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Autoimmune epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349679/autoimmune-encephalitis-associated-with-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies-a-case-series
#1
Faruk Incecik, Ozlem M Herguner, Seyda Besen, Mustafa Yılmaz
Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are associated with various neurologic conditions described in patients including stiff person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, refractory epilepsy, limbic and extralimbic encephalitis. GAD antibodies-related limbic encephalitis cases are well described; reports of extralimbic involvement are limited. We describe four cases of GAD antibody-related autoimmune encephalitis. Three of them had extralimbic involvement and only one had limbic encephalitis.
January 18, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317588/-autoimmune-factors-and-epilepsy
#2
Yating Wu, Aihua Liu
Epilepsy is a common chronic brain disorder with multiple causes, and now autoimmune factors are believed to be an independent cause for epilepsy. Accumulating data support an autoimmune basis in patients with antiepileptic drug-resistant seizures. Moreover, systemic autoimmune diseases and epilepsy co-occur frequently. Neural specific autoantibodies can also mediate the process of seizures through different pathways. The diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy is based on frequency of antiepileptic drug-resistant seizures, the presence of neural specific autoantibodies, inflammatory changes in serum or spinal fluid or on magneticresonanceimaging, the change in electroencephalogram, a personal or family history of autoimmunity...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288630/a-review-of-women-s-neurology
#3
REVIEW
M Angela O'Neal
The concern about what is best practice when caring for women with neurologic disease is a common clinical scenario. Therefore, knowledge about women's health issues and their intersection with neurologic disorders is imperative. This review will discuss the appropriate gender based considerations in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine, autoimmune disease, sleep, stroke and paraneoplastic disorders.
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282342/-motor-symptoms-of-autoimmune-encephalopathies
#4
Yuichi Tashiro, Hiroshi Takashima
Autoimmune encephalopathies are clinically and immunologically heterogeneous disorders. At least 20 types of autoimmune encephalopathies have been discovered, with the most common type being Hashimoto encephalopathy. In clinical situations, we often observe that patients with autoimmune encephalopathy are misdiagnosed because they exhibit signs similar to those observed in functional psychogenic movement, conversion, or somatoform disorders. We clinically examined over 100 patients with autoimmune encephalopathy...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276875/drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-in-a-child-on-multiple-antiepileptics
#5
Jyotindra Narayan Goswami, Pankaj C Vaidya, Arushi Gahlot Saini, Dipankar De, Bishan Dass Radotra, Pratibha D Singhi
Goswami JN, Vaidya PC, Saini AG, De D, Radotra BD, Singhi PD. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in a child on multiple antiepileptics. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 197-199. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is an adverse drug-reaction that may mimic systemic illnesses and have a fulminant presentation. We describe an 8-year-old girl with epilepsy and exposure to multiple anti-epileptics who presented with fever, extensive maculopapular rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, progressive anemia and transaminitis...
2017: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258969/a-case-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-revealed-by-insular-epilepsy
#6
Charlotte De Maeseneire, Riem El Tahry, Susana Ferrao Santos
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system that typically manifests predominantly as a psychiatric disorder. However, other manifestations such as epileptic seizures, abnormal movements, and memory or language complications are not unusual. Here, we report the case of a young man who presented with a new-onset epilepsy, with ictal semiology suggestive of insular involvement; this hypothesis was supported by a PET-CT study. Anti-NMDAR antibodies were found in the CSF, confirming the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis...
December 20, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258968/refractory-chronic-epilepsy-associated-with-neuronal-auto-antibodies-could-perisylvian-semiology-be-a-clue
#7
Lisa Gillinder, Linda Tjoa, Basil Mantzioris, Stefan Blum, Sasha Dionisio
We report a case series of 10 patients with chronic medically refractory antibody-positive autoimmune epilepsy and assess their common clinical features. Immune-mediated seizures are most commonly reported in the context of encephalitis or encephalopathy, with few reports focusing on lone, chronic epilepsy in the outpatient setting. Our aim was to define the potential diagnostic clues that might be present in these cases, leading to consideration of an autoimmune cause of the epilepsy. We performed a retrospective review of all patients presenting to the outpatient department of our unit who underwent autoimmune screening...
December 20, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237452/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-family-of-feline-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-lgi-genes-and-mutational-analysis-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#8
Yoshihiko Yu, Daisuke Hasegawa, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated (LGI) proteins play a critical role in synaptic transmission. Dysfunction of these genes and encoded proteins is associated with neurological disorders such as genetic epilepsy or autoimmune limbic encephalitis in animals and human. Familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) are the only feline strain and animal model of familial temporal lobe epilepsy. The seizure semiology of FSECs comprises recurrent limbic seizures with or without evolution into generalized epileptic seizures, while cats with antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel complexed/LGI1 show limbic encephalitis and recurrent limbic seizures...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229361/a-literature-review-on-maternal-fetal-and-reproductive-disorders-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#9
REVIEW
Shirzad Fallahi, Ali Rostami, Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Hamed Behniafar, Shahrokh Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225526/scratching-the-surface-in-autoimmune-epilepsy-it-is-the-time-to-dig-deeper-but-how
#10
COMMENT
Adriana Bermeo-Ovalle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217980/searching-for-autoimmune-epilepsy-why-where-and-when
#11
COMMENT
Lara Jehi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208845/epilepsy-among-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-insights-from-a-large-database-analysis
#12
Abdulla Watad, Shmuel Tiosano, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Francesco Brigo, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon D Cohen, Howard Amital
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by a relevant epidemiological and clinical burden. In the extant literature, an increased risk of seizures has been described in several inflammatory/autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, so far, relatively few and small size-based studies have been conducted. We aimed to investigate the link between seizure and SLE utilizing a large sample of subjects and extensive data analysis. METHODS: Patients with SLE were compared with age- and sex-matched controls regarding the prevalence of epilepsy in a cross-sectional study...
December 1, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203057/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-revealing-autoimmune-encephalitis-due-to-gabaar-antibodies
#13
D Caputo, R Iorio, F Vigevano, L Fusco
BACKGROUND: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) has been described as an epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology affecting previously healthy children following febrile illness. Despite large investigations on autoimmune pathogenesis no membrane antibodies has been associated since now. CASE STUDY: We report a 13 years-old girl with negative history for neurological or autoimmune disease that developed at the sixth day of high fever a super-refractory status epilepticus...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200116/paraneoplastic-disorders
#14
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes target specific areas of the nervous system with pathogenic autoantibodies or T-cell responses. Each syndrome conveys a risk of particular tumors. Expanded paraneoplastic antibody testing has led to improved diagnosis but created challenges involving appropriate interpretation of test results. RECENT FINDINGS: Peripheral nervous system paraneoplastic disorders such as myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome involve pathogenic autoantibodies...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166136/the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-b-receptor-gabab-encephalitis-clinical-manifestations-and-response-to-immunotherapy
#15
Junzhao Cui, Hui Bu, Junying He, Zeyan Zhao, Weixin Han, Ruiping Gao, Xiaoqing Li, Qing Li, Xiaosu Guo, Yueli Zou
PURPOSE: We report 11 patients diagnosed with GABAB receptor (GABABR) antibodies encephalitis in China and aim to analyze the clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic modalities and outcomes. METHODS: Clinical data from patients diagnosed with anti-GABAB receptor encephalitis in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from February 2016 to October 2016 January were retrospectively collected and evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 11 patients, seven were males, and a mean age at presentation of 63 years (range: 47-79 years)...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163052/the-thymus-neocortex-hypothesis-of-the-brain-a-cell-basis-for-recognition-and-instruction-of-self
#16
Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Florence Faure
The recognition of internal and external sources of stimuli, the self from non-self, seems to be an intrinsic property to the adequate functioning of the immune system and the nervous system, both complex network systems that have evolved to safeguard the self biological identity of the organism. The mammalian brain development relies on dynamic and adaptive processes that are now well described. However, the rules dictating this highly constrained developmental process remain elusive. Here we hypothesize that there is a cellular basis for brain selfhood, based on the analogy of the global mechanisms that drive the self/non-self recognition and instruction by the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160208/a-case-of-post-leptospirosis-autoimmune-epilepsy-presenting-with-sleep-related-hypermotor-seizures
#17
Prashant Makhija, Siby Gopinath, Sudheeran Kannoth, Kurupath Radhakrishnan
This video-illustrated case report concerns a 49-year-old woman who presented with sleep-related hypermotor seizures. The antecedent history of leptospirosis, high frequency of new-onset seizures, presence of an unclassified anti-neuronal antibody, and dramatic response to steroids strongly supported post-infectious immune-mediated pathogenesis in our patient. To the best of our knowledge, post-leptospirosis autoimmune epilepsy presenting as sleep-related hypermotor seizures has not hitherto been reported. [Published with video sequences on www...
November 21, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156319/large-scale-analysis-of-herpesviridae-in-epilepsy-patients-with-signs-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#18
Freya Poulheim, Laura Esposito, Christian E Elger, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, Albert J Becker, Pitt Niehusmann
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is one of the most common primary brain disorders. Nonparaneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as an important cause of adult onset epilepsy. However, only in rare cases an initiating factor of the syndrome can be identified. Autoantibody detection after central nervous herpesvirus infection indicates a postviral etiology in a subgroup of patients. In order to analyze a possible underrecognition of postinfectious autoimmunity we performed a large-scale analysis of herpesvirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical signs of autoimmune encephalitis...
November 17, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145168/frontal-infraslow-activity-marks-the-motor-spasms-of-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#19
Richard Wennberg, Claude Steriade, Robert Chen, Danielle Andrade
OBJECTIVE: The clinical and electrographic features of seizures in anti-LGI1 encephalitis are distinct from those seen in other autoimmune encephalitides or non-encephalitic epilepsies. One electroclinical phenomenon specific to the condition consists of lateralized motor spasms, known as faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). An electrodecremental pattern overriding a "DC shift" has been described as the EEG correlate of these spasms. We sought to further characterize this pre-spasm infraslow activity (ISA)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108750/new-spectrum-of-the-neurologic-consequences-of-zika
#20
EDITORIAL
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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