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Autoimmune epilepsy

Mehmet Tecellioglu, Ozden Kamisli, Suat Kamisli, Fatma Ebru Yucel, Cemal Ozcan
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune epilepsy is a rarely diagnosed condition. Recognition of the underlying autoimmune condition is important, as these patients can be resistant to antiepileptic drugs. AIMS: To determine the autoimmune and oncological antibodies in adult drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause and identify the clinical, radiological, and EEG findings associated with these antibodies according to data in the literature. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause were prospectively identified...
March 9, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
V L Ruggieri, C L Arberas
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental dysfunctions that are characterised by deficits in social integration and communication, associated with restricted interests and stereotypic behaviour. A high percentage are related to language disorders, sensory dysfunctions, attention deficit disorder, bipolarity, intellectual disability or epilepsy, among other comorbidities. It is estimated that around 30% of children with autism, with typical early development, may present regression in the first years of life, which was already reported by Kanner in one of his original cases...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Rui-Juan Lv, Hai-Tao Ren, Hong-Zhi Guan, Tao Cui, Xiao-Qiu Shao
Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the seizure semiologic characteristics of patients with autoimmune epilepsy (AE) and describe the investigation characteristics of AE using a larger sample size. Methods: This observational retrospective case series study was conducted from a tertiary epilepsy center between May 2014 and March 2017. Cases of new-onset seizures were selected based on laboratory evidence of autoimmunity. At the same time, typical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) were recruited as the control group from the subjects who underwent presurgical evaluation during the same period...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Sonal Bhatia, Sarah E Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores different treatment modalities for immune-mediated epilepsy, including epilepsy caused by autoantibodies as well as epilepsy in the context of systemic autoimmune disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Autoimmune epilepsy is an increasingly recognized entity. Conventional treatments for epilepsy, such as antiseizure medications and epilepsy surgery, are less successful in treating epilepsy caused by autoimmune disease. Immunomodulatory therapies such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange are generally more successful in treating immune-mediated epilepsy than conventional epilepsy therapies...
February 14, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Deepak Menon, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Anita Mahadevan, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Sudheeran Kannoth, Pradeep P Nair, Mathew Abraham, Bejoy Thomas, Sanjeev V Thomas
New-onset refractory focal epilepsy poses significant challenges to the clinician in the absence of specific diagnostic biomarkers. Differential diagnoses based on imaging may be expanded by a veritable spectrum of peri-ictal imaging findings that may mask the underlying substrate. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented with refractory focal seizures of left parieto-occipital origin with cytotoxic gyral oedema noted over the same region on imaging. Despite an initial negative autoantibody profile, the patient was treated with immunosuppression, followed by serial relapses requiring immune-modulation...
February 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Ahmad Daif, Rimas V Lukas, Naoum P Issa, Adil Javed, Stephen VanHaerents, Anthony T Reder, James X Tao, Peter Warnke, Sandra Rose, Vernon L Towle, Shasha Wu
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-associated encephalitis causes both acute seizures and chronic epilepsy with predominantly temporal lobe onset. This condition is challenging in diagnosis and management, and the incidence of GAD antibody (Ab)-related epilepsy could be much higher than commonly believed. Imaging and CSF evidence of inflammation along with typical clinical presentations, such as adult onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unexplained etiology, should prompt testing for the diagnostic antibodies...
February 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Allen D DeSena, Thuy Do, Grant S Schulert
BACKGROUND: Autoinflammatory disorders are distinguished by seemingly random episodes of systemic hyperinflammation, driven in particular by IL-1. Recent pre-clinical work has shown a key role for IL-1 in epilepsy in animal models, and therapies for autoinflammation including IL-1 blockade are proposed for refractory epilepsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report an adolescent female with signs of persistent systemic inflammation and epilepsy unresponsive to multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AED)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jason R Fredriksen, Carrie M Carr, Kelly K Koeller, Jared T Verdoorn, Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Amy L Kotsenas
PURPOSE: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) has been implicated in a number of autoimmune-associated neurologic syndromes, including autoimmune epilepsy. This study categorizes the spectrum of MRI findings in patients with a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy and elevated serum GAD65 autoantibodies. METHODS: An institutional database search identified patients with elevated serum GAD65 antibodies and a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy who had undergone brain MRI...
March 2018: Neuroradiology
Faruk Incecik, Ozlem M Herguner, Seyda Besen, Mustafa Yılmaz
Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are associated with various neurologic conditions described in patients including stiff person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, refractory epilepsy, limbic and extralimbic encephalitis. GAD antibodies-related limbic encephalitis cases are well described; reports of extralimbic involvement are limited. We describe four cases of GAD antibody-related autoimmune encephalitis. Three of them had extralimbic involvement and only one had limbic encephalitis.
January 18, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Yating Wu, Aihua Liu
Epilepsy is a common chronic brain disorder with multiple causes, and now autoimmune factors are believed to be an independent cause for epilepsy. Accumulating data support an autoimmune basis in patients with antiepileptic drug-resistant seizures. Moreover, systemic autoimmune diseases and epilepsy co-occur frequently. Neural specific autoantibodies can also mediate the process of seizures through different pathways. The diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy is based on frequency of antiepileptic drug-resistant seizures, the presence of neural specific autoantibodies, inflammatory changes in serum or spinal fluid or on magneticresonanceimaging, the change in electroencephalogram, a personal or family history of autoimmunity...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
M Angela O'Neal
The concern about what is best practice when caring for women with neurologic disease is a common clinical scenario. Therefore, knowledge about women's health issues and their intersection with neurologic disorders is imperative. This review will discuss the appropriate gender based considerations in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine, autoimmune disease, sleep, stroke and paraneoplastic disorders.
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Yuichi Tashiro, Hiroshi Takashima
Autoimmune encephalopathies are clinically and immunologically heterogeneous disorders. At least 20 types of autoimmune encephalopathies have been discovered, with the most common type being Hashimoto encephalopathy. In clinical situations, we often observe that patients with autoimmune encephalopathy are misdiagnosed because they exhibit signs similar to those observed in functional psychogenic movement, conversion, or somatoform disorders. We clinically examined over 100 patients with autoimmune encephalopathy...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Jyotindra Narayan Goswami, Pankaj C Vaidya, Arushi Gahlot Saini, Dipankar De, Bishan Dass Radotra, Pratibha D Singhi
Goswami JN, Vaidya PC, Saini AG, De D, Radotra BD, Singhi PD. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in a child on multiple antiepileptics. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 197-199. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is an adverse drug-reaction that may mimic systemic illnesses and have a fulminant presentation. We describe an 8-year-old girl with epilepsy and exposure to multiple anti-epileptics who presented with fever, extensive maculopapular rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, progressive anemia and transaminitis...
2017: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Charlotte De Maeseneire, Riem El Tahry, Susana Ferrao Santos
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system that typically manifests predominantly as a psychiatric disorder. However, other manifestations such as epileptic seizures, abnormal movements, and memory or language complications are not unusual. Here, we report the case of a young man who presented with a new-onset epilepsy, with ictal semiology suggestive of insular involvement; this hypothesis was supported by a PET-CT study. Anti-NMDAR antibodies were found in the CSF, confirming the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis...
December 20, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Lisa Gillinder, Linda Tjoa, Basil Mantzioris, Stefan Blum, Sasha Dionisio
We report a case series of 10 patients with chronic medically refractory antibody-positive autoimmune epilepsy and assess their common clinical features. Immune-mediated seizures are most commonly reported in the context of encephalitis or encephalopathy, with few reports focusing on lone, chronic epilepsy in the outpatient setting. Our aim was to define the potential diagnostic clues that might be present in these cases, leading to consideration of an autoimmune cause of the epilepsy. We performed a retrospective review of all patients presenting to the outpatient department of our unit who underwent autoimmune screening...
December 20, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Yoshihiko Yu, Daisuke Hasegawa, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated (LGI) proteins play a critical role in synaptic transmission. Dysfunction of these genes and encoded proteins is associated with neurological disorders such as genetic epilepsy or autoimmune limbic encephalitis in animals and human. Familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) are the only feline strain and animal model of familial temporal lobe epilepsy. The seizure semiology of FSECs comprises recurrent limbic seizures with or without evolution into generalized epileptic seizures, while cats with antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel complexed/LGI1 show limbic encephalitis and recurrent limbic seizures...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
S Fallahi, A Rostami, M Nourollahpour Shiadeh, H Behniafar, S Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
March 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Adriana Bermeo-Ovalle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Epilepsy Currents
Lara Jehi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Epilepsy Currents
Abdulla Watad, Shmuel Tiosano, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Francesco Brigo, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon D Cohen, Howard Amital
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by a relevant epidemiological and clinical burden. In the extant literature, an increased risk of seizures has been described in several inflammatory/autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, so far, relatively few and small size-based studies have been conducted. We aimed to investigate the link between seizure and SLE utilizing a large sample of subjects and extensive data analysis. METHODS: Patients with SLE were compared with age- and sex-matched controls regarding the prevalence of epilepsy in a cross-sectional study...
December 1, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
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