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Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
Patient safety is an increasing concern for health systems internationally. The majority of administrative work in UK general practice takes place in the context of organisational routines such as repeat prescribing and test results handling, where high workloads and increased clinician dependency on administrative staff have been identified as an emerging safety issue. Despite this trend, most research to date has focused on the redistribution of the clinical workload between doctors, nurses and allied health professionals within individual care settings...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Waqas Hameed, Bilal Iqbal Avan
INTRODUCTION: Respectful and dignified healthcare is a fundamental right for every woman. However, many women seeking childbirth services, especially those in low-income countries such as Pakistan, are mistreated by their birth attendants. The aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalence of mistreatment and types of mistreatment among women giving birth in facility- and home-based settings in Pakistan in order to address the lack of empirical evidence on this topic...
2018: PloS One
Sherine Ismail, Mohamed Osman, Rayf Abulezz, Hani Alhamdan, K H Mujtaba Quadri
Pharmacists possess pivotal competencies and expertise in developing clinical pathways (CPs). We present a tertiary care facility experience of pharmacists vis-a-vis interprofessional collaboration for designing and implementing CPs. We participated in the development of CPs as leading members of a collaborative team of healthcare professionals. We reviewed literature, aligning it with hospital formulary and institutional standards, and participated in weekly team meetings for six months. Several tools and services were adapted to guide prescribing and standardization of care through time-bound order sets...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
R Miller, K Schmidt, C Kirschbaum, S Enge
The internet-based assessment of response time (RT) and error rate (ERR) has recently become a well-validated alternative to traditional laboratory-based assessment, because methodological research has provided evidence for negligible setting- and setup-related differences in RT and ERR measures of central tendency. However, corresponding data on potential differences in the variability of such performance measures are still lacking, to date. Hence, the aim of this study was to conduct internet-based mental chronometry in both poorly standardized domestic and highly standardized laboratory environments and to compare the variabilities of the corresponding performance measures...
March 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Korkut Bekiroglu, Constantino Lagoa, Stephanie T Lanza, Mario Sznaier
Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of algorithms for identification of parsimonious discrete time models from noisy input/output data sets since this facilitates controller design. Several methods, such as nuclear norm minimization, have been used to provide approximate solutions to this non-convex problem. However, even though the field of continuous time system identification is now mature, results on parsimonious model identification of continuous time systems are still very limited...
July 2017: Proceedings of the IFAC World Congress
Oscar Illescas, Juan C Gomez-Verjan, Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Tzipe Govezensky, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa
Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a role in several metabolic and inflammatory processes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -173 G/C (rs755622) on MIF gene has been associated with numerous diseases, such as arthritis and cancer. However, most of the reports concerning the association of MIF with these and other pathologies are inconsistent and remain quite controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis from 96 case-control studies on -173 G/C MIF SNP and stratified the data according to the subjects geographic localization or the disease pathophysiology, in order to determine a more meaningful significance to this SNP...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Rupesh K Chikara, Erik C Chang, Yi-Chen Lu, Dar-Shong Lin, Chin-Teng Lin, Li-Wei Ko
A reward or punishment can modulate motivation and emotions, which in turn affect cognitive processing. The present simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography study examines neural mechanisms of response inhibition under the influence of a monetary reward or punishment by implementing a modified stop-signal task in a virtual battlefield scenario. The participants were instructed to play as snipers who open fire at a terrorist target but withhold shooting in the presence of a hostage...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
J Vedelago, F Mattea, M Valente
The use and implementation of nanoparticles in medicine has grown exponentially in the last twenty years. Their main applications include drug delivery, theranostics, tissue engineering and magneto function. Dosimetry techniques can take advantage of inorganic nanoparticles properties and their combination with gel dosimetry techniques could be used as a first step for their later inclusion in radio-diagnostics or radiotherapy treatments. The present study presents preliminary results of properly synthesized and purified silver nanoparticles integration with Fricke gel dosimeters...
March 1, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Khe Foon Hew, Chung Kwan Lo
BACKGROUND: The use of flipped classroom approach has become increasingly popular in health professions education. However, no meta-analysis has been published that specifically examines the effect of flipped classroom versus traditional classroom on student learning. This study examined the findings of comparative articles through a meta-analysis in order to summarize the overall effects of teaching with the flipped classroom approach. We focused specifically on a set of flipped classroom studies in which pre-recorded videos were provided before face-to-face class meetings...
March 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Minerva Kyei-Onanjiri, Mary Carolan-Olah, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Terence V McCann
BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality is most prevalent in resource-poor settings such as sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia. In sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is one of the countries still facing particular challenges in reducing its maternal morbidity and mortality. Access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) interventions has been identified as a means of improving maternal health outcomes. Assessing the range of interventions provided in health facilities is, therefore, important in determining capacity to treat obstetric emergencies...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Xiaoyan Cui, Zhenqiang Fu, Menghan Wang, Xiaofei Nan, Boai Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Along with their lipid-lowering effect, statins have been reported to have neuroprotective function in both in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases. We conducted this study in order to uncover the he neuroprotective effect of the lipophilic statin pitavastatin (PTV) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms using primary cultured cerebral neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). METHODS: The primary cultured cerebral neurons were randomly assigned into four groups: the control group, the pitavastatin treatment group, the OGD group and the OGD + pitavastatin treatment group...
March 16, 2018: Neurological Research
Heidi Lourens, Brian Watermeyer, Leslie Swartz
PURPOSE: Scholars agree that effective rehabilitation relies on a bedrock of reciprocity, relational trust, and authenticity. It is therefore essential for practitioners to develop insight into the complex dynamics within helping relationships. This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of visually impaired students' experience of informal helping relationships. METHODS: Ten visually impaired students at a South African university participated in one of two semi-structured focus group interviews (six and four in each group, respectively) wherein we explored their experience of informal helping relationships...
March 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Zorka Smedarchina, Willem Siebrand, Antonio Fernández-Ramos
A theoretical study is reported of a system of two identical symmetric hydrogen bonds, weakly coupled such that the two mobile protons can move either separately (stepwise) or together (concerted). It is modeled by two equivalent quartic potentials interacting through dipolar and quadrupolar coupling terms. The tunneling Hamiltonian has two imaginary modes (reaction coordinates) and a potential with a single maximum that may turn into a saddle-point of second order and two sets of (inequivalent) minima. Diagonalization is achieved via a modified Jacobi-Davidson algorithm...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
R van Meer, O V Gritsenko, E J Baerends
Almost all functionals that are currently used in density matrix functional theory have been created by some a priori ansatz that generates approximations to the second-order reduced density matrix (2RDM). In this paper, a more consistent approach is used: we analyze the 2RDMs (in the natural orbital basis) of rather accurate multi-reference configuration interaction expansions for several small molecules (CH4 , NH3 , H2 O, FH, and N2 ) and use the knowledge gained to generate new functionals. The analysis shows that a geminal-like structure is present in the 2RDMs, even though no geminal theory has been applied from the onset...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Samiul M Ansari, David S Palmer
Recently, Güssregen et al. used solute-solvent distribution functions calculated by the 3D Reference Interaction Site Model (3DRISM) in a 3D-QSAR approach to model activity data for a set of serine protease inhibitors; this approach was referred to as Comparative Analysis of 3D RISM MAps (CARMa). [J. Chem. Inf. MODEL: , 2017, 57, 1652-1666] Here we extend this idea by introducing probe atoms into the 3DRISM solvent model in order to directly capture other molecular interactions in addition to those related to hydration/dehydration...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Mathieu Bonneau, Régis Sabbadin, Fred A Johnson, Bradley Stith
Conversion of wild habitats to human dominated landscape is a major cause of biodiversity loss. An approach to mitigate the impact of habitat loss consists of designating reserves where habitat is preserved and managed. Determining the most valuable areas to preserve in a landscape is called the reserve design problem. There exists several possible formulations of the reserve design problem, depending on the objectives and the constraints. In this article, we considered the dynamic problem of designing a reserve that contains a desired area of several key habitats...
2018: PloS One
Nathalie M Berninger, Gill A Ten Hoor, Guy Plasqui
Sedentary behavior (SB) has detrimental consequences and cannot be compensated for through moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA). In order to understand and mitigate SB, tools for measuring and monitoring SB are essential. While current direct-to-customer wearables focus on PA, the VitaBit validated in this study was developed to focus on SB. It was tested in a laboratory and in a free-living condition, comparing it to direct observation and to a current best-practice device, the ActiGraph, on a minute-by-minute basis...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Haolan Zhao, Stéphane Clemmen, Ali Raza, Roel Baets
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of stimulated Raman spectroscopy enhanced by a nanophotonic integrated circuit. The Raman response of low-concentration dimethyl sulfoxide is evanescently probed via centimeter-long wire waveguides. A signal enhancement of close to five orders of magnitude, as compared to the case of on-chip spontaneous Raman scattering, is demonstrated. This significant enhancement factor allows for the use of continuous-wave lasers with milliwatt-level power and uncooled detectors and, therefore, sets the basis of future all-on-a-chip Raman spectrometers suitable for both gas and liquid detection...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mark Hindmarsh
A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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