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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107772/a-preliminary-randomized-controlled-trial-of-contingency-management-for-alcohol-use-reduction-using-a-transdermal-alcohol-sensor
#1
Nancy P Barnett, Mark A Celio, Jennifer W Tidey, James G Murphy, Suzanne M Colby, Robert M Swift
AIMS: We tested the efficacy of daily contingent reinforcement for reducing alcohol use compared with (yoked) noncontingent reinforcement (NR) using a transdermal alcohol sensor to detect alcohol use. DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled design with one baseline week, three intervention weeks, and one-month follow up. SETTING: New England, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Heavy drinking adults (47% female) not seeking treatment were randomized to 1) an escalating schedule of cash reinforcement (CR; n =15) for days on which alcohol was neither reported nor detected or 2) yoked NR (n =15)...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107542/temporal-segregation-between-dung-inhabiting-beetle-and-fly-species
#2
Frantisek Xaver Jiri Sladecek, Simon Tristram Segar, Colin Lee, Richard Wall, Martin Konvicka
The coexistence of ecologically similar species (i.e. species utilizing the same resource) is a major topic in ecology. Communities are assembled either through the biotic interactions of ecologically similar species, e.g. competition, or by the abiotic separation of species along gradients of environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the temporal segregation, succession and seasonality of dung-inhabiting Coleoptera and Diptera that utilize an identical resource in exactly the same way. The data were collected from two temperate pastures, one in the United Kingdom and the second in the Czech Republic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106919/body-checking-in-non-clinical-women-experimental-evidence-of-a-specific-impact-on-fear-of-uncontrollable-weight-gain
#3
Natalie Bailey, Glenn Waller
Body checking is used widely among clinical and non-clinical individuals. It is suggested to be a safety behavior, reducing anxiety initially but potentially enhancing eating and shape concerns in the longer term. However, there is little causal evidence of those negative effects. This experimental study tests the potential negative impact of body checking. Fifty non-clinical women took part in a study of the effects of body checking in naturalistic settings. Each checked their wrist size every 15 minutes for eight hours on one day, then did not check the next day (order randomized)...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106837/a-distributed-and-energy-efficient-algorithm-for-event-k-coverage-in-underwater-sensor-networks
#4
Peng Jiang, Yiming Xu, Jun Liu
For event dynamic K-coverage algorithms, each management node selects its assistant node by using a greedy algorithm without considering the residual energy and situations in which a node is selected by several events. This approach affects network energy consumption and balance. Therefore, this study proposes a distributed and energy-efficient event K-coverage algorithm (DEEKA). After the network achieves 1-coverage, the nodes that detect the same event compete for the event management node with the number of candidate nodes and the average residual energy, as well as the distance to the event...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105942/the-occurrence-of-spring-forms-in-tetraploid-timopheevi-wheat-is-associated-with-variation-in-the-first-intron-of-the-vrn-a1-gene
#5
Andrey Borisovich Shcherban, Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Schichkina, Elena Artemovna Salina
BACKGROUND: Triticum araraticum and Triticum timopheevii are tetraploid species of the Timopheevi group. The former includes both winter and spring forms with a predominance of winter forms, whereas T. timopheevii is considered a spring species. In order to clarify the origin of the spring growth habit in T. timopheevii, allelic variability of the VRN-1 gene was investigated in a set of accessions of both tetraploid species, together with the diploid species Ae. speltoides, presumed donor of the G genome to these tetraploids...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105939/evolution-of-mitochondrial-genomes-in-baikalian-amphipods
#6
Elena V Romanova, Vladimir V Aleoshin, Ravil M Kamaltynov, Kirill V Mikhailov, Maria D Logacheva, Elena A Sirotinina, Alexander Yu Gornov, Anton S Anikin, Dmitry Yu Sherbakov
BACKGROUND: Amphipods (Crustacea) of Lake Baikal are a very numerous and diverse group of invertebrates generally believed to have originated by adaptive radiation. The evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationships in Baikalian amphipods still remain poorly understood. Sequencing of mitochondrial genomes is a relatively feasible way for obtaining a set of gene sequences suitable for robust phylogenetic inferences. The architecture of mitochondrial genomes also may provide additional information on the mechanisms of evolution of amphipods in Lake Baikal...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105920/compromise-or-optimize-the-breakpoint-anti-median
#7
Caroline Anne Larlee, Alex Brandts, David Sankoff
BACKGROUND: The median of k≥3 genomes was originally defined to find a compromise genome indicative of a common ancestor. However, in gene order comparisons, the usual definitions based on minimizing the sum of distances to the input genomes lead to degenerate medians reflecting only one of the input genomes. "Near-medians", consisting of equal samples of gene adjacencies from all the input genomes, were designed to restore the idea of compromise to the median problem. RESULT: We explore adjacency sampling constructions in full generality in the case k=3, with given overlapping sets of adjacencies in the three genomes, where all adjacencies in two-way or three-way overlaps are included in the sample...
December 15, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105791/the-future-of-pleiotropic-therapy-in-heart-failure-lessons-from-the-benefits-of-exercise-training-on-endothelial-function
#8
REVIEW
Gilles W De Keulenaer, Vincent F M Segers, Faiez Zannad, Dirk L Brutsaert
A novel generation of drugs is introduced in the treatment of heart failure (HF). These drugs, including phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, guanylate cyclase stimulators and activators, share the feature that their action is either endothelial-mediated or substitutes for endothelial pathways, in particular the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, thereby influencing homeostatic balances in virtually each organ system in a pleiotropic fashion. Unfortunately, recent clinical trials with some of these drugs have shown disappointing results, at least in the setting of HF with a preserved ejection fraction...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105741/potential-use-of-cubic-phase-masks-for-extending-the-range-of-clear-vision-in-presbyopes-initial-calculation-and-simulation-studies
#9
Justo Arines, Citlalli Almaguer, Eva Acosta
PURPOSE: In this paper we analyse the potential use of a non-symmetrical optical element, a cubic phase mask, for extending the range of clear vision of presbyopic eyes. Additionally, we will discuss the appropriateness of the visual Strehl ratio to analyse this sort of presbyopic solution based on non-symmetrical phase masks contrasted with through-focus retinal images. METHODS: In order to evaluate the performance of the cubic phase mask we employed computational Fourier Optics to compute the different visual Strehl criteria as well as simulate the retinal images...
January 20, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105592/investigation-of-heavy-metal-pollution-in-eastern-aegean-sea-coastal-waters-by-using-cystoseira-barbata-patella-caerulea-and-liza-aurata-as-biological-indicators
#10
S Aydın-Önen, M Öztürk
In order to have an extensive contamination profile of heavy metal levels (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), seawater, sediment, Patella caerulea, Cystoseira barbata, and Liza aurata were investigated by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples were collected from five coastal stations along the eastern Aegean Sea coast (Turkey) on a monthly basis from July 2002 through May 2003. According to the results of this study, heavy metal levels were arranged in the following sequence: Fe > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu > Cd for water, Fe > Cu > Mn > Ni > Zn > Pb > Cd for sediment, Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu for C...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105384/sample-mmm-manuscript-for-submission-to-aip-advances-transient-line-starting-analysis-of-the-ultra-high-speed-pmsm
#11
Wenjie Cheng, Wei Li, Ling Xiao, Ming Li, Yongsheng Tian, Yanhua Sun, Lie Yu
Aiming at the ultra high speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) supported by gas foil bearings (GFBs), this paper calculates the transient line starting of the motor. Firstly, the start effect of the rotor composed of cylindrical PM and stainless steel sleeve is studied. Then, in order to enhance the start torque, copper ring, nickel ring and copper squirrel-cage are introduced in the rotor and their start effect are analysed, respectively. It can be found that the rotor including nickel ring can be accelerated to set speed, but all the other rotors are failed due to the higher PM and braking torques...
May 2017: AIP Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104806/reducing-unnecessary-testing-an-intervention-to-improve-resident-ordering-practices
#12
Jose Melendez-Rosado, Kristine M Thompson, Jed C Cowdell, Catalina Sanchez Alvarez, Ryan L Ung, Armando Villanueva, Kayin B Jeffers, Jaafer S Imam, Mario V Mitkov, Tasneem A Kaleem, Lewis Jacob, Nancy L Dawson
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To reduce the number of unnecessary laboratory tests ordered through a measurement of effects of education and cost awareness on laboratory ordering behaviour by internal medicine residents for common tests, including complete blood cell count (CBC) and renal profile (RP), and to evaluate effects of cost awareness on hospitalisation, 30-day readmission rate and mortality rate. STUDY DESIGN: 567 patients admitted during February, March and April 2014 were reviewed as the control group...
January 19, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103948/the-cost-effectiveness-of-a-patient-tailored-intervention-programme-to-enhance-adherence-to-antihypertensive-medication-in-community-pharmacies-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Danielle M van der Laan, Petra J M Elders, Christel C L M Boons, Judith E Bosmans, Giel Nijpels, Jacqueline G Hugtenburg
BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence is a complex health care problem. Due to non-adherence, substantial numbers of cardiovascular patients benefit from their medication to only a limited extent. In order to improve adherence, a variety of pharmacist-led interventions have been developed. However, even the most effective interventions achieved only a modest positive effect. To be effective, interventions should be targeted at underlying barriers to adherence, developed in a systematic manner and tailored to specific features of a target group and setting...
January 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103865/can-healthcare-utilization-data-reliably-capture-cases-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases-a-cross-sectional-investigation-in-italy
#14
A Biffi, R Comoretto, A Arfè, L Scotti, L Merlino, A Vaghi, A Pesci, R de Marco, G Corrao
BACKGROUND: Healthcare utilization data are increasingly used for chronic disease surveillance. Nevertheless, no standard criteria for estimating prevalence of high-impact diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, are available. In this study an algorithm for recognizing COPD/asthma cases from HCU data is developed and implemented in the HCU databases of the Italian Lombardy Region (about 10 million residents). The impact of diagnostic misclassification for reliably estimating prevalence was also assessed...
January 19, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103861/the-saskatchewan-new-brunswick-healthy-start-d%C3%A3-part-sant%C3%A3-intervention-implementation-cost-estimates-of-a-physical-activity-and-healthy-eating-intervention-in-early-learning-centers
#15
Nazmi Sari, Nazeem Muhajarine, Amanda Froehlich Chow
BACKGROUND: Participation in daily physical activity and consuming a balanced diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in processed foods are behaviours associated with positive health outcomes during all stages of life. Previous literature suggests that the earlier these behaviours are established the greater the health benefits. As such, early learning settings have been shown to provide an effective avenue for exploring and influencing the physical activity and healthy eating behaviours of children before school entry...
January 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103824/management-prognosis-and-predictors-of-unfavourable-outcomes-in-patients-newly-hospitalized-for-transient-ischemic-attack-a-real-world-investigation-from-italy
#16
Giovanni Corrao, Federico Rea, Luca Merlino, Paolo Mazzola, Federico Annoni, Giorgio Annoni
BACKGROUND: Understanding the gap between evidence-based recommendations and real-world management is important to inform priority setting and health service planning. METHODS: The 7,776 residents in the Italian Lombardy Region who were newly hospitalized for transient ischemic attack (TIA) during 2008-2009 entered into the cohort and were followed until 2012. Exposure to medical care including selected drugs, diagnostic procedures and laboratory tests was recorded...
January 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103794/genomic-and-transcriptomic-comparison-between-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-associated-with-high-and-low-within-herd-prevalence-of-intra-mammary-infection
#17
E Capra, P Cremonesi, A Pietrelli, S Puccio, M Luini, A Stella, B Castiglioni
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing mastitis in dairy ruminants worldwide. The chronic nature of Staph. aureus infection enhances the contagiousness risk and diffusion in herds. In order to identify the factors involved in intra-mammary infection (IMI) and diffusion in dairy cows, we investigated the molecular characteristics of two groups of Staph. aureus strains belonging to ST8 and ST398, differing in clinical properties, through comparison of whole genome and whole transcriptome sequencing...
January 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103677/inversion-of-extender-unit-selectivity-in-the-erythromycin-polyketide-synthase-by-acyltransferase-domain-engineering
#18
Irina Koryakina, Christian Kasey, John B McArthur, Andrew N Lowell, Joseph A Chemler, Shasha Li, Douglas A Hansen, David H Sherman, Gavin J Williams
Acyltransferase (AT) domains of polyketide synthases (PKSs) select extender units for incorporation into polyketides and dictate large portions of the structures of clinically relevant natural products. Accordingly, there is significant interest in engineering the substrate specificity of PKS ATs in order to site-selectively manipulate polyketide structure. However, previous attempts to engineer ATs have yielded mutant PKSs with relaxed extender unit specificity, rather than an inversion of selectivity from one substrate to another...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103283/orthogonal-procrustes-analysis-for-dictionary-learning-in-sparse-linear-representation
#19
Giuliano Grossi, Raffaella Lanzarotti, Jianyi Lin
In the sparse representation model, the design of overcomplete dictionaries plays a key role for the effectiveness and applicability in different domains. Recent research has produced several dictionary learning approaches, being proven that dictionaries learnt by data examples significantly outperform structured ones, e.g. wavelet transforms. In this context, learning consists in adapting the dictionary atoms to a set of training signals in order to promote a sparse representation that minimizes the reconstruction error...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103034/a-comparison-of-gallium-and-indium-alkoxide-complexes-as-catalysts-for-ring-opening-polymerization-of-lactide
#20
Alexandre B Kremer, Ryan J Andrews, Matthew J Milner, Xu R Zhang, Tannaz Ebrahimi, Brian O Patrick, Paula L Diaconescu, Parisa Mehrkhodavandi
The impact of the metal size and Lewis acidity on the polymerization activity of group 13 metal complexes was studied, and it was shown that, within the same ligand family, indium complexes are far more reactive and selective than their gallium analogues. To this end, gallium and aluminum complexes supported by a tridentate diaminophenolate ligand, as well as gallium complexes supported by N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylimine)(salen) ligands, were synthesized and compared to their indium analogues. Using the tridentate ligand set, it was possible to isolate the gallium chloride complexes 3 and (±)-4 and the aluminum analogues 5 and (±)-6...
January 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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