Read by QxMD icon Read

Viral mirna

Afsar R Naqvi, Jennifer Shango, Alexandra Seal, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
Prevalence of the members of herpesvirus family in oral inflammatory diseases is increasingly acknowledged suggesting their likely role as an etiological factor. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In our recent miRNA profiling of healthy and diseased human tooth pulps, elevated expression of human herpesvirus encoded viral microRNAs (v-miRs) were identified. Based on the fold induction and significance values, we selected three v-miRs namely miR-K12-3-3p [Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus (KSHV)], miR-H1 [herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1)], and miR-UL-70-3p [human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)] to further examine their impact on host cellular functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Afsar R Naqvi, Alexandra Seal, Jennifer Shango, Maria Brambila Navarette, Gloria Martinez, Gabriela Chapa, Shirin Hasan, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Dinesh Jaishankar, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs of ~18-25 nucleotides that have gained extensive attention as critical regulators in complex gene networks including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis and function. Many viruses encode miRNAs that directly downregulate the expression of factors of the innate immune system, which includes proteins involved in promoting apoptosis and recruitment. In this study, we examined the expression profiles of three previously identified viral miRNAs (v-miRs) from the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, HSV-1 (miR-H1), KSHV (miR-K12-3-3p), and HCMV (miR-US4) in healthy and diseased periodontal tissues and observed increased levels of v-miRs in diseased tissues...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chaoqiong Liang, Jianjun Hao, Yan Meng, Laixin Luo, Jianqiang Li
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant reduction of both yield and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Currently, there were no satisfied strategies for controlling the disease. A better understanding of microRNA (miRNA) expression related to the regulation of plant-virus interactions and virus resistance would be of great assistance when developing control strategies for CGMMV. However, accurate expression analysis is highly dependent on robust and reliable reference gene used as an internal control for normalization of miRNA expression...
2018: PloS One
Abeer Sheneef, Asmaa M Gouda, Asmaa N Mohammad, Laila M Yousef, Amal K Noureldin
Chronic HCV with its longstanding complications of cirrhosis and HCC is a highly prevalent and challenging problem in Egypt. Recently, microRNAs are ranked as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCV related complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of miRNA-122 and miRNA-155 for prediction of progression of HCV infection and for diagnosis of HCC. A total of 92 chronic HCV patients [chronic HCV (group 1, n =32); chronic HCV with cirrhosis (group 2, n=31); chronic HCV with HCC (group 3, n=29)] were enrolled into the study...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Lei Wang, Xiaoqing Chen, Xusha Zhou, Bernard Roizman, Grace Guoying Zhou
miRNAs are potent tools that in principle can be used to control the replication of infectious agents. The objectives of the studies reported here were to design miRNAs that can block the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 and which could be delivered to infected cells via exosomes. We report the following: (1) We designed three miRNAs targeting the mRNA encoding ICP4, an essential viral regulatory protein. Of the three miRNAs, one miRNA401 effectively blocked ICP4 accumulation and viral replication on transfection into susceptible cells...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Waqar Islam, Muhammad Qasim, Ali Noman, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Tayyab, Taimoor Hassan Farooq, Huang Wei, Liande Wang
Plants are attacked by a large number of pathogens. To defend against these pathogens, plants activate or repress a vast array of genes. For genetic expression and reprogramming, host endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) are the key factors. Among these sRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level and play an essential role in the defense responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In the recent years, high-throughput sequencing has enabled the researchers to uncover the role of plant miRNAs during pathogen invasion...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Elina Virtanen, Hanna Seppälä, Ilkka Helanterä, Pia Laine, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Lars Paulin, Laura Mannonen, Petri Auvinen, Eeva Auvinen
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection is a common asymptomatic viral infection in the general population. Severe complications are seen in immunocompromised individuals, such as polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) in renal transplant recipients. Information on BKPyV microRNA expressions is scarce, although polyomavirus-encoded microRNAs have been shown to control viral replication and assist in immune evasion. Whereas the pathogenic role of rearrangements in JC polyomavirus has been well established, little is known about BKPyV rearrangements in PyVAN...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Francesco Martelli, Jessica Mencarini, Arianna Rocca, Nunzia Della Malva, Dario Bartolozzi, Simone Giannecchini
Current evidence suggests that Polyomavirus (PyV) microRNAs (miRNAs) circulating in biological fluids may be relevant to understanding viral persistence. Here, the expression of polyomavirus BKPyV, JCPyV, MCPyV and SV40 miRNAs in saliva was investigated to evaluate PyV prevalence/persistence in the oral cavity. PyV-DNA status and PyV-miRNA expression was examined in paired saliva and plasma samples of 100 HIV-infected patients and of 50 healthy subjects using digital droplet PCR and PyV-miRNA-5p stem-loop RT-PCR...
March 5, 2018: Virus Research
Lei Zhang, Zhimin Geng, Xiankui Meng, Fandi Meng, Lin Wang
The present study aimed to investigate key long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and genes, and to obtain insights into their roles in the progression of gallbladder cancer (GBC). The gene expression profile and non‑coding RNA profile of GSE62335, which included five separate GBC tissue samples and five matched adjacent gallbladder normal tissue samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in the GBC tissues were identified, following which RNA binding protein analysis was performed using starBase v2...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Jui Pandhare, Chandravanu Dash
HIV-1 has already claimed over 35 million human lives globally. No curative treatments are currently available, and the only treatment option for over 36 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS are antiretroviral drugs that disrupt the function of virus-encoded proteins. However, such virus-targeted therapeutic strategies are constrained by the ability of the virus to develop drug-resistance. Despite major advances in HIV/AIDS research over the years, substantial knowledge gaps exist in many aspects of HIV-1 replication, especially its interaction with the host...
March 3, 2018: Viruses
Ning Wu, Andrew Fesler, Hua Liu, Jingfang Ju
Background: Resistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy is the major reason for failure of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: In this study, we developed a novel miR-129 mimic with potent efficacy in eliminating resistant colon cancer stem cells both in vitro and in vivo . We integrated 5-FU into miR-129 by replacing Uracil (U) to generate 5-FU-miR-129 mimics (Mimic-1). Results: Mimic-1 is a strong therapeutic candidate with a number of unique features...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Jana Miniarikova, Melvin M Evers, Pavlina Konstantinova
The single mutation underlying the fatal neuropathology of Huntington's disease (HD) is a CAG triplet expansion in exon 1 of the huntingtin (HTT) gene, which gives rise to a toxic mutant HTT protein. There have been a number of not yet successful therapeutic advances in the treatment of HD. The current excitement in the HD field is due to the recent development of therapies targeting the culprit of HD either at the DNA or RNA level to reduce the overall mutant HTT protein. In this review, we briefly describe short-term and long-term HTT-lowering strategies targeting HTT transcripts...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Shanxin Peng, Jing Wang, Songtao Wei, Changfei Li, Kai Zhou, Jun Hu, Xin Ye, Jinghua Yan, Wenjun Liu, George F Gao, Min Fang, Songdong Meng
The reciprocal interaction between influenza virus and host microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in the regulation of viral replication and host tropism. However, the global roles of the cellular miRNA repertoire and the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated antiviral defense await further elucidation. In this study, we systematically screened 297 cellular miRNAs from human and mouse epithelial cells and identified five inhibitory miRNAs that efficiently inhibited influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Min Cheng, Yuqiang Niu, Jingjing Fan, Xiaojing Chi, Xiuying Liu, Wei Yang
Induction of interferons (IFNs) is a central event of antiviral innate immunity. As crucial post-transcriptional regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) are important for IFN-mediated host defense. Although screening has indicated a substantial number of miRNAs to be differentially expressed after IFN stimulation, the detailed mechanisms of these miRNAs in the antiviral response is underexplored and of great significance. Here, we show that hsa-miR-1225-3p is specifically downregulated by type I IFN through IFN/JAK/STAT signaling pathway...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Saijo Thomas, Jiyoti Verma, Megan Woolfit, Scott L O'Neill
Wolbachia is currently being developed as a novel tool to block the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV) by Aedes aegypti. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the DENV-blocking phenotype in mosquitoes, including competition for fatty acids like cholesterol, manipulation of host miRNAs and upregulation of innate immune pathways in the mosquito. We examined the various stages in the DENV infection process to better understand the mechanism of Wolbachia-mediated virus blocking (WMVB). Our results suggest that infection with Wolbachia does not inhibit DENV binding or cell entry, but reduces virus replication...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Irene Mencía Castaño, Caroline M Curtin, Garry Paul Duffy, Fergal J O'Brien
MicroRNA (miRNA) therapeutics are increasingly being developed to either target bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis or as the basis for novel bone tissue engineering strategies. A number of miRNAs have been reported as potential osteo-therapeutics but no consensus has yet been established on the optimal target. miR-16 has been studied extensively in non-osteogenic functions and used as functionality reporter target in the development of non-viral microRNA delivery platforms. This study hypothesised that miR-16 may also play an inhibitory role in osteogenesis due to its ability to directly target Smad5 & AcvR2a...
February 28, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Qi Tang, Lipeng Qiu, Guohui Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with ∼22 nucleotides, which are able to regulate various biological processes, including the viral life cycle and host-pathogen interactions. Long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are initially transcribed in nucleus, and subsequently processed by Dicer in cytoplasm to generate mature miRNAs. Baculoviruses consist of large, enveloped, insect-pathogenic viruses with a double-stranded circular DNA genome. Recent studies suggest that baculoviruses encode some miRNAs to manipulate expression regulation of host genes, whereas host modulate viral gene expression via miRNAs to limit viral infection...
February 27, 2018: Current Microbiology
Angelo Bitetti, Allison C Mallory, Elisabetta Golini, Claudia Carrieri, Héctor Carreño Gutiérrez, Emerald Perlas, Yuvia A Pérez-Rico, Glauco P Tocchini-Valentini, Anton J Enright, William H J Norton, Silvia Mandillo, Dónal O'Carroll, Alena Shkumatava
microRNAs (miRNAs) repress target transcripts through partial complementarity. By contrast, highly complementary miRNA-binding sites within viral and artificially engineered transcripts induce miRNA degradation in vitro and in cell lines. Here, we show that a genome-encoded transcript harboring a near-perfect and deeply conserved miRNA-binding site for miR-29 controls zebrafish and mouse behavior. This transcript originated in basal vertebrates as a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and evolved to the protein-coding gene NREP in mammals, where the miR-29-binding site is located within the 3' UTR...
February 26, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Dunjia Wang, Xiaodong Wang, Xiaofang Liu, Liping Jiang, Guang Yang, Xiaoxia Shi, Cong Zhang, Fengyuan Piao
Epidemiological investigations and experimental studies indicate that chronic arsenic exposure can reduce learning and memory function. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect remains largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA) play an important role in toxicant exposure and a regulatory role in cognitive function. In this study, we observed that subchronic arsenic exposure induced impairment of learning and memory and significantly up-regulated miRNA-219 (miR-219) expression in the mouse hippocampus...
February 24, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Na Zhang, Yun-Juan Bao, Amy Hin-Yan Tong, Scott Zuyderduyn, Gary D Bader, J S Malik Peiris, Si Lok, Suki Man-Yan Lee
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H5N1 virus can cause lethal disease in humans. The virus can trigger severe pneumonia and lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Data from clinical, in vitro and in vivo suggest that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation could be a contributory factor to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. However, the precise mechanism of H5N1 infection eliciting the unique host response are still not well understood. METHODS: To obtain a better understanding of the molecular events at the earliest time points, we used RNA-Seq to quantify and compare the host mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes induced by the highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 (A/Vietnam/3212/04) or low virulent H1N1 (A/Hong Kong/54/98) viruses in human monocyte-derived macrophages at 1-, 3-, and 6-h post infection...
February 23, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"