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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325684/monitoring-and-visualizing-microrna-dynamics-during-live-cell-differentiation-using-microrna-responsive-non-viral-reporter-vectors
#1
Hideyuki Nakanishi, Kenji Miki, Kaoru R Komatsu, Masayuki Umeda, Megumi Mochizuki, Azusa Inagaki, Yoshinori Yoshida, Hirohide Saito
MicroRNA (miRNA) activity differs with cell type, suggesting it can be used as a cell marker. In this study, we developed novel miRNA-responsive non-viral reporter vectors to continuously monitor and visualize miRNA dynamics during differentiation and to efficiently purify target living cells. Each vector codes miRNA-responsive and reference reporter genes in a single mRNA. These two genes are independent modules but transcribed by a single promoter, which enables us to distinguish miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional repression from transcriptional repression...
March 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323040/-machine-learning-based-identification-of-endogenous-cellular-microrna-sponges-against-viral-micrornas
#2
Soowon Kang, Seunghyun Park, Sungroh Yoon, Hyeyoung Min
A "miRNA sponge" is an artificial oligonucleotide-based miRNA inhibitor containing multiple binding sites for a specific miRNA. Each miRNA sponge can bind and sequester several miRNA copies, thereby decreasing the cellular levels of the target miRNA. In addition to developing artificial miRNA sponges, scientists have sought endogenous RNA transcripts and found that long non-coding RNAs, competing endogenous RNAs, pseudogenes, circular RNAs, and coding RNAs could act as miRNA sponges under precise conditions...
March 17, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298907/mir-21a-5p-contributes-to-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-proliferation-via-targeting-cask-interactive-protein1-in-vivo-and-vitro
#3
Xiaoling Lv, Kui Zhao, Yungang Lan, Zi Li, Ning Ding, Jingjing Su, Huijun Lu, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurovirulent coronavirus that can cause nervous symptoms in piglets with muscle tremors, hind limb paralysis, and nystagmus. Whether some factors affect virus replication and proliferation had not been fully understood in the course of nerve damage caused by PHEV infection. In recent years, some reports suggested that miRNA might play a key regulatory role in viral infection. In this study, we found the miR-21a-5p is notably up-regulated in the brains of mice and N2a cells infected with PHEV, and it down-regulated the expression of CASK-interactive protein1 (Caskin1) by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of Caskin1 using a Dual-Luciferase reporter assay...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296624/dusp11-an-rna-phosphatase-that-regulates-host-and-viral-non-coding-rnas-in-mammalian-cells
#4
James M Burke, Christopher S Sullivan
Dual-specificity phosphatase 11 (DUSP11) is a conserved protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) in metazoans. The cellular substrates and physiological activities of DUSP11 remain largely unknown. In nematodes, DUSP11 is required for normal development and RNA interference against endogenous RNAs (endo-RNAi) via molecular mechanisms that are not well understood. However, mammals lack analogous endo-RNAi pathways and consequently, a role for DUSP11 in mammalian RNA silencing was unanticipated. Recent work from our lab demonstrated that DUSP11 activity alters the silencing potential of noncanonical viral miRNAs in mammalian cells...
March 15, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286035/identification-and-characterization-of-two-putative-micrornas-encoded-by-bombyx-mori-cypovirus
#5
Zhong-Hua Pan, Ping Wu, Kun Gao, Cheng-Xiang Hou, Guang-Xing Qin, Tao Geng, Xi-Jie Guo
Viral microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play important roles in virus-host interactions. Some RNA virus-encoded miRNAs have been reported to promote viral replication and may be used as potential drug targets. Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV), an important pathogen of silkworm, is a double-stranded RNA virus frequently causing serious damages in sericulture. Research on miRNA encoded by BmCPV may be useful to elucidate the BmCPV-host interaction and to develop new anti-viral methods. In our previous study, small RNA libraries of the midgut of BmCPV-infected silkworm have been generated by deep sequencing and several BmCPV-encoded putative miRNAs were predicted...
March 7, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277007/microrna-mediated-non-viral-direct-conversion-of-embryonic-fibroblasts-to-cardiomyocytes-comparison-of-commercial-and-synthetic-non-viral-vectors
#6
Hyosuk Kim, Dongkyu Kim, Sook Hee Ku, Kwangmeyung Kim, Sun Hwa Kim, Ick Chan Kwon
Technological advances opened up new ways of directing cell fate conversion from one cell lineage to another. The direct cell conversion technique has recently attracted much attention in regenerative medicine to treat devastated organs and tissues, particularly having limited regenerative capacity such as the heart and brain. Unfortunately, its clinical application is severely limited due to a safety concern and immunogenicity of viral vectors, as human gene therapy did in the beginning stages. In this study, we examined the possibility of adopting non-viral vectors to direct cell conversion from mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced cardiomyocytes (iCM) by transient transfection of four types of chemically synthesized micro-RNA mimics (miRNA-1, 133, 208, and 499)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270578/human-cytomegalovirus-micrornas-mir-us5-1-and-mir-ul112-3p-block-proinflammatory-cytokine-production-in-response-to-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activating-factors-through-direct-downregulation-of-ikk%C3%AE-and-ikk%C3%AE
#7
Meaghan H Hancock, Lauren M Hook, Jennifer Mitchell, Jay A Nelson
Emerging evidence indicates that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) manipulates host cell signaling pathways using both proteins and noncoding RNAs. Several studies have shown that HCMV induces NF-κB signaling early in infection, resulting in the induction of antiviral proinflammatory cytokines with a subsequent reduction of these cytokines late in infection. The mechanism for late cytokine reduction is unknown. In this study, we show that HCMV microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-US5-1 and miR-UL112-3p target the IκB kinase (IKK) complex components IKKα and IKKβ to limit production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
March 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267608/analysis-of-the-mirna-profile-in-c6-36-cells-persistently-infected-with-dengue-virus-type-2
#8
Rodolfo Gamaliel Avila-Bonilla, Martha Yocupicio-Monroy, Laurence A Marchat, Mónica A De Nova-Ocampo, Rosa María Del Ángel, Juan Santiago Salas-Benito
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important arbovirus in the world; DENV is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes and can establish a life-long persistent infection in mosquitoes. However, the exact mechanism by which persistent infection is established remains unknown. In this study the differential expression of miRNAs was analysed by deep sequencing and RT-qPCR using a previously established C6/36-HT cell line persistently infected with DENV 2 (C6-L) as a model. miR-927, miR-87, miR-210, miR-2a-3p, miR-190 and miR-970 were up-regulated, whereas miR-252, miR-263a-3p, miR-92b, miR-10-5p miR-9a-5p, miR-9a-1, miR-124, miR-286a and miR-286b were down-regulated in C6-L cells compared with C6/36 cells acutely infected with the same virus or mock-infected cells...
March 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267418/microrna-125b-5p-mediates-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-via-the-lin28b-let-7-axis
#9
Wanyu Deng, Xiaoyong Zhang, Zhiyong Ma, Yong Lin, Mengji Lu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are able to modulate hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and play an important role in the pathogenesis of HBV infection. Recently, we have identified that serum miR-125b-5p level correlated with HBV DNA levels and liver necroinflammation. In the present study, we addressed how miR-125b-5p regulated HBV replication at the different steps, inclduing viral transcription, assembly, and virion production and investigated the underlying mechanisms. We found that miR-125b-5p overexpression increased HBV replication without altering HBV transcription...
March 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261201/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-infectious-disease
#10
REVIEW
Carolina N Correia, Nicolas C Nalpas, Kirsten E McLoughlin, John A Browne, Stephen V Gordon, David E MacHugh, Ronan G Shaughnessy
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259385/kshv-micrornas-tricks-of-the-devil
#11
REVIEW
Jie Qin, Wan Li, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor frequently found in immunodeficient individuals. KSHV encodes 12 pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), which are processed into 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs). KSHV miRNAs maintain KSHV latency, enhance angiogenesis and dissemination of the infected cells, and interfere with the host immune system by regulating viral and cellular gene expression, ultimately contributing to KS development. In this review, we briefly introduce the biogenesis of miRNAs and then describe the recent advances in defining the roles and mechanisms of action of KSHV miRNAs in KS development...
March 2, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259048/dissecting-the-regulation-of-ebv-s-bart-mirnas-in-carcinomas
#12
Ya-Chun Yang, Amy Liem, Paul F Lambert, Bill Sugden
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes multiple miRNAs known to contribute to its pathogenicity. Previous studies have found that the levels of some EBV miRNAs are 10-100 fold higher in biopsies and in tumor xenografts than in cells grown in culture. We have asked if these increased levels reflect transcriptional enhancement resulting from the tumor microenvironment, selection for increased levels of the EBV genome, or both. We measured the levels of BART miRNAs and their DNA templates in tumor xenografts induced from EBV-positive gastric carcinoma cells and EBV-negative gastric carcinoma cells expressing plasmid replicons encoding these miRNAs...
March 1, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257975/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-microrna-via-the-capture-of-fluorescent-dyes-loaded-albumin-nanoparticles-around-functionalized-magnetic-beads
#13
Tianxiang Wei, Dan Du, Zhaoyin Wang, Weiwei Zhang, Yuehe Lin, Zhihui Dai
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and cancer development. Nowadays, it is still a challenge to detect low-abundance miRNAs. Here, we present a magnetic fluorescent miRNA sensing system for the rapid and sensitive detection of miRNAs from cell lysates and serum samples. In this system, albumin nanoparticles (Alb NPs) were prepared from inherent biocompatible bovine serum albumin (BSA). A large number of fluorescent dyes were loaded into Alb NPs to make Alb NPs serve as signal molecular nanocarriers for signal amplification...
February 27, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254620/mirnas-associated-with-immune-response-in-teleost-fish
#14
Rune Andreassen, Bjørn Høyheim
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as important post transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In higher vertebrates, a subset of miRNAs has been identified as important regulators of a number of key genes in immune system gene networks, and this paper review recent studies on miRNAs associated with immune response in teleost fish. Challenge studies conducted in several species have identified differently expressed miRNAs associated with viral or bacterial infection. The results from these studies point out several miRNAs that are likely to have evolutionary conserved functions that are related to immune response in teleost fish...
February 27, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240539/intrinsic-ultrahigh-drug-mirna-loading-capacity-of-biodegradable-bioactive-glass-nanoparticles-toward-highly-efficient-pharmaceutical-delivery
#15
Meng Yu, Yumeng Xue, Peter X Ma, Cong Mao, Bo Lei
The lack of safe and efficient drug and gene delivery vectors has become a major obstacle for the clinical applications of drug and nonviral gene therapy. To date, for nonviral gene vectors, most studies are focused on cationic polymers, liposomes, and modified inorganic nanoparticles which have shown high cellular toxicity, low transfection efficiency, or nondegradation. Additionally, few biodegradable biomaterials demonstrate intrinsic high binding abilities to both drug and gene. Bioactive glasses (BGs) have achieved successful applications in bone regeneration due to their high biocompatibility and biodegradation...
March 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228536/a-viral-satellite-dna-vector-tylccnv-for-functional-analysis-of-mirnas-and-sirnas-in-plants
#16
Zheng Ju, Dongyan Cao, Chao Gao, Jinhua Zuo, Baiqiang Zhai, Shan Li, Hongliang Zhu, Daqi Fu, Yunbo Luo, Benzhong Zhu
With experimental and bioinformatical methods, numerous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), have been found in plants, and they play vital roles in various biological regulation processes. However, most of these small RNAs remain to be functionally characterized. Until now, only several viral vectors were developed to overexpress miRNAs with limited application in plants. In this study, we reported a new small RNAs overexpression system via viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) vector, which could highly overexpress not only artificial and endogenous miRNAs but also endogenous siRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana...
February 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223504/transcriptome-wide-microrna-and-target-dynamics-in-the-fat-body-during-the-gonadotrophic-cycle-of-aedes-aegypti
#17
Xiufeng Zhang, Emre Aksoy, Thomas Girke, Alexander S Raikhel, Fedor V Karginov
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of numerous viral diseases, because it requires a blood meal to facilitate egg development. The fat body, a counterpart of mammalian liver and adipose tissues, is the metabolic center, playing a key role in reproduction. Therefore, understanding of regulatory networks controlling its functions is critical, and the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the process is largely unknown. We aimed to explore miRNA expression and potential targets in the female fat body of Ae. aegypti, as well as their changes postblood meal (PBM)...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222782/identification-of-mirna-mrna-crosstalk-in-cd4-t-cells-during-hiv-1-infection-by-integrating-transcriptome-analyses
#18
Qibin Liao, Jin Wang, Zenglin Pei, Jianqing Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang
BACKGROUND: HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) are characterized by infection with HIV-1 more than 7-10 years, but keeping high CD4(+) T cell counts and low viral load in the absence of antiretroviral treatment, while loss of CD4(+) T cells and high viral load were observed in the most of HIV-1-infected individuals with chronic progressors (CPs) However, the mechanisms of different clinical outcomes in HIV-1 infection needs to be further resolved. METHODS: To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes related to distinct clinical outcomes in HIV-1 infection, we performed the integrative transcriptome analyses in two series GSE24022 and GSE6740 by GEO2R, R, TargetScan, miRDB, and Cytoscape softwares...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219808/photoluminescent-and-biodegradable-polycitrate-polyethylene-glycol-polyethyleneimine-polymers-as-highly-biocompatible-and-efficient-vectors-for-bioimaging-guided-sirna-and-mirna-delivery
#19
Min Wang, Yi Guo, Meng Yu, Peter X Ma, Cong Mao, Bo Lei
Development of biodegradable and biocompatible non-viral vectors with intrinsical multifunctional properties such as bioimaging ability for highly efficient nucleic acids delivery still remains a challenge. Here, a biodegradable poly (1, 8-octanedio-citric acid)-co-polyethylene glycol grafted with polyethyleneimine (PEI) (POCG-PEI) polymers with the photoluminescent capacity were synthesized for nucleic acids delivery (siRNA and miRNA). POCG-PEI polymers can efficiently bind various nucleic acids, protect them against enzymatic degradation and release the genes in the presence of polyanionic heparin...
February 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215541/evaluation-of-a-combinational-use-of-serum-micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-liver-diseases
#20
Ping Xu, Anliang Guo, Junchi Xu, Jianer Yao, Hui Chen, Fengping Wang, Chuanwu Zhu
Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) have been widely recognized as a novel noninvasive biomarker in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. In order to assess the sensitivity and reliability of potential miRNAs as diagnostic markers for liver disease related to viral infection, alcohol abuse, or chemical exposure, we collected serum samples from 326 participants and evaluated the single and combination diagnostic values of three serum miRNAs (miR-122, miR-125b, miR-192) compared with a conventional marker ALT...
February 16, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
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