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Autoimmune epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914199/clinical-applications-of-intravenous-immunoglobulins-in-child-neurology
#1
Maria Gogou, Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki, Martha Spilioti, Sofia Alataki, Athanasios Evangeliou
BACKGROUND: While there are guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis based on high-level evidence studies, data is fewer for the majority of neurologic disorders in this age group. Neuronal antibodies are detected in children with seizures of autoimmune etiology. Intravenous immunoglobulins with their broad immunomodulatory mechanism of action could be ideally effective in different forms of immune-dysregulated intractable epilepsies such as autoimmune epilepsy and autoimmune Rasmussen encephalitis...
September 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#2
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831096/inflammatory-cytokine-induced-changes-in-neural-network-activity-measured-by-waveform-analysis-of-high-content-calcium-imaging-in-murine-cortical-neurons
#3
Benjamin D S Clarkson, Robert J Kahoud, Christina B McCarthy, Charles L Howe
During acute neuroinflammation, increased levels of cytokines within the brain may contribute to synaptic reorganization that results in long-term changes in network hyperexcitability. Indeed, inflammatory cytokines are implicated in synaptic dysfunction in epilepsy and in an array of degenerative and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. Current tools for studying the impact of inflammatory factors on neural networks are either insufficiently fast and sensitive or require complicated and costly experimental rigs...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794080/the-immune-system-in-pediatric-seizures-and-epilepsies
#4
REVIEW
Christian M Korff, Russell C Dale
The relation between the immune system and epilepsy has been studied for a long time. Immune activation may precede or follow the appearance of seizures. Depending on the situation, the innate and acquired immunity may be involved to various degrees. The intense, ongoing research has opened encouraging management and therapeutic perspectives for a significant number of patients suffering from seizures. These include the use of various drugs and less conventional approaches with anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory properties...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766694/musicogenic-reflex-seizures-in-epilepsy-with-glutamic-acid-decarbocylase-antibodies
#5
M Falip, L Rodriguez-Bel, S Castañer, J Miro, S Jaraba, J Mora, J Bas, M Carreño
BACKGROUND: Musicogenic reflex seizures (MRS) are a rare form of seizures described in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), mainly of unknown etiology. Epilepsy with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-ab) is a form of autoimmune epilepsy for which no specific semiology has been described. AIM OF THE STUDY: To retrospectively review the incidence of MRS in the general epileptic population and in the series of patients with epilepsy and GAD-ab and to describe its clinical and paraclinical characteristics...
August 2, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750305/progressive-hippocampal-sclerosis-after-viral-encephalitis-potential-role-of-nmda-receptor-antibodies
#6
Stoyan Popkirov, Fatme Seval Ismail, Wenke Grönheit, Monika Kapauer, Jörg Wellmer, Christian G Bien
PURPOSE: Survivors of viral encephalitis can develop refractory epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. Both the initial infectious insult and the secondary effects of recurrent seizures have been implicated in chronic disease progression. Recently, post-infectious autoimmunity, involved in acute relapses, has also been proposed as a pathomechanism for chronic disease progression. Our case series suggests a potential role of antibodies against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in chronic inflammatory disease beyond acute manifestations...
July 19, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718500/neurofilament-light-as-an-immune-target-for-pathogenic-antibodies
#7
Fabiola Puentes, Baukje J van der Star, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Markus Kipp, Louis Boon, Isabel Bosca, Joel Raffel, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Paul van der Valk, Jodie Stephenson, Susan C Barnett, David Baker, Sandra Amor
Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunization with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light (NF-L), a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, although antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689294/cerebellar-disease-associated-with-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies-review
#8
REVIEW
José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo, Marlene Alonso-Juarez
Several neurological syndromes have been recognized associated to GAD antibodies. Among those disorders, cerebellar ataxia (CA) is one of the most common, along with stiff-person syndrome. Patients with GAD associated CA present with a progressive pancerebellar syndrome, with a subacute or chronic evolution, along with other neurological manifestations such as stiffness, oculomotor dysfunction, epilepsy, and cognitive dysfunction. These symptoms may be preceded by the so-called "brainstem attacks", where manifestations consistent with transient dysfunction of the brainstem may be observed...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684941/-autoimmune-epilepsy-encephalitis-with-autoantibodies-for-epileptologists
#9
Christian G Bien, Martin Holtkamp
Autoimmune encephalitides may account for epilepsies of so far unknown cause. These "autoimmune epilepsies" may respond well to immunotherapy. More than a dozen autoantibodies have been found with this constellation; therefore, broad autoantibody testing of serum-CSF pairs offers the best diagnostic yield. Several particular features raise the suspicion of an autoimmune cause in otherwise unexplained seizure disorders.
May 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680914/antiepileptic-drug-therapy-in-patients-with-autoimmune-epilepsy
#10
Anteneh M Feyissa, A Sebastian López Chiriboga, Jeffrey W Britton
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the pattern of usage and efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with autoimmune epilepsy (AE). METHODS: We retrospectively studied the Mayo Clinic's electronic medical record of patients with AE in which seizures were the main presenting feature. Clinical data, including demographics, seizure characteristics, type of AED and immunotherapy used, presence of neural antibody, and treatment outcomes, were reviewed. RESULTS: The medical records of 252 adult patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis and paraneoplastic disorders were reviewed...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677172/neurological-and-psychiatric-associations-in-bullous-pemphigoid-more-than-skin-deep
#11
REVIEW
Anna-Kaisa Försti, Laura Huilaja, Enno Schmidt, Kaisa Tasanen
In elderly patients, bullous pemphigoid (BP) is associated with several comorbidities; the strongest association occurs between BP and neurological diseases. Different types of dementia, Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular disorders and epilepsy all have a significant association with BP but patients with multiple sclerosis have the highest risk of BP. An existing neurological disorder appears to increase the risk for subsequent BP, but an increased risk for developing some neurological diseases has also been reported following BP diagnosis...
July 4, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675819/anti-neuronal-autoantibodies-in-both-drug-responsive-and-resistant-focal-seizures-with-unknown-cause
#12
Gokcen Gozubatik-Celik, Cigdem Ozkara, Canan Ulusoy, Aysegul Gunduz, Sakir Delil, Naz Yeni, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: and Objective Autoimmunity is an emerging field of research in the etiology of different neurological disorders including epilepsy. We aimed to investigate the presence of neuronal autoantibodies in focal epilepsy with unknown cause and their clinical correlates in both drug-responsive and resistant patients. METHOD: Between 2009 and 2010 94 patients were prospectively enrolled, had their antibodies tested and clinically followed." An additional 50 age- and gender-matched controls were also tested for antibodies...
September 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675562/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-human-epilepsies
#13
REVIEW
Jan Bauer, Albert J Becker, Wassim Elyaman, Jukka Peltola, Stephan Rüegg, Maarten J Titulaer, James A Varley, Ettore Beghi
Inflammatory mechanisms have been increasingly implicated in the origin of seizures and epilepsy. These mechanisms are involved in the genesis of encephalitides in which seizures are a common complaint. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests different inflammatory responses in the brains of patients with epilepsy depending on the etiology. In general, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity plays a role in refractory forms of epilepsy. Epilepsies in which seizures develop after infiltration of cells of the adaptive immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) include a broad range of epileptic disorders with different (known or unknown) etiologies...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675561/introduction-to-the-2nd-meeting-on-immunity-and-inflammation-in-epilepsy-iie2016
#14
Annamaria Vezzani, Stephan Rüegg
We report about the main topics presented during this meeting which was devoted to discuss the new emerging evidence for a role of immune- and inflammation-related mechanisms in various autoimmune and nonautoimmune forms of epilepsy. Major emphasis was given to novel immune/inflammatory mechanisms contributing to seizures and neurological comorbidities as well as to the discovery and validation of noninvasive biomarkers of brain inflammation which may be used to monitor epileptogenesis and predict the therapeutic effects of treatments...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630891/frequency-of-neurological-disorders-in-bullous-pemphigoid-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Sheida Khosravani, Farhad Handjani, Reyhaneh Alimohammadi, Nasrin Saki
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disorder which occurs mostly in the elderly. Several studies have reported an association between BP and neurological disorders (ND). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between BP and neurological disorders in Iranian patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 87 patients with BP were enrolled. They were compared to 184 controls...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607533/cysteinyl-leukotrienes-as-potential-pharmacological-targets-for-cerebral-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Paolo Gelosa, Francesca Colazzo, Elena Tremoli, Luigi Sironi, Laura Castiglioni
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent lipid mediators widely known for their actions in asthma and in allergic rhinitis. Accumulating data highlights their involvement in a broader range of inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. The reported elevated levels of CysLTs in acute and chronic brain lesions, the association between the genetic polymorphisms in the LTs biosynthesis pathways and the risk of cerebral pathological events, and the evidence from animal models link also CysLTs and brain diseases...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572227/medical-problems-in-pregnancy
#17
REVIEW
Bhaskar Narayan, Catherine Nelson-Piercy
The prevalence of medical problems in pregnancy is increasing because of a complex interplay between demographic and lifestyle factors, and developments in modern medicine. Maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from treatable medical conditions, such as venous thromboembolism, epilepsy and autoimmune disease, have not decreased in recent years. This is despite a marked decrease in overall maternal mortality. It is vital that all physicians acquire a basic knowledge and understanding of medical problems in pregnancy...
June 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570327/gastroenterology-and-neurology
#18
Ronald F Pfeiffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Just as gastrointestinal dysfunction may develop in the setting of neurologic disease, neurologic dysfunction may become evident in the setting of gastrointestinal disease. This article describes the range of neurologic features that have been described in three primary gastrointestinal diseases: celiac disease and gluten-related disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and Whipple disease. Particular emphasis is placed on the controversial and evolving clinical picture of neurologic dysfunction in disorders of gluten sensitivity...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556688/severe-and-rapidly-progressive-lafora-disease-associated-with-nhlrc1-mutation-a-case-report
#19
Sara Casciato, Stefano Gambardella, Addolorata Mascia, Pier Paolo Quarato, Alfredo D'Aniello, Yana Ackurina, Veronica Albano, Francesco Fornai, Simona Scala, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
Lafora disease (LD), also known as progressive myoclonic epilepsy-2 (EPM2), is a rare, fatal autosomal recessive disorder typically starting during adolescence in otherwise neurologically normal individuals. It is clinically characterized by insidious of progressive neurological features including seizures, action myoclonus, visual hallucination, ataxia and dementia. Mutations in the laforin (EPM2A) gene on chromosome 6q24 or in the malin gene (NHLRC1) on chromosome 6p22 are responsible of LD phenotype. Diagnostic workup includes genetic analysis as well as axillary skin biopsy with evidence of typical periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive polyglucosan inclusion bodies (Lafora bodies) in the apocrine glands and/or in the eccrine duct...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555833/predictive-models-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-autoimmune-epilepsy
#20
Divyanshu Dubey, Jaysingh Singh, Jeffrey W Britton, Sean J Pittock, Eoin P Flanagan, Vanda A Lennon, Jan-Mendelt Tillema, Elaine Wirrell, Cheolsu Shin, Elson So, Gregory D Cascino, Dean M Wingerchuk, Matthew T Hoerth, Jerry J Shih, Katherine C Nickels, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To validate predictive models for neural antibody positivity and immunotherapy response in epilepsy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of epilepsy cases at Mayo Clinic (Rochester-MN; Scottsdale-AZ, and Jacksonville-FL) in whom autoimmune encephalopathy/epilepsy/dementia autoantibody testing profiles were requested (06/30/2014-06/30/2016). An Antibody Prevalence in Epilepsy (APE) score, based on clinical characteristics, was assigned to each patient...
July 2017: Epilepsia
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