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pet dementia

Xue-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Men, Hua Zhu, Jian-Feng Lei, Fu-Xing Zuo, Zhan-Jing Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Xin-Jie Bao, Ren-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
L Su, Y O Faluyi, Y T Hong, T D Fryer, E Mak, S Gabel, L Hayes, S Soteriades, G B Williams, R Arnold, L Passamonti, P Vázquez Rodríguez, A Surendranathan, R W Bevan-Jones, J Coles, F Aigbirhio, J B Rowe, J T O'Brien
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life depression, as a risk factor for dementia, using [(11)C]PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13 controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised [(11)C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Tengfei Guo, Matthias Brendel, Timo Grimmer, Axel Rominger, Igor Yakushev
: Knowledge about spatial and temporal patterns of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is essential for understanding Alzheimer's disease (AD) and for design of anti-amyloid drug trials. Here, we tested if the regional pattern of longitudinal Aβ accumulation can be predicted by baseline amyloid PET. METHODS: Analyzed were baseline and 2 years follow-up (18)F-florbetapir PET data from 58 patients with incipient and manifest dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). By determining how fast amyloid deposits in a given region relative to the whole brain grey matter, a pseudo-temporal accumulation rate for each region was calculated...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Duygu Tosun, Norbert Schuff, Gil D Rabinovici, Nagehan Ayakta, Bruce L Miller, William Jagust, Joel Kramer, Michael M Weiner, Howard J Rosen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the values of arterial spin-labeled (ASL) MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in the diagnosis of behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Partial least squares logistic regression was used to identify voxels with diagnostic value in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRgl) maps from patients with bvFTD (n = 32) and AD (n = 28), who were compared with each other and with cognitively normal controls (CN, n = 15)...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Robert S Miletich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are now available for routine clinical applications in neurology. This article discusses their diagnostic use in dementia, brain tumors, epilepsy, parkinsonism, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromolecular imaging, also known as nuclear neurology, involves clinical imaging of both basal regional physiology (perfusion, metabolism, and transport mechanisms) and specific neurochemical physiology (currently, only the dopamine transporter)...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
A Shea, L De Risio, H Carruthers, A Ekiri, E Beltran
To describe the development of clinical signs (CS) and outcome of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), owners of 119 Staffordshire bull terriers positive for the known L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase autosomal-recessive mutations were requested to complete a questionnaire regarding their pet's CS. Questionnaires were returned for 27 dogs, all with neurological abnormalities-not all questions were answered in all cases. The mean age of CS onset was 12 months (range 2.5-60). Gait dysfunction was reported in 26/26 dogs, with stiffness of all four limbs the most common (24/26) and earliest recognised abnormality...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Record
Sandra Petersen, Susan Houston, Huanying Qin, Corey Tague, Jill Studley
BACKGROUND: Behavioral problems may affect individuals with dementia, increasing the cost and burden of care. Pet therapy has been known to be emotionally beneficial for many years. Robotic pets have been shown to have similar positive effects without the negative aspects of traditional pets. Robotic pet therapy offers an alternative to traditional pet therapy. OBJECTIVE: The study rigorously assesses the effectiveness of the PARO robotic pet, an FDA approved biofeedback device, in treating dementia-related symptoms...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Erin E Sundermann, Pauline M Maki, Leah H Rubin, Richard B Lipton, Susan Landau, Anat Biegon
OBJECTIVE: We investigated sex differences in verbal memory across different levels of neural dysfunction, measured by temporal lobe glucose metabolic rates (TLGluMR). METHODS: Three hundred ninety controls and 672 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 254 with Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine the sex by TLGluMR interaction on RAVLT performance in the overall sample and within diagnostic groups adjusting for age, education, and APOE ε4 genotype...
October 5, 2016: Neurology
María Julieta Russo, Gabriela Cohen, Patricio Chrem Mendez, Jorge Campos, Federico E Nahas, Ezequiel I Surace, Silvia Vazquez, Deborah Gustafson, Salvador Guinjoan, Ricardo F Allegri, Gustavo Sevlever
PURPOSE: Argentina-Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Arg-ADNI) is the first ADNI study to be performed in Latin America at a medical center with the appropriate infrastructure. Our objective was to describe baseline characteristics and to examine whether biomarkers related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) physiopathology were associated with worse memory performance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen controls and 28 mild cognitive impairment and 13 AD dementia subjects were included...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Matteo Cesari, Yves Rolland, Anne Sophie Salabert, Pierre Payoux, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to examine the cross-sectional and prospective associations of muscle functional performance as assessed by a chair rise test and brain amyloid load among nondemented older adults with spontaneous memory complaints. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis, with an observational design, using data from the MAPT randomized controlled trial. Individuals assessed for brain amyloid load (florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography) and without clinical dementia (N = 269 aged 75...
September 30, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Niklas Mattsson, Henrik Zetterberg, Shorena Janelidze, Philip S Insel, Ulf Andreasson, Erik Stomrud, Sebastian Palmqvist, David Baker, Cristina A Tan Hehir, Andreas Jeromin, David Hanlon, Linan Song, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Michael W Weiner, Oskar Hansson, Kaj Blennow
OBJECTIVE: To test whether plasma tau is altered in Alzheimer disease (AD) and whether it is related to changes in cognition, CSF biomarkers of AD pathology (including β-amyloid [Aβ] and tau), brain atrophy, and brain metabolism. METHODS: This was a study of plasma tau in prospectively followed patients with AD (n = 179), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 195), and cognitive healthy controls (n = 189) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and cross-sectionally studied patients with AD (n = 61), mild cognitive impairment (n = 212), and subjective cognitive decline (n = 174) and controls (n = 274) from the Biomarkers for Identifying Neurodegenerative Disorders Early and Reliably (BioFINDER) study at Lund University, Sweden...
September 30, 2016: Neurology
Jennifer Whitwell, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Tarun Singh, Daniel Drubach, Matthew Senjem, Anthony Spychalla, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Val J Lowe, Keith Josephs
: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have both been associated with occipital lobe hypometabolism on (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), while relative sparing of posterior cingulate metabolism compared to precuneus/cuneus (i.e. cingulate island sign) is a feature of DLB. We aimed to determine whether patterns of hypometabolism or the cingulate island sign differed between PCA and DLB. METHODS: Sixteen clinically diagnosed PCA and 13 probable DLB subjects underwent (18)F-FDG PET...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Laure Saint-Aubert, Ove Almkvist, Konstantinos Chiotis, Rita Almeida, Anders Wall, Agneta Nordberg
BACKGROUND: The recent development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers has allowed in vivo quantification of regional tau deposition and offers the opportunity to monitor the progression of tau pathology along with cognitive impairment. In this study, we investigated the relationships of cerebral tau deposition ([(18)F]THK5317-PET) and metabolism ([(18)F]FDG-PET) with concomitant cognitive function in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Nine patients diagnosed with AD dementia and 11 with prodromal AD (mild cognitive impairment, amyloid-positive on [(11)C]PiB-PET) were included in this study...
September 29, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Anna Caroli, Elena Salvatore, Emanuele Nicolai, Nicola Marzano, Roberta Lizio, Enrica Cavedo, Susan Landau, Kewei Chen, William Jagust, Eric Reiman, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Patrizia Montella, Manuela De Stefano, Loreto Gesualdo, Giovanni B Frisoni, Andrea Soricelli
Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) delta (2-4 Hz) and low-frequency alpha (8-10.5 Hz) rhythms show abnormal activity (i.e., current density) in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we hypothesized that abnormality of this activity is related to relevant disease processes as revealed by cortical hypometabolism typically observed in AD patients by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 19 AD patients with dementia and 40 healthy elderly (Nold) subjects...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Chiara Cerami, Alessandra Dodich, Lucia Greco, Sandro Iannaccone, Giuseppe Magnani, Alessandra Marcone, Elisabetta Pelagallo, Roberto Santangelo, Stefano F Cappa, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome due to different neurodegenerative conditions in which an accurate early diagnosis needs to be supported by a reliable diagnostic tool at the individual level. In this study, we investigated in PPA the FDG-PET brain metabolic patterns at the single-subject level, in order to assess the case-to-case variability and its relationship with clinical-neuropsychological findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 55 patients (i...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Miguel Ángel Araque Caballero, Stefan Klöppel, Martin Dichgans, Michael Ewers
A substantial proportion of cognitively healthy elders (HC) show abnormally high amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, a major pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These subjects are at increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, and biomarkers are needed to predict their cognitive deterioration. Here we used relevance vector regression (RVR), a pattern-recognition method, to predict concurrent cognitive decline on the basis of longitudinal gray matter (GM) changes, within two a priori, meta-analytically defined functional networks subserving episodic memory and executive function...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
H Motara, T Olusoga, G Russell, S Jamieson, S Ahmed, N Brindle, A Pillai, A F Scarsbrook, C N Patel, F U Chowdhury
AIM: To evaluate the clinical impact of combined 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) brain imaging performed in selected patients with cognitive impairment at a tertiary referral centre in the UK, and to assess the accuracy of FDG PET/CT to correctly establish the diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) in "real-world" clinical practice. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using an institutional radiology database, 136 patients were identified for inclusion in the study...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Radiology
Matthew L Baum
In 2012, the FDA approved for the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease a brain-imaging technology, Amyvid-PET (aka florbetapir-PET), capable of non-invasively estimating the burden of amyloid plaques; this approval for one indication renders the technology a candidate for off-label use for another indication according to a physician's judgment. What should a physician do if an educated, pro-active, and concerned patient requests off-label use of Amyvid-PET to help her estimate the likelihood that her mild memory complaints are "just normal aging" or are likely to profoundly worsen? I consider reasons that a physician might justify denial of such a request, including concerns of safety, uncertain benefit, and fair resource allocation, but cautiously conclude that there may be certain cases where off-label bioprediction would be permissible...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
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