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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936397/design-of-a-new-comprehensive-continuous-monitoring-system-for-environmental-radioactive-aerosol
#1
Hongkun Xu, Zihan Huang, Ge Wang, Changli Mu, Yin Yin
In order to comprehensive monitoring the radioactive isotopes from nuclear facilities, we developed a dual channel spectral monitoring instrument, and realized synchronous measurement for alpha, beta and gamma radionuclides. This article focuses on how to ensure its accuracy, stability and efficiency. First is the accuracy. In order to lower the interference of environmental and detector performance variation, the zero phase shift filter was designed to ensure the accuracy of characteristic peak position. Lorenz fitting algorithm was designed to reduce the effect of spectral low-energy tailing...
December 1, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936240/composting-like-conditions-are-more-efficient-for-enrichment-and-diversity-of-organisms-containing-cellulase-encoding-genes-than-submerged-cultures
#2
Senta Heiss-Blanquet, Françoise Fayolle-Guichard, Vincent Lombard, Agnès Hébert, Pedro M Coutinho, Alexis Groppi, Aurélien Barre, Bernard Henrissat
Cost-effective biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass depends on efficient degradation of the plant cell wall. One of the major obstacles for the development of a cost-efficient process is the lack of resistance of currently used fungal enzymes to harsh conditions such as high temperature. Adapted, thermophilic microbial communities provide a huge reservoir of potentially interesting lignocellulose-degrading enzymes for improvement of the cellulose hydrolysis step. In order to identify such enzymes, a leaf and wood chip compost was enriched on a mixture of thermo-chemically pretreated wheat straw, poplar and Miscanthus under thermophile conditions, but in two different set-ups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936060/a-non-linear-scoring-approach-for-evaluating-balance-classification-of-elderly-as-fallers-and-non-fallers
#3
Julien Audiffren, Ioannis Bargiotas, Nicolas Vayatis, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Damien Ricard
Almost one third of population 65 years-old and older faces at least one fall per year. An accurate evaluation of the risk of fall through simple and easy-to-use measurements is an important issue in current clinic. A common way to evaluate balance in posturography is through the recording of the centre-of-pressure (CoP) displacement (statokinesigram) with force platforms. A variety of indices have been proposed to differentiate fallers from non fallers. However, no agreement has been reached whether these analyses alone can explain sufficiently the complex synergies of postural control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935669/influence-of-cattle-on-browsing-and-grazing-wildlife-varies-with-rainfall-and-presence-of-megaherbivores
#4
Duncan M Kimuyu, Kari E Veblen, Corinna Riginos, Robert M Chira, John M Githaiga, Truman P Young
In many savanna ecosystems worldwide, livestock share the landscape and its resources with wildlife. The nature of interactions between livestock and wildlife is a subject of considerable interest and speculation, yet little controlled experimental research has been carried out. Since 1995, we have been manipulating the presence and absence of cattle and large mammalian herbivore wildlife in a Kenyan savanna in order to better understand how different herbivore guilds influence space use by specific wildlife species...
December 9, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935640/the-basis-function-approach-for-modeling-autocorrelation-in-ecological-data
#5
Trevor J Hefley, Kristin M Broms, Brian M Brost, Frances E Buderman, Shannon L Kay, Henry R Scharf, John R Tipton, Perry J Williams, Mevin B Hooten
Analyzing ecological data often requires modeling the autocorrelation created by spatial and temporal processes. Many seemingly disparate statistical methods used to account for autocorrelation can be expressed as regression models that include basis functions. Basis functions also enable ecologists to modify a wide range of existing ecological models in order to account for autocorrelation, which can improve inference and predictive accuracy.Furthermore, understanding the properties of basis functions is essential for evaluating the fit of spatial or time-series models, detecting a hidden form of collinearity, and analyzing large data sets...
December 9, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935002/connectivity-dynamics-and-structure-in-a-tetrahedral-network-liquid
#6
Sándalo Roldán-Vargas, Lorenzo Rovigatti, Francesco Sciortino
We report a detailed computational study by Brownian dynamics simulations of the structure and dynamics of a liquid of patchy particles which forms an amorphous tetrahedral network upon decreasing the temperature. The highly directional particle interactions allow us to investigate the system connectivity by discriminating the total set of particles into different populations according to a penta-modal distribution of bonds per particle. With this methodology we show how the particle bonding process is not randomly independent but it manifests clear bond correlations at low temperatures...
December 9, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934982/shape-electronic-structure-and-steric-effects-of-organometallic-nanocatalysts-relevant-tools-to-improve-the-synergy-between-theory-and-experiment
#7
Lucy Cusinato, Iker Del Rosal, Romuald Poteau
Working closely with experimentalists on the comprehension of the surface properties of catalytically active organometallic nanoparticles (NPs) requires the development of several computational strategies which significantly differ from the cluster domain where a precise knowledge of their optimal geometry is a mandatory prerequisite to computational modeling. Theoretical simulations can address several properties of organometallic nanoparticles: the morphology of the metal core, the surface composition under realistic thermodynamic conditions, the relationship between adsorption energies and predictive descriptors of reactivity...
December 9, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934782/can-conventional-phase-change-memory-devices-be-scaled-down-to-single-nanometre-dimensions
#8
Hasan Hayat, Krisztian Kohary, C David Wright
The scaling potential of 'mushroom-type' phase-change memory devices is evaluated, down to single-nanometre dimensions, using physically realistic simulations that combine electro-thermal modelling with a Gillespie Cellular Automata phase-transformation approach. We found that cells with heater contact sizes as small as 6 nm could be successfully amorphized and re-crystallized (RESET and SET) using moderate excitation voltages. However, to enable the efficient formation of amorphous domes during RESET in small cells (heater contact diameters of 10 nm or less), it was necessary to improve the thermal confinement of the cell to reduce heat loss via the electrodes...
December 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934191/plasma-induced-nonvolatile-resistive-switching-with-extremely-low-set-voltage-in-tioxfy-with-agf-nanoparticles
#9
Xiangyu Sun, Chuangui Wu, Yao Shuai, Xinqiang Pan, Wenbo Luo, Tiangui You, Agnieszka Bogusz, Nan Du, Yanrong Li, Heidemarie Schmidt
Low power consumption is crucial for the application of resistive random access memory. In this work, we present the bipolar resistive switching in an Ag/TiOxFy/Ti/Pt stack with extremely low switch-on voltage of 0.07 V. Operating current as low as 10 nA was also obtained by conductive atomic force microscopy. The highly defective TiOxFy layer was fabricated by plasma treatment using helium, oxygen, and carbon tetrafluoride orderly. During the electroforming process, AgF nanoparticles were formed due to the diffusion of Ag(+) which reacted with the adsorbed F(-) in the TiOxFy layer...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934123/aspects-of-quantitation-in-mass-spectrometry-imaging-investigated-on-cryo-sections-of-spiked-tissue-homogenates
#10
Heidi Toft Hansen, Christian Janfelt
Internal standards have been introduced in quantitative mass spectrometry imaging in order to compensate for differences in intensities throughout an image caused by, for example, difference in ion suppression or analyte extraction efficiency. To test how well the internal standards compensate for differences in tissue types in, for example, whole-body imaging, a set of tissue homogenates of different tissue types (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and brain) from rabbit was spiked to the same concentration with the drug amitriptyline and imaged in the same experiment using isotope labeled amitriptyline as internal standard...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934065/sugar-surfactant-based-microemulsions-at-solid-surfaces-influence-of-the-oil-type-and-surface-polarity
#11
Salomé Vargas-Ruiz, Olaf Soltwedel, Samantha Micciulla, Ramsia Sreij, Artem Feoktystov, Regine von Klitzing, Thomas Hellweg, Stefan Wellert
The structure of sugar-surfactant-based bicontinuous microemulsions in the bulk and at hydrophilic and hydrophobic solid planar surfaces was studied by means of neutron scattering techniques (SANS, NR, and GISANS). In particular, the influence of the type of oil (tetradecane and methyl oleate) on the structural properties in the vicinity of surfaces was investigated at different oil-to-water ratios. In the case of hydrophilic surfaces, the analysis of the scattering length density profiles reveals an induced ordering of the oil and water domains perpendicular to the solid-liquid interface in both sets of microemulsions...
November 15, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933798/high-affinity-binding-of-monomeric-but-not-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-to-ganglioside-gm1-containing-nanodiscs
#12
Maren Thomaier, Lothar Gremer, Christina Dammers, Judith Fabig, Philipp Neudecker, Dieter Willbold
The interaction of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ) with neuronal cell membranes plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease. Aβ undergoes structural changes upon binding to ganglioside GM1 containing membranes leading to altered molecular characteristics of the protein. The physiological role of the Aβ interaction with the ganglioside GM1 is still unclear. In order to further elucidate the molecular requirements of Aβ membrane binding, we tested different nanodiscs varying in their lipid composition, regarding the charge of the headgroups as well as ganglioside GM1 concentration...
December 6, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933580/headache-service-quality-evaluation-of-quality-indicators-in-14-specialist-care-centres
#13
Sara Schramm, Derya Uluduz, Raquel Gil Gouveia, Rigmor Jensen, Aksel Siva, Ugur Uygunoglu, Giorgadze Gvantsa, Maka Mania, Mark Braschinsky, Elena Filatova, Nina Latysheva, Vera Osipova, Kirill Skorobogatykh, Julia Azimova, Andreas Straube, Ozan Emre Eren, Paolo Martelletti, Valerio De Angelis, Andrea Negro, Mattias Linde, Knut Hagen, Aleksandra Radojicic, Jasna Zidverc-Trajkovic, Ana Podgorac, Koen Paemeleire, Annelien De Pue, Christian Lampl, Timothy J Steiner, Zaza Katsarava
BACKGROUND: The study was a collaboration between Lifting The Burden (LTB) and the European Headache Federation (EHF). Its aim was to evaluate the implementation of quality indicators for headache care Europe-wide in specialist headache centres (level-3 according to the EHF/LTB standard). METHODS: Employing previously-developed instruments in 14 such centres, we made enquiries, in each, of health-care providers (doctors, nurses, psychologists, physiotherapists) and 50 patients, and analysed the medical records of 50 other patients...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933534/genomic-control-of-retinal-cell-number-challenges-protocol-and-results
#14
Patrick W Keeley, Irene E Whitney, Benjamin E Reese
This chapter considers some of the challenges in obtaining accurate and consistent estimates of neuronal population size in the mouse retina, in order to identify the genetic control of cell number through QTL mapping and candidate gene analysis. We first discuss a variety of best practices for analyzing large numbers of recombinant inbred strains of mice over the course of a year in order to amass a satisfactory dataset for QTL mapping. We then consider the relative merits of using average cell density versus estimated total cell number as the target trait to be assessed, and why estimates of heritability may differ for these two traits when studying the retina in whole-mount preparations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933521/genenetwork-a-toolbox-for-systems-genetics
#15
Megan K Mulligan, Khyobeni Mozhui, Pjotr Prins, Robert W Williams
The goal of systems genetics is to understand the impact of genetic variation across all levels of biological organization, from mRNAs, proteins, and metabolites, to higher-order physiological and behavioral traits. This approach requires the accumulation and integration of many types of data, and also requires the use of many types of statistical tools to extract relevant patterns of covariation and causal relations as a function of genetics, environment, stage, and treatment. In this protocol we explain how to use the GeneNetwork web service, a powerful and free online resource for systems genetics...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933290/validation-of-a-cochlear-implant-patient-specific-model-of-the-voltage-distribution-in-a-clinical-setting
#16
Waldo Nogueira, Daniel Schurzig, Andreas Büchner, Richard T Penninger, Waldemar Würfel
Cochlear Implants (CIs) are medical implantable devices that can restore the sense of hearing in people with profound hearing loss. Clinical trials assessing speech intelligibility in CI users have found large intersubject variability. One possibility to explain the variability is the individual differences in the interface created between electrodes of the CI and the auditory nerve. In order to understand the variability, models of the voltage distribution of the electrically stimulated cochlea may be useful...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933165/interactions-between-rates-of-temperature-change-and-acclimation-affect-latitudinal-patterns-of-warming-tolerance
#17
Jessica L Allen, Steven L Chown, Charlene Janion-Scheepers, Susana Clusella-Trullas
Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and warming tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and warming tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933151/improving-asthma-care-in-a-pediatric-resident-clinic
#18
Julia Lee, Albina Gogo, Daniel Tancredi, Erik Fernandez Y Garcia, Ulfat Shaikh
There is variation in pediatric asthma management in the outpatient setting. Adherence to national asthma guidelines provides a systematic standardized approach to asthma management. There is a gap between usual and guideline-consistent asthma care in resident clinics. Practice improvement modules aimed at improving resident physician adherence to asthma care guidelines have not been consistently utilized and have not yet been studied. Our aim was to increase guideline consistent care in our pediatric resident clinic in a twelve-month period via increasing performance on the following measures to 75%: spirometry testing; influenza immunization recommendation; level of control assessed through the use of a standardized questionnaire; appropriate medications per national guideline; and use of written asthma action plans...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933038/computing-and-applying-atomic-regulons-to-understand-gene-expression-and-regulation
#19
José P Faria, James J Davis, Janaka N Edirisinghe, Ronald C Taylor, Pamela Weisenhorn, Robert D Olson, Rick L Stevens, Miguel Rocha, Isabel Rocha, Aaron A Best, Matthew DeJongh, Nathan L Tintle, Bruce Parrello, Ross Overbeek, Christopher S Henry
Understanding gene function and regulation is essential for the interpretation, prediction, and ultimate design of cell responses to changes in the environment. An important step toward meeting the challenge of understanding gene function and regulation is the identification of sets of genes that are always co-expressed. These gene sets, Atomic Regulons (ARs), represent fundamental units of function within a cell and could be used to associate genes of unknown function with cellular processes and to enable rational genetic engineering of cellular systems...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932630/hospital-doctors-understanding-of-use-and-withdrawal-of-the-liverpool-care-pathway-a-qualitative-study-of-practice-based-experiences-during-times-of-change
#20
Sharon Twigger, Sarah J Yardley
BACKGROUND: The Liverpool Care Pathway was used in UK hospitals (late 1990s to July 2014) in an attempt to generate hospice-style high-quality end-of-life care in acute settings. Despite being widely established, there was limited research or contextual evidence regarding this approach or its impact. Growing criticism from the public, media, politicians and healthcare professionals culminated with a critical independent review (July 2013) and subsequent withdrawal of the Liverpool Care Pathway...
December 8, 2016: Palliative Medicine
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