan Zhao, Ling Wang, Shun B Ning, Mohamed El Gazzar, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to attenuating immune responses during chronic viral infection; however, the precise mechanisms underlying their suppressive activities remain incompletely understood. We have recently shown marked expansion of MDSCs that promote regulatory T (Treg) cell development in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here we further investigated whether the HCV-induced expansion of MDSCs and Tregs is regulated by a miRNA-mediated mechanism...
October 18, 2016: Immunology
Hong Zhang, Peng He, Rongzhong Huang, Lin Sun, Siwen Liu, Jingjing Zhou, Yujie Guo, Deyu Yang, Peng Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as important regulators of gene expression via translational depression or mRNA degradation. Previously, dysregulated miRNAs have been found in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic, negative single‑stranded RNA virus, which may be a cause of human neuropsychiatric disease. BDV is regarded as an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of mental disorders caused by viral infection. In the present study, 10 miRNAs were dysregulated in human oligodendrocytes (OL cells) infected with the BDV strain, Hu‑H1 (OL/BDV)...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Dana Elena Giza, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Marc David Bullock, Stefan Tudor, Matthew Joseph Goblirsch, Muller Fabbri, Florea Lupu, Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, Catalin Vasilescu, George Adrian Calin
Regardless of its etiology, once septic shock is established, survival rates drop by 7.6% for every hour antibiotic therapy is delayed. The early identification of the cause of infection and prognostic stratification of patients with sepsis are therefore important clinical priorities. Biomarkers are potentially valuable clinical tools in this context, but to date, no single biomarker has been shown to perform adequately. Hence, in an effort to discover novel diagnostic and prognostic markers in sepsis, new genomic approaches have been employed...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Perrine Rasschaert, Thomas Figueroa, Ginette Dambrine, Denis Rasschaert, Sylvie Laurent
Interplay between alternative splicing and the Microprocessor may have differential effects on the expression of intronic miRNAs organised into clusters. We used a viral model - the LAT long non-coding RNA (LAT lncRNA) of Marek's disease oncogenic herpesvirus (MDV-1), which has the mdv1-miR-M8-M6-M7-M10 cluster embedded in its first intron - to assess the impact of splicing modifications on the biogenesis of each of the miRNAs from the cluster. Drosha silencing and alternative splicing of an extended exon 2 of the LAT lncRNA from a newly identified 3' splice site (SS) at the end of the second miRNA of the cluster showed that mdv1-miR-M6 was a 5'-tailed mirtron...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
J A Castillo, S Urcuqui-Inchima
Dear Editor, A recent paper (Casseb et al., 2016) published in the journal Genetics and Molecular Research described the interesting concept that dengue virus (DENV)-4 infection, in the human cell line A-549, leads to the downregulation of expression of key components of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, such as Drosha, Dicer, and DGCR8. For this, the authors performed a time course infection of A-549 cells for 5 days. The highest viral load was observed at 3 days post-infection, which corresponded with the maximum downregulation of expression of Drosha, Dicer, and DGCR8, assayed by quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Wenjuan Li, Peng Cheng, Shangdan Nie, Wen Cui
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most severe viral infections of the central nervous system. No effective treatment for JE currently exists, because its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to screen the potential microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in JE. Glioblastoma cells were collected, after being infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Total miRNAs were extracted and analyzed using an miRNA chip. One of the most severely affected miRNAs was selected, and the role of miR-370 in JEV infection was investigated...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Mingming Tan, Wenkui Sun, Chunlai Feng, Di Xia, Xiaoyue Shen, Yuan Ding, Zhicheng Liu, Zheng Xing, Xin Su, Yi Shi
INTRODUCTION: Evaluating the attenuation of influenza viruses in animal studies is important in developing safe and effective vaccines. This study aimed to demonstrate that the microRNA (miRNA)-let-7b-mediated attenuated influenza viruses (miRT-H1N1) are sufficiently attenuated and safe in mice. METHODOLOGY: The pathogenicity of the miRT-H1N1virus was investigated in a mouse model, evaluated with median lethal dose (LD50). The replicative dynamics of the miRT-H1N1, wild type (wt)-H1N1, and scramble (scbl)-H1N1 viruses in the lungs of infected mice were compared...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Mengmeng Deng, Junwei Hou, Jun Hu, Shuo Wang, Mi Chen, Lizhao Chen, Ying Ju, Changfei Li, Songdong Meng
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces hepatocarcinogenesis and malignant progression, yet global effects of the redundant viral mRNAs produced during infection are unexplored. Here, microRNA (miRNA) target prediction and whole genome expression analysis revealed that HBV pre-C/C mRNA leads to upregulation of multiple let-7a targeted genes. A let-7a complementary region from nt 86 to 108 in the HBV genome was then identified in HBV pre-C/C, pre-S, and S mRNAs. The let-7a sequestration effect by HBV mRNAs was observed under transfection and virus infection, which is dependent on the let-7a response sequence...
September 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
Sizolwenkosi Mlotshwa, Gail J Pruss, John L MacArthur, Jason W Reed, Vicki S Vance
Plant viral suppressors of RNA silencing induce developmental defects similar to those caused by mutations in genes involved in the microRNA (miRNA) pathway. A recent report has attributed viral suppressor-mediated developmental defects to upregulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 (ARF8), a target of miR167. The key piece of evidence was that the developmental defects in transgenic Arabidopsis expressing viral suppressors were greatly alleviated in the F1 progeny of a cross with plants carrying the arf8-6 mutation...
September 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
Zeinab Ahsani, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh, Vahid Kia, Hamzeh Karimkhanloo, Nosratollah Zarghami, Mahdi Paryan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an invasive form of hepatic cancer arising from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations. In this study, the causal role of disturbed canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway was approved, and some of HCC-driven important gene candidates were determined. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, are the key regulators of important cancer genes, and their participation in tumorigenesis has been shown. By reviewing literature, WNT1 gene with functional significance was selected to approve miRNAs as new subjects for targeted therapy...
September 29, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Na Li, Taofeng Du, Yunhuan Yan, Angke Zhang, Jiming Gao, Gaopeng Hou, Shuqi Xiao, En-Min Zhou
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the swine industry. Current antiviral strategies do not effectively prevent and control PRRSV. Recent reports show that microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in viral infections by post transcriptionally regulating the expression of viral or host genes. Our previous research showed that non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) is an essential factor for PRRSV infection. Using bioinformatic prediction and experimental verification, we demonstrate that MYH9 expression is regulated by the miRNA let-7f-5p, which binds to the MYH9 mRNA 3'UTR and may play an important role during PRRSV infection...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Megan S Keiser, Alejandro Mas Monteys, Romuald Corbau, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Beverly L Davidson
OBJECTIVE: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 is an autosomal dominant fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the coding region of ATXN1. We showed previously that partial suppression of mutant ataxin-1 (ATXN1) expression, using virally-expressed RNAi triggers, could prevent disease symptoms in a transgenic mouse model and a knock in mouse model of the disease, using a single dose of virus. Here, we set out to test if RNAi triggers targeting ATXN1 could not only prevent, but also reverse disease readouts when delivered after symptom onset...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Y Kawano, J Kawada, Y Kamiya, M Suzuki, Y Torii, H Kimura, Y Ito
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection and can cause neurodevelopmental disabilities, although a majority of patients are asymptomatic. Biomarkers associated with disease severity would be desirable to distinguish asymptomatic from mildly symptomatic patients who may benefit from antiviral treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that may have the potential to serve as biomarkers. STUDY DESIGN: Thirteen infants with congenital CMV infection were enrolled, and plasma levels of 11 human- and 3 CMV-encoded miRNAs were quantitated by real-time PCR...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Muhammad S Iqbal, Muhammad N Hafeez, Javed I Wattoo, Arfan Ali, Muhammad N Sharif, Bushra Rashid, Bushra Tabassum, Idrees A Nasir
Potato virus Y has emerged as a threatening problem in all potato growing areas around the globe. PVY reduces the yield and quality of potato cultivars. During the last 30 years, significant genetic changes in PVY strains have been observed with an increased incidence associated with crop damage. In the current study, computational approaches were applied to predict Potato derived miRNA targets in the PVY genome. The PVY genome is approximately 9 thousand nucleotides, which transcribes the following 6 genes:CI, NIa, NIb-Pro, HC-Pro, CP, and VPg...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Eeva Auvinen
Virology is probably the most rapidly developing field within clinical laboratory medicine. Adequate diagnostic methods exist for the diagnostics of most acute viral infections. However, emergence of pathogenic viruses or virus strains and new disease associations of known viruses require the establishment of new diagnostic methods, sometimes very rapidly. In the field of chronic or persistent viral diseases, particularly those involving potential of malignant or fatal development, there is a constant need for improved differential diagnostics, monitoring, prognosis and risk assessment...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Jayashree A Chandrasekharan, Xiao M Huang, Alexandar Hwang, Neelam Sharma-Walia
: Lipoxins are host anti-inflammatory molecules that play a vital role in restoring tissue homeostasis. The efficacy of lipoxins and their analog epilipoxins in treating inflammation and its associated diseases has been well documented. Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) and Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) are two well-known inflammation related diseases caused by Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV). Controlling inflammation is one of the strategies adopted to treat KS and PEL, a primary motivation for exploring and evaluating the therapeutic potential of using lipoxins...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá, Abigail Morales-Sánchez
EBV-associated Gastric Cancer (EBVaGC) comprises about 9% of all cases of GC and constitutes a distinct clinicopathological and molecular entity. The pattern of viral expression in EBVaGC cannot be set to any of the previously EBV-associated malignancies. Several lines of evidence support that viral expression in EBVaGC is characterized by high transcription of the BamH1-A rightward transcript (BART), low-levels of EBNA-1 and lack of LMP1. The high transcription activity of the BamH1-A region is importantly directed to express BART miRNAs, supporting a critical role for these miRNAs during epithelial cell infection and carcinogenesis...
September 26, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Gesche K Gerresheim, Nadia Dünnes, Anika Nieder-Röhrmann, Lyudmila A Shalamova, Markus Fricke, Ivo Hofacker, Christian Höner Zu Siederdissen, Manja Marz, Michael Niepmann
We have analyzed the binding of the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) to three conserved target sites of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, two in the non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) coding region and one in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). miR-122 binding efficiency strongly depends on target site accessibility under conditions when the range of flanking sequences available for the formation of local RNA secondary structures changes. Our results indicate that the particular sequence feature that contributes most to the correlation between target site accessibility and binding strength varies between different target sites...
September 27, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Y Liu, H L Yang, F F Zhong, J Y Fan
BACKGROUND: The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is the only detectable viral gene expressed during latent infection in neurons. LAT inhibits apoptosis and maintains latency by promoting the survival of infected neurons. However, whether LAT functions during HSV-2 infection via its encoded RNAs or via its encoded proteins remain unknown. Increasing evidence has indicated that LAT is likely to functionally promote the establishment of latent infection via LAT-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs)...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Carolina Silvestro, Ana Bratanich
Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) are important pathogens of cattle. The diseases they produce are quite different, with BoHV-5 being more neuropathogenic than BoHV-1 which mainly induces respiratory symptoms. The sequencing of the entire BoHV-5 genome has shown that most of the differences between these viruses are found in the immediate early and LR (latency related) genes. The LR gene is the only viral gene abundantly expressed in latently infected neurons, is essential for viral reactivation and seems to have an anti-apoptotic function which can be observed in vivo and in vitro...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
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