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Temporal arteriitis

Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Håvard Tetlie Garberg, Marianne U Huun, Lars O Baumbusch, Monica Åsegg-Atneosen, Rønnaug Solberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of reliable biomarkers that can identify and grade acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, non-coding strands of RNA that are released into the circulation in response to tissue stress and injury. Some miRNAs are highly tissue specific and thus may potentially be non-invasive biomarkers of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the temporal expression of selected circulating miRNAs in a clinically relevant piglet model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI)...
October 18, 2016: Neonatology
Faten M'hiri, Luc Duong, Christian Desrosiers, Mohamed Leye, Joaquim Miró, Mohamed Cheriet
The segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries (CAs) are critical steps for the computation of biophysical measurements in pediatric interventional cardiology. In the literature, most methods are focused on either segmenting the vessel lumen or on tracking the vessel centerline. However, they do not simultaneously combine the segmentation and tracking of a specific CA. This paper introduces a novel algorithm for CA segmentation and tracking from 2D X-ray angiography sequences. The proposed algorithm is based on the Temporal Vessel Walker (TVW) segmentation method, which combines graph-based formulation and temporal priors...
October 4, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
R Pigem, C Baliu-Piqué, A Bennàssar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Toshinari Kawasaki, Kazumichi Yoshida, Takayuki Kikuchi, Akira Ishii, Yasushi Takagi, Susumu Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: Concerning traumatic aneurysms, those of the superficial temporal artery (STA) have been frequently reported in the literature, whereas those of the occipital artery (OA) are extremely rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 30-year-old man had been followed at another hospital for meningoencephalocele associated with his congenital occipital bone defect. He was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of neck swelling and pain during a football game. CT and MRI showed a hematoma in his right neck along with the meningoencephalocele...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Sung-Pil Joo, Seung-Hoon Jung, Sung-Hyun Kim, Tae-Sun Kim
BACKGROUND: Preservation of the superficial Sylvian veins (SSV) is essential to prevent neurological deficits during Sylvian dissection. We describe an appropriate surgical approach for unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms to preserve these veins by using indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA). METHODS: Between August 2014 and August 2015, we performed microsurgical clipping for 37 unruptured MCA aneurysms in 36 patients. We classified all the cases into 3 types according to the location between the Sylvian fissure and the SSV...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Yeongu Chung, Sung Ho Lee, Seok Keun Choi
BACKGROUND: Superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass is associated with several surgical problems. Despite the vascular patency and hemodynamic changes after the anastomosis, wound problems can be a major surgical complication. METHODS: In a review of 41 surgical cases of STA-MCA bypass for moyamoya disease or cerebral occlusive vascular diseases, we compared the conventional ("Out-to-In") dissection method for STA (n=23) with the "In-to-Out" (ITO) dissection method (n=18) and evaluated the surgical results with respect to wound problems...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Anitha Parthiban, Jami C Levine, Meena Nathan, Jennifer A Marshall, Girish S Shirali, Stephen D Simon, Steven D Colan, Jane W Newburger, Geetha Raghuveer
BACKGROUND: Postoperative echocardiography after congenital heart disease surgery is of prognostic importance, but variable image quality is problematic. We implemented a quality improvement bundle comprising of focused imaging protocols, procedural sedation, and sonographer education to improve the rate of optimal imaging (OI). METHODS: Predischarge echocardiograms were evaluated in 116 children (median age, 0.51 years; range, 0.01-5.6 years) from two centers after tetralogy of Fallot repair, arterial switch operation, and bidirectional Glenn and Fontan procedures...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Guillaume Zahnd, Kostas Kapellas, Martijn van Hattem, Anouk van Dijk, André Sérusclat, Philippe Moulin, Aad van der Lugt, Michael Skilton, Maciej Orkisz
The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate a contour segmentation method to extract the interfaces of the intima-media complex in carotid B-mode ultrasound images. The method was applied to assess the temporal variation of intima-media thickness during the cardiac cycle. The main methodological contribution of the proposed approach is the introduction of an augmented dimension to process 2-D images in a 3-D space. The third dimension, which is added to the two spatial dimensions of the image, corresponds to the tentative local thickness of the intima-media complex...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
S P Mollan, P A Keane, A K Denniston
PurposeThe diagnosis of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) is an area of major challenge. This is the first reported use of the directed use of transdermal optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image the superficial temporal artery (STA).MethodsThis proof of concept study used a commercially available transdermal OCT instrument to identify and image the STA in eight patients (suspected GCA, confirmed GCA, and in healthy controls). Three cases are presented to demonstrate the preliminary imaging findings.ResultsIn all eight cases the STA was identified...
October 14, 2016: Eye
Ernesto Solis, R Aaron Bola, Bradley J Fasulo, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Glucose enters the brain extracellular space from arterial blood and its proper delivery is essential for metabolic activity of brain cells. By using enzyme-based biosensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats, we previously showed that glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) display high variability, increasing rapidly following exposure to various arousing stimuli. In this study, the same technology was used to assess NAc glucose fluctuations induced by intravenous heroin. Heroin passively injected at a low dose optimal for maintaining self-administration behavior (100 μg/kg) induces a rapid but moderate glucose rise (~150-200 μM or ~15-25% over resting baseline)...
October 13, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Junya Hatakeyama, Toshiharu Yanagisawa, Erina Kudo, Shuntaro Togashi, Hiroaki Shimizu
Progressive cerebral infarction in patients with hemorrhagic onset of moyamoya disease is rare, and a treatment strategy is not well established. Here, we report a case that was successfully treated with emergency bypass surgery. A 58-year-old woman presented with a sudden disturbance of consciousness and right-sided hemiparesis. Computed tomography(CT)showed intraventricular hemorrhage involving the head of the left caudate nucleus. Ventricular drainage was immediately performed, and the patient was treated conservatively...
October 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Alex E Roher, Chera L Maarouf, Tyler A Kokjohn, Christine Belden, Geidy Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
INTRODUCTION: Based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, a series of clinical trials involving immunotherapies have been undertaken including infusion with the IgG1 monoclonal anti-Aβ antibody solanezumab directed against the middle of the soluble Aβ peptide. In this report, we give an account of the clinical history, psychometric testing, gross and microscopic neuropathology as well as immunochemical quantitation of soluble and insoluble Aβ peptides and other proteins of interest related to AD pathophysiology in a patient treated with solanezumab...
2016: American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease
Shao-Wen Chung, Cho-Chiang Shih, Chih-Chung Huang
Ultrasound imaging has been extensively used for determining the severity of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis. In particular, the morphological characterization of carotid plaques can be performed for risk stratification of patients. However, using 2D ultrasound imaging for detecting morphological changes in plaques has several limitations. Due to the scan was performed on a single longitudinal cross-section, the selected 2D image is difficult to represent the entire morphology and volume of plaque and vessel lumen...
September 29, 2016: Ultrasonics
Nerissa Naidoo, Lelika Lazarus, Nasirudeen O Ajayi, Kapil Sewsaran Satyapal
The carotid canal (CC) located in the petrous temporal bone transmits the internal carotid artery, internal carotid venous plexus and sympathetic nerve plexus from the neck into the cranial cavity. It is an accessible passage into the cranial cavity and is considered an important anatomical landmark for neurosurgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate the topographical, morphometric and morphological parameters of the CC. An examination of the CC and related adjacent structures in 81 dry skull specimens was performed...
October 7, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Elizabeth C Clarke, David F Fletcher, Lynne E Bilston
Syringomyelia (a spinal cord cyst) usually develops as a result of conditions that cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obstruction. The mechanism of syrinx formation and enlargement remains unclear, though previous studies suggest that the fluid enters via the perivascular spaces (PVS) of the penetrating arteries of the spinal cord, and that alterations in the CSF pulse timing and pressure could contribute to enhanced PVS inflow. This study uses an idealised computational model of the PVS to investigate the factors that influence peri-arterial fluid flow...
October 7, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Keguang Chen, Huiying Lyu, Lin Yang, Tianyu Zhang, Peidong Dai
OBJECTIVES: An aberrant subarcuate artery (SAA) and its related canal are infrequent and asymptomatic. The presence of this variation may cause untoward hemorrhages, if accidentally nicked. Therefore, it is important for otologists to be aware of this entity, and its relative anatomy, to avoid any unexpected complication. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with right-sided microtia with membranous atresia. METHODS: High-resolution computed tomographic scan and three-dimensional reconstruction of the temporal bone showed bilateral enlarged SAA...
October 7, 2016: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Adriaan Coenen, Marisa M Lubbers, Akira Kurata, Atsushi Kono, Admir Dedic, Raluca G Chelu, Marcel L Dijkshoorn, Alexia Rossi, Robert-Jan M van Geuns, Koen Nieman
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the additional value of transmural perfusion ratio (TPR) in dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared with fractional flow reserve (FFR). METHODS: Subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease were prospectively included and underwent a CT-MPI examination. From the CT-MPI time-point data absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) values were temporally resolved using a hybrid deconvolution model...
October 4, 2016: European Radiology
Dominic Ruh, Sivaraman Subramanian, Stanislav Sherman, Johannes Ruhhammer, Michael Theodor, Lebrecht Dirk, Katharina Foerster, Claudia Heilmann, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Hans Zappe, Andreas Seifert
Most cardiovascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and hypertension, are directly linked to pathological changes in hemodynamics, i.e. the complex coupling of blood pressure, blood flow and arterial distension. To improve the current understanding of cardiovascular diseases and pave the way for novel cardiovascular diagnostics, innovative tools are required that measure pressure, flow, and distension waveforms with yet unattained spatiotemporal resolution. In this context, miniaturized implantable solutions for continuously measuring these parameters over the long-term are of particular interest...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Adam Thomas Cristaudo, Ryo Mizumoto, Rasika Hendahewa
BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) has the potential to cause irreversible blindness and stroke in affected patients [1-4]. Temporal artery biopsy (TAB) remains the gold standard test for GCA [6-8]. Recent literature suggests that TAB does not change management of patients with suspected GCA and that ultrasound scan (USS) may be sufficient enough alone to confirm the diagnosis [9-11,13]. The aim of this study is to therefore determine the impact of TAB on current surgical practice and emergency theatre services...
November 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
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