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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107666/development-of-a-microwave-energy-delivery-system-for-reversible-stunning-of-cattle
#1
D McLean, L Meers, J Ralph, J S Owen, A Small
Stunning prior to slaughter is commonly used to render the animal insensible to pain. However, for certain markets, stunning is disallowed, unless the animal can fully recover if not slaughtered. There are very few available methods of inducing a fully recoverable stun. This paper describes the development of a microwave energy application system for stunning cattle. Cadaver heads were used to demonstrate that brain temperature could be raised to a point at which insensibility would be expected to occur (44°C), and to calculate the power and time combinations required to achieve this in a range of cattle weights...
January 7, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106857/a-liquid-level-measurement-technique-outside-a-sealed-metal-container-based-on-ultrasonic-impedance-and-echo-energy
#2
Bin Zhang, Yue-Juan Wei, Wen-Yi Liu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Zong Yao, Li-Hui Zhao, Ji-Jun Xiong
The proposed method for measuring the liquid level focuses on the ultrasonic impedance and echo energy inside a metal wall, to which the sensor is attached directly, not on ultrasonic waves that penetrate the gas-liquid medium of a container. Firstly, by analyzing the sound field distribution characteristics of the sensor in a metal wall, this paper proposes the concept of an "energy circle" and discusses how to calculate echo energy under three different states in detail. Meanwhile, an ultrasonic transmitting and receiving circuit is designed to convert the echo energy inside the energy circle into its equivalent electric power...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105579/measuring-residential-segregation-with-the-acs-how-the-margin-of-error-affects-the-dissimilarity-index
#3
Jeffrey Napierala, Nancy Denton
The American Community Survey (ACS) provides valuable, timely population estimates but with increased levels of sampling error. Although the margin of error is included with aggregate estimates, it has not been incorporated into segregation indexes. With the increasing levels of diversity in small and large places throughout the United States comes a need to track accurately and study changes in racial and ethnic segregation between censuses. The 2005-2009 ACS is used to calculate three dissimilarity indexes (D) for all core-based statistical areas (CBSAs) in the United States...
January 19, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105547/ability-to-predict-the-development-of-surgical-site-infection-in-cardiac-surgery-using-the-australian-clinical-risk-index-versus-the-national-nosocomial-infections-surveillance-derived-risk-index
#4
A Figuerola-Tejerina, E Bustamante, E Tamayo, C A Mestres, J Bustamante-Munguira
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a major infectious complication that increases mortality, morbidity, and healthcare costs. There are scores attempting to classify patients for calculating SSI risk. Our objectives were to validate the Australian Clinical Risk Index (ACRI) in a European population after cardiac surgery, comparing it against the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance-derived risk index (NNIS) and analyzing the predictive power of ACRI for SSI in valvular patients. All the patients that who underwent cardiac surgery in a tertiary university hospital between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105403/cost-performance-analysis-of-perovskite-solar-modules
#5
REVIEW
Molang Cai, Yongzhen Wu, Han Chen, Xudong Yang, Yinghuai Qiang, Liyuan Han
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising candidates for the next generation of solar cells because they are easy to fabricate and have high power conversion efficiencies. However, there has been no detailed analysis of the cost of PSC modules. We selected two representative examples of PSCs and performed a cost analysis of their productions: one was a moderate-efficiency module produced from cheap materials, and the other was a high-efficiency module produced from expensive materials. The costs of both modules were found to be lower than those of other photovoltaic technologies...
January 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104724/predicting-survival-of-patients-with-small-bowel-neuroendocrine-tumours-comparison-of-3-systems
#6
Ashley Kieran Clift, Omar Faiz, Rob Goldin, John Martin, Harpreet Wasan, Marc-Olaf Liedke, Erik Schloericke, Anna Malczewska, Guido Rindi, Mark Kidd, Irvin Modlin, Andrea Frilling
Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are clinically challenging due to their unpredictable behaviour. Nomograms, grading and staging systems are predictive tools with multiple roles in clinical practice, including patient prognostication. The NET nomogram allocates scores for various clinicopathological parameters, calculating percentage estimates for 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival of patients with small bowel (SB) NET. We evaluated the clinical utility of three prognostic systems in 70 SB NET patients: the NET nomogram, the World Health Organisation (WHO)/European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) grading system and the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC)/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) TNM staging method...
January 19, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104299/liquid-fiducial-marker-applicability-in-proton-therapy-of-locally-advanced-lung-cancer
#7
Jonas Scherman Rydhög, Rosalind Perrin, Rasmus Irming Jølck, Francis Gagnon-Moisan, Klaus Richter Larsen, Paul Clementsen, Steen Riisgaard de Blanck, Gitte Fredberg Persson, Damien Charles Weber, Tony Lomax, Thomas Lars Andresen, Per Munck Af Rosenschold
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the clinical applicability of a novel liquid fiducial marker (LFM) for image-guided pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy (PBSPT) of locally advanced lung cancer (LALC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative proton stopping power (RSP) of the LFM was calculated and measured. Dose perturbations of the LFM and three solid markers, in a phantom, were measured. PBSPT treatment planning on computer tomography scans of five patients with LALC with the LFM implanted was performed with 1-3 fields...
January 16, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104089/prediction-of-radiofrequency-ablation-lesion-formation-using-a-novel-temperature-sensing-technology-incorporated-in-a-force-sensing-catheter
#8
Guy Rozen, Leon Ptaszek, Israel Zilberman, Kevin Cordaro, E Kevin Heist, Christopher Beeckler, Andres Altmann, Zhang Ying, Zhenjiang Liu, Jeremy N Ruskin, Assaf Govari, Moussa Mansour
BACKGROUND: Real-time radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesion assessment is a major unmet need in cardiac electrophysiology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether improved temperature measurement using a novel thermocoupling (TC) technology combined with information derived from impedance change, contact force (CF) sensing, and catheter orientation allows accurate real-time prediction of ablation lesion formation. METHODS: RF ablation lesions were delivered in the ventricles of 15 swine using a novel externally irrigated-tip catheter containing 6 miniature TC sensors in addition to force sensing technology...
February 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103912/impact-of-proximity-of-thermoelectric-power-plants-on-bronchial-obstructive-crisis-rates
#9
Tamara Ugarte-Avilés, Carlos Manterola, Ricardo Cartes-Velásquez, Tamara Otzen
BACKGROUND: Environmental pollution is a risk factor for cardiorespiratory diseases. Energy generated by thermoelectric power plants (TEPP) represents a relevant source of pollution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between living near a coal-fired TEPP and the consultation rates for bronchial obstructive crises (BOC) in the province of Concepción, Chile. METHODS: Population-based study. The epidemiological weeks from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed...
January 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103243/the-socioeconomic-benefit-to-individuals-of-achieving-the-2020-targets-for-five-preventive-chemotherapy-neglected-tropical-diseases
#11
William K Redekop, Edeltraud J Lenk, Marianne Luyendijk, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Louis Niessen, Wilma A Stolk, Fabrizio Tediosi, Adriana J Rijnsburger, Roel Bakker, Jan A C Hontelez, Jan H Richardus, Julie Jacobson, Sake J de Vlas, Johan L Severens
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)-also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103241/contextual-refinement-of-regulatory-targets-reveals-effects-on-breast-cancer-prognosis-of-the-regulome
#12
Erik Andrews, Yue Wang, Tian Xia, Wenqing Cheng, Chao Cheng
Gene expression regulators, such as transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have varying regulatory targets based on the tissue and physiological state (context) within which they are expressed. While the emergence of regulator-characterizing experiments has inferred the target genes of many regulators across many contexts, methods for transferring regulator target genes across contexts are lacking. Further, regulator target gene lists frequently are not curated or have permissive inclusion criteria, impairing their use...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102957/rf-safety-assessment-of-a-bilateral-four-channel-transmit-receive-7-tesla-breast-coil-sar-versus-tissue-temperature-limits
#13
Thomas M Fiedler, Mark E Ladd, Andreas K Bitz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to perform an RF safety evaluation for a bilateral four-channel transmit/receive breast coil and to determine the maximum permissible input power for which RF exposure of the subject stays within recommended limits. The safety evaluation was done based on SAR as well as on temperature simulations. In comparison to SAR, temperature is more directly correlated with tissue damage, which allows a more precise safety assessment. The temperature simulations were performed by applying three different blood perfusion models as well as two different ambient temperatures...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100380/-cigarette-consumer-price-and-affordability-in-china-results-from-2015-china-adult-survey
#14
L L Wang, Y Yang, Y Nan, M W Tu, J J Wang, Y Jiang
Objective: To analyze the change of cigarette consumption price, and understand the cigarette affordability in China. Methods: A total of 16 800 households were selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Then IPAQ was used to randomly select one family member to conduct the survey. Questionnaire from Global Tobacco Surveillance System with added country-specific questions was used. Results: Up to 50% of current smokers would buy 20 cigarettes with price of 9.9 yuan (RMB) or less, and 25% of current smokers would not buy 20 cigarettes with price exceed 5...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100192/design-and-rationale-of-a-large-international-prospective-cohort-study-to-evaluate-the-occurrence-of-malformations-and-perinatal-neonatal-death-using-insulin-detemir-in-pregnant-women-with-diabetes-in-comparison-with-other-long-acting-insulins
#15
Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Henning Andersen, Sofia I I Kring, Peter Damm
BACKGROUND: There are a lack of data regarding the effect of basal insulin analogues on rates of events like congenital malformation and perinatal mortality in diabetic pregnancy. METHODS: The present study is a prospective, non-interventional, multicentre cohort study conducted in seven countries, designed to assess the safety of insulin detemir during pregnancy, and to monitor the health status of resulting infants (exposed in utero) up to 1 year of age. The study population includes women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who are pregnant and being treated with insulin...
January 18, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099988/exercise-based-rehabilitation-programmes-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Norman R Morris, Fiona D Kermeen, Anne E Holland
BACKGROUND: Individuals with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have reduced exercise capacity and quality of life. Despite initial concerns that exercise training may worsen symptoms in this group, several studies have reported improvements in functional capacity and well-being following exercise-based rehabilitation in PH. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of exercise-based rehabilitation for people with PH. Primary outcomes were exercise capacity, adverse events during the intervention period and health-related quality of life (HRQoL)...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099815/stocks-flows-and-distribution-of-critical-metals-in-embedded-electronics-in-passenger-vehicles
#17
Eliette Restrepo, Amund N Løvik, Patrick Wäger, Rolf Widmer, Radek Lonka, Daniel B Müller
One of the major applications of critical metals (CMs) is in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), which is increasingly embedded in other products, notably passenger vehicles. However, recycling strategies for future CM quantities in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are poorly understood, mainly due to a limited understating of the complexity of automotive embedded EEE. We introduce a harmonization of the network structure of automotive electronics that enables a comprehensive quantification of CMs in all embedded EEE in a vehicle...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099715/assessment-of-the-body-composition-of-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#18
Carolina F Macruz, Sônia M R R Lima, João E N Salles, Gustavo M D da Silva, Nilza M Scalissi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the body composition among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and patients without PCOS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study enrolled patients aged 12-39 years, with body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) at least 18.5 but below 25, who attended the Endocrine Gynecology Clinic of Santa Casa de Sao Paulo School of Medical Sciences, Brazil, between January 1, 2014, and July 31, 2015...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099476/whole-body-counter-evaluation-of-internal-radioactive-cesium-in-dogs-and-cats-exposed-to-the-fukushima-nuclear-disaster
#19
Seiichi Wada, Nobuhiko Ito, Masamichi Watanabe, Takehiko Kakizaki, Masahiro Natsuhori, Jun Kawamata, Yoshio Urayama
As a result of the 2011 nuclear incident that occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, a large number of abandoned dogs and cats were left within the disaster zone. A small number of these animals were rescued and cared for at shelters. Prior to the dispersal of these animals to their owners or fosterers, we evaluated the degree of internal radiocesium contamination using a specially designed whole-body counter. We conducted 863 non-invasive measurements of gamma rays due to internal radioactive cesium for 68 dogs and 120 cats at one shelter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099042/sex-differences-in-associations-between-insulin-resistance-heart-rate-variability-and-arterial-stiffness-in-healthy-women-and-men-a-physiology-study
#20
Luke Anthony Rannelli, Jennifer M MacRae, Michelle C Mann, Sharanya Ramesh, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Doreen Rabi, Darlene Y Sola, Sofia B Ahmed
Diabetes confers greater cardiovascular risk to women than to men. Whether insulin-resistance-mediated risk extends to the healthy population is unknown. Measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment, hemoglobin A1c, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, glucose) were determined in 48 (56% female) healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by spectral power analysis and arterial stiffness was determined using noninvasive applanation tonometry. Both were measured at baseline and in response to angiotensin II infusion...
November 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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