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Autoimmune epilepsy

Jiaying Wu, Yuyu Zhang, Hongyu Yang, Yuefeng Rao, Jing Miao, Xiaoyang Lu
Epilepsy is one of the most widespread serious neurological disorders, and an aetiological explanation has not been fully identified. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has highlighted the influential role of autoimmune mechanisms in the progression of epilepsy. The hygiene hypothesis draws people's attention to the association between gut microbes and the onset of multiple immune disorders. It is also believed that, in addition to influencing digestive system function, symbiotic microbiota can bidirectionally and reversibly impact the programming of extraintestinal pathogenic immune responses during autoimmunity...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
L P Zou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Agustina M Lascano, Christian M Korff, Fabienne Picard
Despite intensive research activity leading to many important discoveries, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying seizures and epilepsy remain poorly understood. An important number of specific gene defects have been related to various forms of epilepsies, and autoimmunity and epilepsy have been associated for a long time. Certain central nervous system proteins have been involved in epilepsy or acute neurological diseases with seizures either due to underlying gene defects or immune dysfunction. Here, we focus on 2 of them that have been the object of particular attention and in-depth research over the past years: the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and the leucin-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1)...
September 2016: Molecular Syndromology
Guillermo J Pons-Estel, Laura Andreoli, Francesco Scanzi, Ricard Cervera, Angela Tincani
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the occurrence of venous and/or arterial thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies known as antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS may be associated with other diseases, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The presence or absence of SLE might modify the clinical or serological expression of APS. Apart from the classical manifestations, APS patients with associated SLE more frequently display a clinical profile with arthralgias, arthritis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, livedo reticularis, epilepsy, glomerular thrombosis, and myocardial infarction...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
M Zhang, H J Hao, L P Liu, H H Zhang, Y Y Zhou
Autoimmune encephalitis with GABAB receptor antibodies has been rarely reported. Two cases of GABAB receptor antibodies encephalitis were presented here.Epilepsy was the onset symptom, followed by declined consciousness and frequent seizures. Fever was presented in the whole course of the disease. Myorhythmia of the two hands and pilomotor seizures were shown in the later course of the disease. No specificity was demonstrated in electroencephalograms and magnetic resonance imaging. Sensitive response was shown to the first-line immunotherapy...
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Maryam Daneshpazhooh, Javad Khorassani, Kamran Balighi, Narges Ghandi, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Hamidreza Tohidinik, Shahin Hamzelou, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi
INTRODUCTION: Neurological diseases are important co-morbidities found in association with bullous pemphigoid. Various neurological conditions (stroke, Parkinson's disease, dementia, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis) have been reported as associations of this bullous disease; whether these are significant has not been definitely proved. However, the presence of neurological conditions is a predictor of poorer prognosis. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the association of bullous pemphigoid and neurological diseases in Iranian bullous pemphigoid patients...
September 26, 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Jenny Linnoila, Sean J Pittock
Autoimmune neurology is a rapidly evolving new subspecialty driven by the discovery of novel neural- (neuronal- or glial-) specific autoantibodies and their target antigens. The neurologic manifestations affecting the central nervous system include encephalitis, dementia, epilepsy, and movement and sleep disorders. Laboratory testing is now available for most of these neural-specific autoantibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers, in some instances directing the physician toward specific cancer types (e...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Y C Lai, Y W Yew, W C Lambert
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disease that frequently occurs in the elderly population. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested an association between BP and neurological diseases; some studies, however, showed conflicting results. This study aimed to investigate if patients with BP have significantly higher risks for neurological disorders, compared to controls. A comprehensive search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Case-control and cohort studies that assessed the relationship between BP and neurological diseases were included...
September 7, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Zhang Lin, Qi Si, Zou Xiaoyi
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) and epilepsy and to determine whether the strength of this association is increased in the young. METHODS: A meta-analysis was done, analyzing the association between epilepsy and SAD using the available data in Medline and Embase through February 2016. We followed the recommendations of the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) statement and the MOOSE (meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology) guidelines...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Suguru Komenoi
Ten mammalian diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes (α-κ) have been identified to date. Our previous review noted that several DGK isozymes can serve as potential drug targets for cancer, epilepsy, autoimmunity, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and type II diabetes (Sakane et al., 2008). Since then, recent genome-wide association studies have implied several new possible relationships between DGK isozymes and diseases. For example, DGKθ and DGKκ have been suggested to be associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and hypospadias, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Divyanshu Dubey, Zehra Farzal, Ryan Hays, L Steven Brown, Steven Vernino
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to analyze published literature on autoimmune epilepsy and assess predictors of seizure outcome. METHODS: From PubMed and EMBASE databases, two reviewers independently identified publications reporting clinical presentations, management and outcomes of patients with autoimmune epilepsy. A meta-analysis of 46 selected studies was performed. Demographic/clinical variables (sex, age, clinical presentation, epilepsy focus, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] characteristics, time to diagnosis and initiation of immunomodulatory therapy, and type of immunomodulatory therapy) were compared between two outcome groups (responders and nonresponders)...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Daniel L Kenney, Kristen M Kelly-Williams, Karl N Krecke, Robert J Witte, Robert E Watson, Amy L Kotsenas, Elaine C Wirrell, Katherine C Nickels, Lily C Wong-Kisiel, Elson So
Surgical epilepsy conferences are an important part of the process of determining whether a patient is a candidate for resective epilepsy surgery. At these conferences, repeat review (re-review) of the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the patient's head often occurs. This study assessed how often radiologic re-review at a presurgical epilepsy conference resulted in a changed interpretation of the head MRI. Charts were reviewed for 239 patients who had been presented at presurgical epilepsy conferences between 2008 and 2012...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Ochuko D Bakpa, Markus Reuber, Sarosh R Irani
PURPOSE: The growing recognition of epilepsies and encephalopathies associated with autoantibodies against surface neuronal proteins (LGI1, NMDAR, CASPR2, GABABR, and AMPAR) means that epileptologists are increasingly asking questions about mechanisms of antibody-mediated epileptogenesis, and about the use of immunotherapies. This review summarizes clinical and paraclinical observations related to autoimmune epilepsies, examines the current evidence for the effectiveness of immunotherapy, and makes epilepsy-specific recommendations for future research...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Mary Angela O'Neal
The anatomic and physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy are unique. A neurologist needs to be aware of normal pregnancy-induced physiologic changes in the cardiovascular, renal, hematologic, and autoimmune systems, and the local anatomic changes, which include alteration of body habitus and pelvic ligaments. These changes are clearly advantageous, but in certain circumstances may predispose to pathology. In addition, pregnancy effects treatment of chronic neurologic conditions as regards medication safety and metabolism...
August 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Michael P Malter, Guido Widman, Norbert Galldiks, Winfried Stoecker, Christoph Helmstaedter, Christian E Elger, Jan Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports define temporal lobe epilepsy with amygdala enlargement (TLE-AE) as a distinct electroclinical syndrome comparable to TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. In this retrospective observational study, we present the largest consecutive series of patients with new-onset TLE-AE to date and describe clinical characteristics and seizure outcome, and we aim to explore underlying autoimmune mechanisms within this syndrome. METHODS: We reviewed all consecutive patients between 2004 and 2014 at our tertiary epilepsy center at the University of Bonn, Germany, with new-onset (<5 years) TLE-AE, negative serum antibody (ab) test results, and with available follow-up data for at least 12 months...
September 2016: Epilepsia
Frieda A Koopman, Sangeeta S Chavan, Sanda Miljko, Simeon Grazio, Sekib Sokolovic, P Richard Schuurman, Ashesh D Mehta, Yaakov A Levine, Michael Faltys, Ralph Zitnik, Kevin J Tracey, Paul P Tak
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous, prevalent, chronic autoimmune disease characterized by painful swollen joints and significant disabilities. Symptomatic relief can be achieved in up to 50% of patients using biological agents that inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other mechanisms of action, but there are no universally effective therapies. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in animal models...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
I-Ching Chou, Huan-Cheng Lai, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Yu-Tzu Chang, Sheng-Shing Lin, Syuan-Yu Hong, Inn-Chi Lee
PURPOSE: This report sheds light on a successful treatment in febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) with the combined use of lidocaine and MgSO4. METHODS: We report a 12-year-old previously healthy girl who experienced an upper respiratory infection with fever and headache for 2 days, then suddenly went into a coma followed by repetitive status epilepticus. All tests for CNS infection, metabolic and toxic diseases, and autoimmune encephalitis were negative...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Z Ren, D Y Hsu, J Brieva, N B Silverberg, S M Langan, J I Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is associated with significant disability and comorbid health disorders that may lead to or result from hospitalization. However, little is known about the inpatient burden and comorbidities of BP. OBJECTIVES: To obtain data on the inpatient burden and comorbidities of BP in the U.S.A. METHODS: We analysed data from the 2002 to 2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the U...
June 25, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Jacques Baillargeon, Soham Al Snih, Mukaila A Raji, Randall J Urban, Gulshan Sharma, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, David S Lopez, Gwen Baillargeon, Yong-Fang Kuo
Testosterone deficiency has been linked with autoimmune disease and an increase in inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, no large-scale longitudinal studies have examined this association. We examined whether untreated hypogonadism was associated with an increased risk of rheumatic autoimmune disease in a large nationally representative cohort. Using one of the nation's largest commercial insurance databases, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in which we identified 123,460 men diagnosed with hypogonadism between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2014 and with no prior history of rheumatic autoimmune disease...
June 20, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
H Prüß
More and more forms of autoimmune encephalitis are being identified with the clinical spectrum ranging from epilepsy over movement disorders to psychosis. The increasing appreciation of clinical symptoms raises questions about the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and prognostic factors. Numerous novel findings on the aetiology demonstrate that diverse tumours, but also infections of the central nervous system such as Herpes encephalitis can trigger autoimmune encephalitis. Antibodies against neuronal surface epitopes are directly pathogenic in the majority of cases...
May 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
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