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Autoimmune epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156319/large-scale-analysis-of-herpesviridae-in-epilepsy-patients-with-signs-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#1
Freya Poulheim, Laura Esposito, Christian E Elger, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, Albert J Becker, Pitt Niehusmann
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is one of the most common primary brain disorders. Nonparaneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as an important cause of adult onset epilepsy. However, only in rare cases an initiating factor of the syndrome can be identified. Autoantibody detection after central nervous herpesvirus infection indicates a postviral etiology in a subgroup of patients. In order to analyze a possible underrecognition of postinfectious autoimmunity we performed a large-scale analysis of herpesvirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical signs of autoimmune encephalitis...
November 17, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145168/frontal-infraslow-activity-marks-the-motor-spasms-of-anti-lgi1-encephalitis
#2
Richard Wennberg, Claude Steriade, Robert Chen, Danielle Andrade
OBJECTIVE: The clinical and electrographic features of seizures in anti-LGI1 encephalitis are distinct from those seen in other autoimmune encephalitides or non-encephalitic epilepsies. One electroclinical phenomenon specific to the condition consists of lateralized motor spasms, known as faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). An electrodecremental pattern overriding a "DC shift" has been described as the EEG correlate of these spasms. We sought to further characterize this pre-spasm infraslow activity (ISA)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108750/new-spectrum-of-the-neurologic-consequences-of-zika
#3
EDITORIAL
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103423/autoimmune-epilepsies
#4
Anusha K Yeshokumar, Carlos A Pardo
Autoimmune epilepsies describe clinical syndromes wherein the immune system is suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of seizures or as a mechanism for neuronal injury following seizures. These diseases typically affect otherwise healthy children and are characterized by explosive onset of focal seizures, encephalopathy, cognitive deterioration, or other focal neurological deficits, or all of these. Traditional neurological diagnostics lack sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsies, and results must be considered in the clinical context...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070756/a-case-of-anti-mog-antibody-positive-multiphasic-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-co-occurring-with-unilateral-cerebral-cortical-encephalitis
#5
Naoya Fukushima, Miki Suzuki, Ryo Ogawa, Kitami Hayashi, Jun-Ichi Takanashi, Takashi Ohashi
A 20-year-old woman first developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) at 11 years of age. At 17 years of age, she was hospitalized due to generalized seizure and diagnosed with encephalitis. Brain MRI revealed a FLAIR-hyperintense lesion in the unilateral cerebral cortex. At 18 years of age, serum anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody was detected. At 20 years of age, she was admitted to our hospital, diagnosed with multifocal disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM). MDEM has been observed in patients that are seropositive for the anti-MOG antibody...
October 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053037/possible-autoantibody-negative-limbic-encephalitis-after-anterior-temporal-lobectomy-for-hippocampal-sclerosis
#6
Sara Casciato, Alfredo D'Aniello, Addolorata Mascia, Pier Paolo Quarato, Marco De Risi, Liliana G Grammaldo, Vincenzo Esposito, Marco Zoccarato, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
Amnestic syndromes are acknowledged to be associated to bilateral hippocampal damage. We briefly report the case of a young man who underwent anterior left temporal lobectomy for a medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis with an excellent seizure and neuropsychological outcome. Approximately 10 years later, he presented with a subacute severe global amnesia and MRI findings of a damage involving the contralateral mesial temporal lobe structures. A diagnosis of a possible autoimmune encephalitis was made...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042524/-autoimmune-and-epilepsy
#7
Riki Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro Sakamoto, Akio Ikeda
The recent discovery of autoimmune antibodies to the neuronal cell surface membrane and extra- or intra-cellular proteins, such as NMDAR and LGI1, shed light on a proposed new etiology of epilepsy, namely, "autoimmune epilepsy". A large part of this entity most likely belongs to a forme fruste of autoimmune (limbic) encephalitis. Seizures are usually subacute in onset and refractory to antiepileptic medications. Patients occasionally manifest multiple seizure semiologies, such as autonomic or faciobrachial dystonic seizures...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988523/immunopathology-in-drug-resistant-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-different-types-of-hippocampal-sclerosis
#8
F Irsel Tezer, Aysegul Firat, Erdem Tuzun, Isik Unal, Figen Soylemezoglu, Burcak Bilginer, Figen Kaymaz, Kader K Oguz, Serap Saygi
PURPOSE: There is evidence that autoimmunity has a specific role in temporal lobe seizures of limbic encephalitis patients. Our aim in this study was to investigate any histopathological clues of autoimmune process in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with different pathologically proven hippocampal sclerosis (HS) types. METHODS: 22 patients who had undergone to epilepsy surgery due to mesial TLE-HS were included. The sera of patients are tested for neuronal antibodies to NMDAR, LGI1, CASPR2, AMPAR, GABABR and GAD...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982961/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-maternal-thyroid-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-and-behavioural-and-psychiatric-disorders-of-children-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Dagnachew Muluye Fetene, Kim S Betts, Rosa Alati
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy may lead to persistent neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring appearing in later life. This study aimed to review the available evidence concerning the relationship between maternal thyroid status during pregnancy and offspring behavioural and psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Systematic electronic database searches were conducted using PubMed, Embase, PsycNET, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library...
November 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974152/encephalitis-with-antibodies-against-the-gabab-receptor-seizures-as-the-most-common-presentation-at-admission
#10
Xueping Chen, Fan Liu, Jin-Mei Li, Xiao-Qi Xie, Qiong Wang, Dong Zhou, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against gamma-aminobutyric-acid B receptor (GABABR) has not been described in detail in Chinese patients. METHODS: Patients with anti-GABABR encephalitis treated between January 2013 and December 2015 were analyzed in terms of clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, tumor presence, autoantibody patterns, treatment response and outcomes. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified (male, N = 8; female, N = 3), with the median age of 51 years...
November 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951498/clinical-and-immunological-characteristics-of-the-spectrum-of-gfap-autoimmunity-a-case-series-of-22-patients
#11
Raffaele Iorio, Valentina Damato, Amelia Evoli, Marco Gessi, Simona Gaudino, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Gregorio Spagni, Jacqueline A Sluijs, Elly M Hol
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and immunological characteristics of 22 new patients with glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibodies. METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2017, we recruited 451 patients with suspected neurological autoimmune disease at the Catholic University of Rome. Patients' serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for neural autoantibodies by immunohistochemistry on mouse and rat brain sections, by cell-based assays (CBA) and immunoblot...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950818/inflammation-and-epilepsy-preclinical-findings-and-potential-clinical-translation
#12
Gaetano Terrone, Alessia Salamone, Annamaria Vezzani
BACKGROUND: The lack of treatments which can prevent epilepsy development or improve disease prognosis represents an unmet and urgent clinical need. The development of such drugs requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis. In the last decade, preclinical studies in models of acute seizures and of chronic epilepsy highlighted that neuroinflammation arising in brain areas of seizure onset and generalization is a key contributor to neuronal hyper-excitability underlying seizure generation...
September 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942441/the-clinical-characteristics-and-prognostic-analysis-of-status-epilepticus-in-northeast-china
#13
Lichao Sun, Chuntao Han, Weihong Lin
OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency that may cause severe neurological deficiency and even death. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of SE in northeast China. Additionally, the etiology and classification are discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with SE in the Epilepsy Center of Jilin University between January 2011 and May 2015...
September 22, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923528/arterial-spin-labeling-hyperperfusion-in-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-is-it-due-to-focal-brain-inflammation-or-a-postictal-phenomenon
#14
Savith Kumar, Chinmay P Nagesh, Bejoy Thomas, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study evaluated the utility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging in Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hospital electronic database was searched using the search words "encephalitis," "autoimmune encephalitis" and "Rasmussen's encephalitis" for the period of 1 Jan 2015 to 31 Jan 2017. Clinically diagnosed cases of RE for which epilepsy protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with perfusion imaging (ASL) performed on a 3T scanner were retrieved...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914199/clinical-applications-of-intravenous-immunoglobulins-in-child-neurology
#15
Maria Gogou, Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki, Martha Spilioti, Sofia Alataki, Athanasios Evangeliou
BACKGROUND: While there are guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis based on high-level evidence studies, data is fewer for the majority of neurologic disorders in this age group. Neuronal antibodies are detected in children with seizures of autoimmune etiology. Intravenous immunoglobulins with their broad immunomodulatory mechanism of action could be ideally effective in different forms of immune-dysregulated intractable epilepsies such as autoimmune epilepsy and autoimmune Rasmussen encephalitis...
September 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#16
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831096/inflammatory-cytokine-induced-changes-in-neural-network-activity-measured-by-waveform-analysis-of-high-content-calcium-imaging-in-murine-cortical-neurons
#17
Benjamin D S Clarkson, Robert J Kahoud, Christina B McCarthy, Charles L Howe
During acute neuroinflammation, increased levels of cytokines within the brain may contribute to synaptic reorganization that results in long-term changes in network hyperexcitability. Indeed, inflammatory cytokines are implicated in synaptic dysfunction in epilepsy and in an array of degenerative and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. Current tools for studying the impact of inflammatory factors on neural networks are either insufficiently fast and sensitive or require complicated and costly experimental rigs...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794080/the-immune-system-in-pediatric-seizures-and-epilepsies
#18
REVIEW
Christian M Korff, Russell C Dale
The relation between the immune system and epilepsy has been studied for a long time. Immune activation may precede or follow the appearance of seizures. Depending on the situation, the innate and acquired immunity may be involved to various degrees. The intense, ongoing research has opened encouraging management and therapeutic perspectives for a significant number of patients suffering from seizures. These include the use of various drugs and less conventional approaches with anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory properties...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766694/musicogenic-reflex-seizures-in-epilepsy-with-glutamic-acid-decarbocylase-antibodies
#19
M Falip, L Rodriguez-Bel, S Castañer, J Miro, S Jaraba, J Mora, J Bas, M Carreño
BACKGROUND: Musicogenic reflex seizures (MRS) are a rare form of seizures described in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), mainly of unknown etiology. Epilepsy with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-ab) is a form of autoimmune epilepsy for which no specific semiology has been described. AIM OF THE STUDY: To retrospectively review the incidence of MRS in the general epileptic population and in the series of patients with epilepsy and GAD-ab and to describe its clinical and paraclinical characteristics...
August 2, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750305/progressive-hippocampal-sclerosis-after-viral-encephalitis-potential-role-of-nmda-receptor-antibodies
#20
Stoyan Popkirov, Fatme Seval Ismail, Wenke Grönheit, Monika Kapauer, Jörg Wellmer, Christian G Bien
PURPOSE: Survivors of viral encephalitis can develop refractory epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. Both the initial infectious insult and the secondary effects of recurrent seizures have been implicated in chronic disease progression. Recently, post-infectious autoimmunity, involved in acute relapses, has also been proposed as a pathomechanism for chronic disease progression. Our case series suggests a potential role of antibodies against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in chronic inflammatory disease beyond acute manifestations...
October 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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