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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910040/generation-of-efficient-mirna-inhibitors-using-tough-decoy-constructs
#1
Jimeen Yoo, Roger J Hajjar, Dongtak Jeong
Over the last decade a previously unappreciated mechanism of gene regulation has been uncovered that is mediated by a large class of small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs), and this mechanism is utilized by organisms ranging from plants to humans. MiRNAs are important downregulators of gene expression and are seen to be dysregulated in disease development. Thus inhibition of aberrantly upregulated miRNAs as a therapeutic approach has become a promising field.Many models of miRNA inhibitors currently exist, with decoy models being the most successful in current research...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902930/modulating-micrornas-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-novel-therapeutic-opportunities
#2
REVIEW
Giovanni Biglino, Massimo Caputo, Cha Rajakaruna, Gianni Angelini, Eva van Rooij, Costanza Emanueli
This review focuses on microRNAs (miRs) in cardiac surgery, where they are emerging as potential targets for therapeutic intervention as well as novel clinical biomarkers. Identification of the up/down-regulation of specific miRs in defined groups of cardiac surgery patients can lead to the development of novel strategies for targeted treatment in order to maximise therapeutic results and minimise acute, delayed or chronic complications. MiRs could also be involved in determining the outcome independently of complications, for example in relation to myocardial perfusion and fibrosis...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895778/regulatory-network-analysis-of-genes-and-micrornas-in-human-hepatoblastoma
#3
Jimin He, Xiaoxin Guo, Linlin Sun, Ning Wang, Jiwei Bao
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is a common type of primary tumor in children. Previous studies have examined the expression of genes, including transcription factors (TFs), target genes, host genes and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) associated with HB. However, the regulatory pathways of miRNAs and genes remain unclear. In the present study, a novel perspective is proposed, which focuses on HB and the associated regulatory pathways, to construct three networks at various levels, including a differentially expressed network, an associated network and a global network...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893764/virus-mediated-alterations-in-mirna-factors-and-degradation-of-viral-mirnas-by-mcpip1
#4
Christine Happel, Dhivya Ramalingam, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, encodes 25 mature viral miRNAs. MCP-1-induced protein-1 (MCPIP1), a critical regulator of immune homeostasis, has been shown to suppress miRNA biosynthesis via cleavage of precursor miRNAs through its RNase domain. We demonstrate that MCPIP1 can directly cleave KSHV and EBV precursor miRNAs and that MCPIP1 expression is repressed following de novo KSHV infection. In addition, repression with siRNAs to MCPIP1 in KSHV-infected cells increased IL-6 and KSHV miRNA expression, supporting a role for MCPIP1 in IL-6 and KSHV miRNA regulation...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889586/surfactant-effect-on-the-physicochemical-characteristics-of-cationic-solid-lipid-nanoparticles
#5
Chiara Botto, Nicolò Mauro, Erika Amore, Elisabetta Martorana, Gaetano Giammona, Maria Luisa Bondì
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) may be considered as a new approach for therapeutics for many diseases. In addition to drug delivery, their use as non-viral vectors for gene delivery can be obtained by including cationic lipids, which provide a positive surface potential that favors binding to the nucleic acids as DNA, siRNA, miRNA, etc. In fact, the addition of cationic surfactants is indispensable for obtaining nanoparticles with surface positive charge. In this study, three different cationic lipids (dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium chloride) and Brij 76 as nonionic surfactant were employed to formulate Precirol ATO 5 based cSLN using pEGFP-LUC as model plasmid...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888401/the-impact-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-on-cholesterol-metabolism-in-pbmcs-is-associated-with-microrna-146a-expression
#6
M Sidorkiewicz, M Grek, B Jozwiak, A Krol, A Piekarska
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is known to induce important changes in host cholesterol metabolism. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of many genes and, in consequence, control various processes, including human metabolism and response to viral infection. Recently, the alteration of the immune-associated miR-146a, which is abundantly present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), was found in some viral infections. The study aimed to analyse the influence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on miR-146a expression in PBMCs in vivo and in vitro, as well as to assess the possible impact of miR-146a alteration on the intracellular cholesterol level in PBMCs...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886437/the-microrna-99-family-modulates-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-by-promoting-igf-1r-pi3k-akt-mtor-ulk1-signaling-induced-autophagy
#7
Yong Lin, Wanyu Deng, Jinke Pang, Thekla Kemper, Jing Hu, Jian Yin, Jiming Zhang, Mengji Lu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small highly conserved noncoding RNAs that are widely expressed in multicellular organisms and participate in the regulation of various cellular processes including autophagy and viral replication. Evidently, miRNAs are able to modulate host gene expression and thereby inhibit or enhance hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. The miR-99 family members are highly expressed in the liver. Interestingly, the plasma levels of miR-99 family in the peripheral blood correspond with HBV DNA loads...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886048/interactions-between-the-hiv-1-unspliced-mrna-and-host-mrna-decay-machineries
#8
REVIEW
Daniela Toro-Ascuy, Bárbara Rojas-Araya, Fernando Valiente-Echeverría, Ricardo Soto-Rifo
The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878834/characterization-of-mirnas-involved-in-response-to-poly-i-c-in-porcine-airway-epithelial-cells
#9
L Wang, J K Wang, L X Han, J S Zhuo, X Du, D Liu, X Q Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been implicated in a variety of pathological conditions including infectious diseases. Knowledge of the miRNAs affected by poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, in porcine airway epithelial cells (PAECs) contributes to understanding the mechanisms of swine viral respiratory diseases, which bring enormous economic loss worldwide every year. In this study, we used high throughput sequencing to profile miRNA expression in PAECs treated with poly(I:C) as compared to the untreated control...
November 22, 2016: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873272/analysis-of-viral-and-cellular-micrornas-in-ebv-infected-cells
#10
Rebecca L Skalsky
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. The discovery of this relatively new mode of gene regulation as well as studies showing the prognostic value of viral and cellular miRNAs as biomarkers, such as in cancer progression, has stimulated the development of many methods to characterize miRNAs. EBV encodes 25 viral precursor microRNAs within its genome that are expressed during lytic and latent infection. In addition to viral miRNAs, EBV infection induces the expression of specific cellular oncogenic miRNAs, such as miR-155, miR-146a, miR-21, and others, that can contribute to the persistence of latently infected cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866431/microrna-targeted-therapeutics-for-lung-cancer-treatment
#11
Jing Xue, Jiali Yang, Meihui Luo, William C Cho, Xiaoming Liu
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that repress the expression of a broad array of target genes. Many efforts have been made to therapeutically target miRNAs in cancer treatments using miRNA mimics and miRNA antagonists. Areas covered: This article summarizes the recent findings with the role of miRNAs in lung cancer, and discusses the potential and challenges of developing miRNA-targeted therapeutics in this dreadful disease...
November 20, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853459/immunosenescence-related-transcriptomic-and-immunologic-changes-in-older-individuals-following-influenza-vaccination
#12
Richard B Kennedy, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Iana H Haralambieva, Ann L Oberg, Michael T Zimmermann, Diane E Grill, Gregory A Poland
The goal of annual influenza vaccination is to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with this disease through the generation of protective immune responses. The objective of the current study was to examine markers of immunosenescence and identify immunosenescence-related differences in gene expression, gene regulation, cytokine secretion, and immunologic changes in an older study population receiving seasonal influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Surprisingly, prior studies in this cohort revealed weak correlations between immunosenescence markers and humoral immune response to vaccination...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852859/kshv-micrornas-target-gadd45b-to-protect-infected-cells-from-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis
#13
Xiaoyan Liu, Christine Happel, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
: Kaposi's sarcoma is one of the most common malignancies in HIV-infected individuals. The responsible agent, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV8) expresses multiple microRNAs (miRNAs), but the targets and functions of these miRNAs are not completely understood. After infection in primary endothelial cells with KSHV, growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45 beta (GADD45B) is one of the most repressed genes using genomic expression profiling. GADD45B was also repressed in mRNA expression profiling experiments when KSHV miRNAs were introduced to uninfected cells...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845777/newer-insights-into-the-role-of-mirna-a-tiny-genetic-tool-in-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#14
REVIEW
V V Giridharan, R A Thandavarayan, G R Fries, C Walss-Bass, T Barichello, N J Justice, M K Reddy, J Quevedo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder occurring in about 2-9% of individuals after their exposure to life-threatening events, such as severe accidents, sexual abuse, combat or a natural catastrophe. Because PTSD patients are exposed to trauma, it is likely that epigenetic modifications have an important role in disease development and prognosis. For the past two decades, abnormal expression of the epigenetic regulators microRNAs (miRs) and miR-mediated gene regulation have been given importance in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and viral infection...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844276/micrornas-in-type-1-diabetes-complex-interregulation-of-the-immune-system-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-viral-infections
#15
REVIEW
Sonia R Isaacs, Jie Wang, Ki Wook Kim, Congcong Yin, Li Zhou, Qing Sheng Mi, Maria E Craig
Since the discovery of the first mammalian microRNA (miRNA) more than two decades ago, a plethora of miRNAs has been identified in humans, now amounting to more than 2500. Essential for post-transcriptional regulation of gene networks integral for developmental pathways and immune response, it is not surprising that dysregulation of miRNAs is often associated with the aetiology of complex diseases including cancer, diabetes and autoimmune disorders. Despite massive expansion of small RNA studies and extensive investigation in diverse disease contexts, the role of miRNAs in type 1 diabetes has only recently been explored...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843944/systematic-identification-and-bioinformatic-analysis-of-micrornas-in-response-to-infections-of-coxsackievirus-a16-and-enterovirus-71
#16
Zheng Zhu, Yuhua Qi, Huan Fan, Lunbiao Cui, Zhiyang Shi
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), mainly caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, remains a serious public health issue with thousands of newly diagnostic cases each year since 2008 in China. The mechanisms underlying viral infection, however, are elusive to date. In the present study, we systematically investigated the host cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in response to CVA16 and EV71 infections. Through microarray examination, 27 miRNAs (15 upregulated and 12 downregulated) were found to be coassociated with the replication process of two viruses, while the expression levels of 15 and 5 miRNAs were significantly changed in CVA16- and EV71-infected cells, respectively...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837274/regulation-of-the-viral-life-cycle-by-murine-gammaherpesvirus-68-micrornas
#17
Soowon Kang, Chanoh Jeon, Kyungtaek Im, Moon Jung Song, Hyeyoung Min
γ-Herpesviruses (γHV) such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are important human pathogens involved in lymphoproliferation and tumorigenesis. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68, γHV-68) is an effective model for the study of γHV pathogenesis and host-virus interaction because it is closely related to human γHV. Similarly to human γHV, MHV-68 encodes 15 microRNAs (miRNAs). Although their functions remain unknown, they are thought to regulate the viral life cycle or host-virus interactions, similarly to other human γHV...
November 11, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832764/blood-mirnomes-and-transcriptomes-reveal-novel-longevity-mechanisms-in-the-long-lived-bat-myotis-myotis
#18
Zixia Huang, David Jebb, Emma C Teeling
BACKGROUND: Chiroptera, the bats, are the only order of mammals capable of true self-powered flight. Bats exhibit a number of other exceptional traits such as echolocation, viral tolerance and, perhaps most puzzlingly, extreme longevity given their body size. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving their extended longevity particularly at the levels of gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that may underlie their unusual longevity, we have deep sequenced 246...
November 10, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824944/human-cytomegalovirus-mir-ul148d-facilitates-latent-viral-infection-by-targeting-host-cell-immediate-early-response-gene-5
#19
Chaoyun Pan, Dihan Zhu, Yan Wang, Limin Li, Donghai Li, Fenyong Liu, Chen-Yu Zhang, Ke Zen
The mechanisms underlying human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency remain incompletely understood. Here, we showed that a HCMV-encoded miRNA, miR-UL148D, robustly accumulates during late stages of experimental latent HCMV infection in host cells and promotes HCMV latency by modulating the immediate early response gene 5 (IER5)-cell division cycle 25B (CDC25B) axis in host cells. miR-UL148D inhibited IER5 expression by directly targeting the three-prime untranslated region(3'UTR) of IER5 mRNA and thus rescued CDC25B expression during the establishment of viral latency...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819637/patients-after-splenectomy-old-risks-and-new-perspectives
#20
Mihnea Dragomir, Dragoş George Emil Petrescu, Graţiela Elena Manga, George A Călin, Cătălin Vasilescu
The risks that arise after splenectomy can be divided in infectious and non-infectious. The link between splenectomy and these hazards remains partially unknown. Host defense against infection is altered after splenectomy and such individuals develop sepsis more easily and the infection has a fulminant course. Splenectomy is also a potential risk factor for several vascular complications that result from partial or total obstruction of an arterial or venous blood vessel. Furthermore, pulmonary hypertensioncan be a severe and sometimes fatal complication following splenectomy...
2016: Chirurgia
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