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Autoimmune dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229442/-rapidly-progressive-dementia-and-parkinsonism-associated-to-multiple-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#1
P Mejia, L M Piedra, X Merchan-Del Hierro
INTRODUCTION: Rapidly progressive dementias are an infrequent group of diseases characterised by cognitive deterioration and other neurological disorders that develop over a period ranging from weeks to months. Their causation is varied and includes a large number of neurodegenerative, toxic, metabolic, autoimmune, infectious and vascular conditions. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 69-year-old male who was admitted to hospital due to a rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism caused by multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas, which were successfully treated by means of endovascular therapy...
March 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192452/increased-risk-of-dementia-in-patients-hospitalized-with-acute-kidney-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Hsin-Hsi Tsai, Ruoh-Fang Yen, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
PURPOSE: To determine whether acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for dementia. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 2000-2011. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in 207788 patients hospitalized for AKI. The comparison control was selected using the propensity score based on age, sex, index year and comorbidities. RESULTS: During the 12-year follow-up, patients with AKI had a significantly higher incidence for developing dementia than did the controls (8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182102/a-case-report-of-nonvasculitic-autoimmune-inflammatory-meningoencephalitis-with-sensory-ganglionopathy-a-rare-presentation-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#3
João Peres, Simão Cruz, Rita Oliveira, Luís Santos, Ana Valverde
A 68-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the emergency department with a progressive history of behavioural symptoms and anxiety followed by visual and auditory hallucinations, forgetfulness, and impaired gait in the previous 3 months. On examination she was psychotic and had a postural and rest tremor of the upper limbs, cogwheel rigidity of the four limbs, retropulsion on standing position, and inability to walk. During the following 2 weeks she developed xerostomia and unilateral parotiditis that improved with steroids...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108255/regular-exercise-promotes-memory-function-and-enhances-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#4
Tae-Woon Kim, Yun-Hee Sung
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS), and is characterized by the development of demyelinated lesions and plaques in the brain and spinal cord. Exercise is beneficial against dementia in elderly patients, so we investigated the effects of exercise on memory in relation to hippocampal demyelination and neuroplasticity in a mouse model of MS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]). Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, EAE, and EAE and exercise (EAE+EX)...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855167/assessment-of-olfactory-function-in-mapt-associated-neurodegenerative-disease-reveals-odor-identification-irreproducibility-as-a-non-disease-specific-general-characteristic-of-olfactory-dysfunction
#5
Katerina Markopoulou, Bruce A Chase, Piotr Robowski, Audrey Strongosky, Ewa Narożańska, Emilia J Sitek, Mariusz Berdynski, Maria Barcikowska, Matt C Baker, Rosa Rademakers, Jarosław Sławek, Christine Klein, Katja Hückelheim, Meike Kasten, Zbigniew K Wszolek
Olfactory dysfunction is associated with normal aging, multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease and Alzheimer's disease, and other diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea and the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. The wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction suggests different, potentially overlapping, underlying pathophysiologies. Studying olfactory dysfunction in presymptomatic carriers of mutations known to cause familial parkinsonism provides unique opportunities to understand the role of genetic factors, delineate the salient characteristics of the onset of olfactory dysfunction, and understand when it starts relative to motor and cognitive symptoms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845416/psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders-are-associated-with-bullous-pemphigoid-a-nationwide-finnish-care-register-study
#6
Anna-Kaisa Försti, Jari Jokelainen, Hanna Ansakorpi, Allan Seppänen, Kari Majamaa, Markku Timonen, Kaisa Tasanen
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease with increasing incidence. BP is associated with neurological disorders, but it has not been established, what subtypes of dementia and stroke are associated with BP, and what is the temporal relation between these diseases. Also, the association between BP and psychiatric disorders is controversial. We conducted a retrospective nationwide study, using the Finnish Care Register for Health Care diagnoses between 1987 and 2013. The study population of 4524 BP patients were compared with 66138 patients with basocellular carcinoma (BCC), neurological and psychiatric comorbid disorders were evaluated for both groups, and associations were estimated by Cox regression and logistic regression analyses...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844039/increased-prevalence-of-autoimmune-disease-within-c9-and-ftd-mnd-cohorts-completing-the-picture
#7
Zachary A Miller, Virginia E Sturm, Gamze Balci Camsari, Anna Karydas, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Lea T Grinberg, Adam L Boxer, Howard J Rosen, Katherine P Rankin, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Rosa Rademakers, William W Seeley, Neill R Graff-Radford, Bruce L Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoimmune disease in symptomatic C9ORF72 (C9) mutation carriers and frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (FTD/MND) cohorts. METHODS: In this case-control study, we reviewed the clinical histories of 66 patients with FTD/MND and 57 symptomatic C9 carriers (24 overlapping cases), a total of 99 charts, for history of autoimmune disease. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in C9 and FTD/MND cohorts was determined by χ(2) and Fisher exact comparisons between the combined C9 and FTD/MND group with normal control, Alzheimer disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy cohorts, as well as comparisons within C9 and FTD/MND cohorts...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780788/semiconductor-technology-in-protein-kinase-research-and-drug-discovery-sensing-a-revolution
#8
Nikhil Bhalla, Mirella Di Lorenzo, Pedro Estrela, Giordano Pula
Since the discovery of protein kinase activity in 1954, close to 600 kinases have been discovered that have crucial roles in cell physiology. In several pathological conditions, aberrant protein kinase activity leads to abnormal cell and tissue physiology. Therefore, protein kinase inhibitors are investigated as potential treatments for several diseases, including dementia, diabetes, cancer and autoimmune and cardiovascular disease. Modern semiconductor technology has recently been applied to accelerate the discovery of novel protein kinase inhibitors that could become the standard-of-care drugs of tomorrow...
October 22, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709866/relapsing-polychondritis-with-central-nervous-system-involvement-experience-of-three-different-cases-in-a-single-center
#9
Chan Hong Jeon
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation in cartilaginous structures including the ears, noses, peripheral joints, and tracheobronchial tree. It rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS) but diagnosis of CNS complication of RP is challenging because it can present with varying clinical features. Herein we report 3 cases of relapsing polychondritis involving CNS with distinct manifestations and clinical courses. The first patient presented with rhombencephalitis resulting in brain edema and death...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697033/recombinant-antibody-fragments-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
Karen Manoutcharian, Roxanna Perez-Garmendia, Goar Gevorkian
Recombinant antibody fragments are promising alternatives to full-length immunoglobulins and offer important advantages compared with conventional monoclonal antibodies: extreme specificity, higher affinity, superior stability and solubility, reduced immunogenicity as well as easy and inexpensive large-scale production. Different antibody formats such as single-chain fragment variable (scFv), single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or sdAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), intrabodies and nanobodies, are currently being studied in pre-clinical models of cancer as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases and many of them are being tested as therapeutics in clinical trials...
September 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679408/neurological-diseases-and-bullous-pemphigoid-a-case-control-study-in-iranian-patients
#11
Maryam Daneshpazhooh, Javad Khorassani, Kamran Balighi, Narges Ghandi, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Hamidreza Tohidinik, Shahin Hamzelou, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi
INTRODUCTION: Neurological diseases are important co-morbidities found in association with bullous pemphigoid. Various neurological conditions (stroke, Parkinson's disease, dementia, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis) have been reported as associations of this bullous disease; whether these are significant has not been definitely proved. However, the presence of neurological conditions is a predictor of poorer prognosis. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the association of bullous pemphigoid and neurological diseases in Iranian bullous pemphigoid patients...
September 26, 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643908/autoantibody-associated-central-nervous-system-neurologic-disorders
#12
Jenny Linnoila, Sean J Pittock
Autoimmune neurology is a rapidly evolving new subspecialty driven by the discovery of novel neural- (neuronal- or glial-) specific autoantibodies and their target antigens. The neurologic manifestations affecting the central nervous system include encephalitis, dementia, epilepsy, and movement and sleep disorders. Laboratory testing is now available for most of these neural-specific autoantibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers, in some instances directing the physician toward specific cancer types (e...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616557/neurological-disease-as-a-failure-of-brain-immune-crosstalk-the-multiple-faces-of-neuroinflammation
#13
Michal Schwartz, Aleksandra Deczkowska
Neuroinflammation is common to various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), but its imprecise definition has led to many misconceptions in research and clinical approaches. It is now recognized that neuroinflammation in chronic neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related dementia, is distinct from the inflammation that accompanies relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and its experimental animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we discuss the discrete features of inflammation in different CNS pathologies, given the current understanding of the CNS-immune crosstalk; the roles of the immune cells that are involved, their phenotypes, and their location and route of entry to the CNS...
October 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599898/bullous-pemphigoid-and-its-association-with-neurological-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Y C Lai, Y W Yew, W C Lambert
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disease that frequently occurs in the elderly population. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested an association between BP and neurological diseases; some studies, however, showed conflicting results. This study aimed to investigate if patients with BP have significantly higher risks for neurological disorders, compared to controls. A comprehensive search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Case-control and cohort studies that assessed the relationship between BP and neurological diseases were included...
December 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570908/-psychosis-clinical-differential-diagnosis
#15
A Röh, P Falkai, A Hasan
BACKGROUND: Many patients with psychiatric and organic disorders may present primary or secondary psychotic symptoms. Based on the ICD 10 classification, this article describes the possible underlying diseases and their subdivision. The main focus will be differential-diagnostic evaluations of psychotic syndromes. RESULTS: In the clinical setting, the differential diagnosis of the paranoid schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders into three main disease groups is important: 1...
August 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531189/does-b-lymphocyte-mediated-autoimmunity-contribute-to-post-stroke-dementia
#16
REVIEW
Kristian P Doyle, Marion S Buckwalter
Post-stroke cognitive decline and dementia pose a significant public health problem, with 30% of stroke survivors suffering from dementia. The reason for this high prevalence is not well understood. Pathogenic B cell responses to the damaged CNS are one possible contributing factor. B-lymphocytes and antibodies are present in and around the stroke core of some human subjects who die with stroke and dementia, and mice that develop delayed cognitive dysfunction after stroke have clusters of B-lymphocytes in the stroke lesion, and antibody infiltration in the stroked hemisphere...
August 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502797/massage-therapy-research-review
#17
REVIEW
Tiffany Field
In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497810/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-autoimmunity-affects-cognitive-performance-in-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#18
G Westman, M Studahl, C Ahlm, B M Eriksson, B Persson, J Rönnelid, S Schliamser, E Aurelius
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and temporal development of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in relation to neurocognitive performance in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled a total of 49 HSE patients within a randomized controlled trial of valacyclovir. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples were drawn in the initial stage of disease, after 2 to 3 weeks and after 3 months...
November 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493830/brain-atrophy-anti-smooth-muscle-antibody-and-cognitive-impairment-an-association-study
#19
Paroni Giulia, Lauriola Michele, Fontana Andrea, D'Onofrio Grazia, Ciccone Filomena, Paris Francesco, Cascavilla Leandro, Urbano Maria, Gravina Carolina, Copetti Massimiliano, Greco Antonio
Cortical atrophy, neuronal loss, beta-amyloid deposition, neuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are neuropathological key features in the Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antibodies against beta-amyloid, neurotransmitters, microvascular endothelium components and microglial cells have been detected in AD serum suggesting that AD could be another autoimmune disease and provides a link between vascular pathology, endothelium dysfunction and neuronal cells death. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between autoantibody profile and cognitive impairment in geriatric patients, accounting for ApoE genotype as a potential confounding factor...
August 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430453/imaging-of-neurodegenerative-cognitive-and-behavioral-disorders-practical-considerations-for-dementia-clinical-practice
#20
REVIEW
Alireza Atri
This chapter reviews clinical applications and imaging findings useful in medical practice relating to neurodegenerative cognitive/dementing disorders. The preponderance of evidence and consensus guidelines support an essential role of multitiered neuroimaging in the evaluation and management of neurodegenerative cognitive/dementia syndrome that range in severity from mild impairments to frank dementia. Additionally, imaging features are incorporated in updated clinical and research diagnostic criteria for most dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations/Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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